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References Alexander, E.R., and R.D. Wilkins 1982 Performance rating validity: the relationship of objective and subjective measures of performance. Group arid Organization Studies 7:485-496. American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and National Council on Measurement in Education 1985 Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. Washington, D.C.: Ameri- can Psychological Association. Anastasi, Anne 1988 Psychological Testing, 6th ed. New York: MacMillan. Angoff, W.H. 1971 Scales, norms, and equivalent scores. In R.L. Thorndike, ea., Educational Measurement, 2d ed. Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education. Baxter, B. 1941 An experimental analysis of the contributions of speed and level in an intelligence test. Journal of Educational Psychology 32:285-296. Bell, Derrick 1984 Race, Racism, and American Law. New York: Little, Brown. Bemis, Stephen 1968 Occupational validity of the GATB. Journal of Applied Psychology 52:240-244. Boag, A.K., and M. Neild 1962 The influence of the time factor on the scores on the Triggs Diagnostic Reading Test as reflected in the performance of secondary school pupils. Journal of Educational Research 55: 181-183. Boger, J.H. 1952 An experimental study of the effects of perceptual training on group IQ test scores of elementary pupils in rural ungraded schools. Journal of Educational Research 46:42-52. 291

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292 REFERENCES Brigham, Carl C. 1923 A Study of American intelligence. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. 1930 Intelligence tests of immigrant groups. Psychological Review 37(2):158-165. Briscoe, C.D., W. Muelder, and W. Michael 1981 Concurrent validity of self-estimates of abilities relative to criteria provided by standardized test measures of the same abilities for a sample of high school students eligible for participation in the CETA program. Educational and Psycho- logical Measurement 41:1285-1294. Brogden, H.E. 1946 On the interpretation of the correlation coefficient as a measure of predictive efficiency. Journal of Educational Psychology 2:171-183. 1955 Least squares estimates and optimal classification. Psychometrika 20:249-252. 1959 Efficiency of classification as a function of number of jobs, percent rejected, and the validity and intercorTelation of job performance estimates. Educational and Psychological Measurement 19:181-190. 1964 Simplified regression patterns for classification. Psychometrika 29:393-396. Bureau of National Affairs, Inc. 1988 Recruiting and Selection Procedures. Personnel Policies Forum Survey No. 146. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of National Affairs. May. Buros, O.K., editor 1972 The Seventh Mental Measurements Yearbook. Highland Park, N.J.: Gryphon Press. Callender, John C., and H.G. Osburn 1980 Development and test of a new model for validity generalization. Journal of Applied Psychology 65:543-558. Cassel, R.N., and G.W. Reier 1971 Comparative analysis of concurrent and predictive validity for the GATE Clerical Aptitude Test Battery. Journal of Psychology 79:135-140. Cleary, T.A. 1968 Test bias: prediction of grades for Negro and white students in integrated colleges. Journal of Educational Measurement 5:115-124. Cole, Nancy S. 1973 Bias in selection. Journal of Educational Measurement 10:237-255. Cooley, W.W. 1965 Further relationships with the TALENT battery. Personnel and Guidance Journal 44:295-303. Cronbach, Lee J. 1984 Essentials of Psychological Testing, 4th ed. New York: Harper & Row. Cronbach, Lee J., and G.C. Gleser 1965 Psychological Tests and Personnel Decisions, 2d ed. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Daly, J.L., and R.F. Stahmann 1968 The effect of time limits on a university placement test. Journal of Educational Research 62:103-104. Darlington, Richard B. 1971 Another look at "cultural fairness." Journal of Educational Measurement 8:71-82. Davidson, W.M., and J.B. Carroll 1945 Speed and level components in time limit scores: a factor analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement 5:411-427. Delahunty, Robert J. 1988 Legal and Policy Issues in Employment Testing. Statement by the Special Assistant to the Assistant Attorney General for Civil Rights, Department of

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REFERENCES 293 Justice. Prepared at the request of the Committee on the General Aptitude Test Battery, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. May 23. Dong, H., Y. Sung, and S. Goldman 1986 The validity of the Ball Aptitude Test Battery (BAB) III: relationship to the CAB, DAT, and GATB. Educational and Psychological Measurement 46:245-250. Draper, Norman R., and Harry Smith 1981 Applied Regression Analysis, 2d ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Dubin, J.A., H. Osburn, and D.M. Winick 1969 Speed and practice: effects on Negro and white test performances. Journal of Applied Psychology 53:19-23. Eagleson, O.W. 1937 Comparative studies of white and Negro subjects in learning to discriminate visual magnitude. Journal of Psychology 4:167-197. Edel, Abraham 1977 Preferential consideration and justice. Pp. 111-133 in William T. Blackstone and Robert D. Heslep, eds., Social Justice and Preferential Treatment: Women and Racial Minorities in Education and Business. Athens, Gal: The University of Georgia Press. Ehrenberg, Ronald G., and Robert S. Smith 1987 Modern Labor Economics: Theory and Policy. Glenview, Ill.: Scott, Foresman. Employment Security Commission of North Carolina 1971 Technical Report on Aptitude Test Scores of Deaf High School Students on the General Aptitude Test Battery and the Nonreading Aptitude Test Battery. 1972 Technical Report on Aptitude Test Scores of Deaf High School Students on the General Aptitude Test Battery and the Nonreading Aptitude Test Battery. 1973 Technical Report on the Development of Revised GATE Instructions for the Deaf. Fishkin, James S. 1983 Justice, Equal Opportunity, and the Family. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. Flaugher, Ronald L., and L.W. Pike 1970 Reactions to a Very Difficult Test by an Inner City High School Population: A Test and Item Analysis. Research Memorandum 70-11. Princeton, N.J.: Educational Testing Service. Ford, J. Kevin, Susan L. Schechtman, and Kurt Kraiger 1986 Study of race effects in objective indices and subjective evaluations of performance: a meta-analysis of performance criteria. Psychological Bulletin 99(3):330-337. Fozard, J.L., R.L. Nuttall, and N.C. Waugh 1972 Age-related differences in mental performance. Aging and Human Development 3: 19-24. Fraas, Charlotte Jones 1983 Federal Veterans' Employment Assistance Programs. Washington, D.C.: Con- gressional Research Service, Education and Public Welfare Division, Library of Congress. Glass, Gene V., and Julian C. Stanley 1970 Statistical methods in education and psychology. In Gene V. Glass, ea., Prentice- Hall Series in Educational Measurement, Research, and Statistics. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Gulliksen, H.A. 1950a The reliability of speeded tests. Psychometrika 15:259-260. 1950b Theory of Mental Tests. New York: Wiley.

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294 REFERENCES Hakstian, A.R., and R. Bennett 1978 Validity studies using the Comprehensive Ability Battery (CAB): II. Relationship with the DAT and GATB. Educational and Psychological Measurement 38: 1003- 1015. Hart, Bernard, and Charles D. Spearman 1914 Mental tests of dementia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 9:217-264. Hawk, John, Tonia Butler, and Julia Linton 1986 Conceptual Model of Full Service Validity Generalization Local Offices. Briefing document prepared by staff of the U.S. Employment Service, U.S. Department of Labor. Heckman, James J., and Guilherme Sedlacek 1985 Heterogeneity, aggregation, and market wage functions: an empirical model of self-selection in the labor market. Journal of Political Economy 93(6):1077- 1125. Hedges, Larry V., and Ingram Olkin 1985 Statistical Methods for Meta-Analysis. New York: Academic Press. Helmstadter, G.C., and D.H. Ortmeyer 1953 Some techniques for determining the relative magnitude of speed and power components of a test. Educational and Psychological Measurement 12:280-287. Hoogenboom, Ari 1961 Outlawing the Spoils: A History of the Civil Service Reform Movement, 1865-1883. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Howe, M.A. 1975 General Aptitude Test Battery Q: an Australian empirical study. Australian Psychologist 10:32-44. Hull, C.L. 1928 Aptitude Testing. Yonkers-on-Hudson, N.Y.: World Book. Hunter, John E. 1983 A causal analysis of cognitive ability, job knowledge, job performance, and supervisor ratings. Pp. 257-266 in F.J. Landy, S. Zedeck, and J. Cleveland, eds., Performance Measurement and Theory. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum. 1986 Cognitive ability, cognitive aptitudes, job knowledge, and job performance. Journal of Vocational Behavior 29:340-362. Hunter, John E., and Frank L. Schmidt 1976 Critical analysis of the statistical and ethical implications of various definitions of "test bias." Psychological Bulletin 83(6):1053-1071. 1982 Fitting people to jobs: the impact of personnel selection on national productivity. Ch. 7 in Marvin D. Dunnette and Edwin A. Fleishman, eds., Human Performance and Productivity: Vol. 1, Human Capability Assessment. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Hunter, John E., Frank L. Schmidt, and Michael K. Judiesch 1988 Individual differences in output as a function of job complexity. Michigan State University. Submitted to Journal of Applied Psychology. James, Lawrence R., Robert G. Demaree, and Stanley A. Mulaik 1986 A note on validity generalization procedures. Journal of Applied Psychology 71: 440-450. 1988 Validity generalization: rejoinder to Schmidt, Hunter and Raju. Journal of Applied Psychology 73:673-678. Jensen, A.R. 1986 g: artifact or reality. Journal of Vocational Behavior 29:301-331.

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296 REFERENCES Marshall, Burke 1984 A comment on the nondiscrimination principle in a `'nation of minorities." The Yale Law Journal 93:1006-1012. McCormick, Ernest J., P.R. Jeanneret, and Robert C. Meacham 1972 A study of job characteristics and job dimensions as based on the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ). Journal of Applied Psychology Monograph 56: 347-368. McKinney, Michael W. 1984 Final Report: Validity Generalization Pilot Study. Southern Test Development Field Center, Raleigh, N.C. McLaughlin, Donald H., Paul G. Rossmeissl, Lauress L. Wise, David A. Brandt, and Ming-mei Wang 1984 Validation of Current and Alternative Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) Area Composites: Based on Training and Skill Qualification Test (SQT) Information on Fiscal Year 1981 and 1982 Enlisted Accessions. Technical Report 651. Alexandria, Va.: U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. Mollenkopf, W.G. 1960 Time limits and the behavior of test takers. Educational and Psychological Measurement 20:223-230. Moore, R., and J. Davies 1984 Predicting GED scores on the basis of expectancy, valence, intelligence, and pretest skill levels with the disadvantaged. Educational and Psychological Mea- surement 44:483-489. National Commission on Civil Disorders 1968 Report of National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders. New York: Bantam Books. Nester, Mary Anne 1984 Employment testing for handicapped people. Public Personnel Management 13: 417-434. Newton, Lisa H. 1973 Reverse discrimination as unjustified. Ethics 83:312. [Quoted in Husak, Douglas N. 1978. Preferential hiring and reverse discrimination in favor of blacks: a moral analysis. The American Journal of Jurisprudence 23:143-168.] Northern Test Development Field Center 1987 A Comparison of Validity Generalization with Other Selection Techniques Used at Chrysler Corporation. Annual Work Plan Project No. 4403. Northern Test Devel- opment Field Center, Detroit, Mich. O'Malley, P., and J. Bachman 1976 Longitudinal evidence for the validity of the Quick Test. Psychological Reports 38: 1247-1252. Perry, Michael J. 1977 The disproportionate impact theory of racial discrimination. University of Penn- sylvania Law Review 125:540-589. Petersen, Nancy S., and Melvin R. Novick 1976 An evaluation of some models for culture-fair selection. In On Bias in Selection. Journal of Educational Measurement 13(Spring):3-29. Petersen, Nancy S., Michael J. Kolen, and H.D. Hoover 1989 Scaling, norming, and equating. In Robert L. Linn, ea., Educational Measure- ment, 3d ed. New York: Macmillan.

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REFERENCES 297 Rawls, John 1971 A Theory of Justice. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University. Reed, James 1987 Robert M. Yerkes and the mental testing movement. In Michael M. Sokal, ea., Psychological Testing and American Society, 1890-1930. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press. Rhoades, Dennis K. 1988 Statement submitted to the Committee on the General Aptitude Test Battery, National Research Council, Annapolis, Md. August 3. Robertson, Peter C. 1976 EEOC Guidelines on Employment Discrimination: A Staff Analysis of the History of the EEOC Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures. Memo submitted to the General Accounting Office. Robins, Hal B. 1988 Pre-Employment Testing in Utah. Technical report. Labor Market Information Services, Utah Department of Employment Security, Salt Lake City. Rotman, C.B. 1963 A Study of the Effect of Practice Upon Motor Skills of the Mentally Retarded. Doctoral dissertation, Boston College. Sakalosky, J.C. 1970 A Study of the Relationship Between the Differential Aptitude Test Battery and the General Aptitude Test Battery Scores of Ninth Graders. Master's thesis, Millers- ville State College. Schmidt, Frank L., and John Hunter 1977 Development of a general solution to the problem of validity generalization. Journal of Applied Psychology 62:529-540. 1981 Employment testing: Old theories and new research findings. American Psychol- ogist 36:1128-1137. 1983 Individual differences in productivity: an empirical test of estimates derived from studies of selection procedure utility. Journal of Applied Psychology 68:407- 414. Schmidt, Frank L., John E. Hunter, Alice N. Outerbridge, and M.H. Trattner 1985 The impact of job selection methods on size, productivity, and payroll cost of the federal work force: an empirically based demonstration. Personnel Psychology 39: 1-29. Schmidt, Frank L., John E. Hunter, and Kenneth Pearlman 1982 Progress in validity generalization: comments on Callender and Osburn and future developments. Journal of Applied Psychology 67:835-845. Schmidt, Frank L., John E. Hunter, and Nambury S. Raju 1988 Validity generalization and situational specificity: a second look at the 75% rule and Fisher's z transformation. Journal of Applied Psychology 73:665-672. Scott, K. Dow, Jil A. Stoddard, Robert M. Madigan, and Diana L. Deadrick 1987 An Examination of Job Applicant Attitudes Toward the VG Screening Procedure. Prepared for the Virginia Employment Commission by the Barringer Center, R.B. Pamplin College of Business. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg. Seymour, Richard T. 1988 Tests Which Work Differently Between Blacks and Whites: The Achilles' Heel of "Validity Generalization." Prepared for National Commission on Testing and Public Policy. Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, Washington, D.C. [presented at meeting of Committee on the General Aptitude Test Battery,

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298 REFERENCES Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council, Annapolis, Md., August 3]. Sherman, Susan W., and Nancy M. Robinson, editors 1982 Ability Testing of Handicapped People: Dilemma for Government, Science, and the Public. Panel on Testing of Handicapped People, Committee on Ability Testing, Assembly of Behavioral and Social Sciences, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Spearman, Charles 1927 The Abilities of Man. New York: Macmillan. Stigler, Stephen M. 1986 History of Statistics. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University. Sueyoshi, Glenn T. 1988 An Appraisal of the Economic Evidence on the Equilibrium Effects of Ability Testing. Paper prepared for Committee on the General Aptitude Test Battery, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. Terranova, C. 1972 The relationship between test scores and test time. Journal of Experimental Education 40:81-83. Thorndike, E.L. 1913 Educational diagnosis. Science 37(January 24):141. Thorndike, R.L. 1986 The role of general ability in prediction. Journal of Vocational Behavior 29:332-339. Tribe, Laurence H. 1988 American Constitutional Law, 2d ed. New York: The Foundation Press, Inc. Tyack, D.B. 1974 The One Best System: A History of American Urban Education. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Uhlaner, J.E., and Daniel J. Bolanovich 1952 Development of Armed Forces Qualification Test and Predecessor Army Screening Tests, 1946-1950. PRS Report 976. Personnel Research Section, Department of the Army, Washington, D.C. U.S. Civil Service Commission 1955 History of Veteran Preference in Federal Employment: 1865-1955. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Civil Service Commission. U.S. Department of Defense 1982 Profile of American Youth: 1980 Nationwide Administration of the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Manpower, Reserve Affairs, and Logistics), U.S. Department of Defense. 1984a Counselor's Manual for the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery Form 14. DOD 1304.12X. North Chicago' Ill.: U.S. Military Entrance Processing Command. 1984b Technical Supplement to the Counselor's Manual for the Armed Services Voca- tional Aptitude Battery Form-14. DOD 1304.12x1. North Chicago, Ill.: U.S. Military Entrance Processing Command. 1984c Test Manual for the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery. DOD 1304.12AA. North Chicago, Ill.: U.S. Military Entrance Processing Command. 1989 Joint-Service Efforts to Link Enlistment Standards to Job Performance: Recruit Quality and Military Readiness. Report to the House Committee on Appropria- tions. Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Force Management and Personnel), U.S. Department of Defense.

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300 REFERENCES Division of Planning and Operations, Employment and Training Administration. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor. 1988 Cross Validation of Job Families Using an Expanded Data Set. USES Test Research Report No. 53. Prepared by David Swarthout, Northern Test Develop- ment Field Center, Detroit, Mich., for Division of Planning and Operations, Employment and Training Administration. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor. Vane, J.R., and R.T. Kessler 1964 The Goodenough Draw-a-Man Test: long-term reliability and validity. Journal of Clinical Psychology 20:487-488. Veterans of Foreign Wars 1987 Resolution No. 611: Validity generalization (VG). Adopted by the 88th National Convention of the Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States, held in New Orleans, Louisiana, August 14-21, 1987. Warmke, Dennis L. 1984 Successful Implementation of the "New" GATE in Entry-Level Selection. Paper presented at Region IV Conference of American Society for Personnel Adminis- tration, October 15. Wesman, A.G. 1960 Some effects of speed in test use. Educational and Psychological Measurement 20: 267-274. Wigdor, Alexandra K., and Wendell R. Garner, editors 1982 Ability Testing: Uses, Consequences, and Controversies. Part I: Report of the Committee. Committee on Ability Testing, Assembly of Behavioral and Social Sciences, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Wigdor, Alexandra K., and John A. Hartigan, editors 1988 Interim Report: Within-Group Scoring of the General Aptitude Test Battery. Committee on the General Aptitude Test Battery, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Wilbourn, James M., Lonnie D. Valentine, Jr., and Malcolm J. Ree 1984 Relationships of the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) Forms 8, 9, and 10 to Air Force Technical School Final Grades. AFHRL Technical Paper 84-08. Working paper. Manpower and Personnel Division, Brooks Air Force Base, Texas. Willingham, Warren W., Marjorie Ragosta, R.E. Bennett, H. Braun, D.A. Rock, and D.E. Powers 1988 Testing Handicapped People. Boston, Mass.: Allyn & Bacon. Willis, Robert J., and Sherwin Rosen 1979 Education and self-selection. Journal of Political Economy 87(5):57-536. Yerkes, Robert, editor 1921 Psychological examining in the United States Army. Vol. XV in Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

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APPENDIXES

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