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D Biographical Information Committee members Lonnie King, D.V.M. (Chair), is dean of the College of Veterinary Medicine, and executive dean for the Health Science Colleges at the Ohio State Uni- versity. Earlier, King was the director of the National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne and Enteric Diseases at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Before serving as director, King was the first chief of the CDC’s Office of Strategy and Innovation. King has also served as dean of the Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine for 10 years. Prior to this, King was the administrator for the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. He served as the country’s chief veterinary officer for 5 years, and worked extensively in global trade agreements within North American Free Trade Agreement and the World Trade Organization. He has served as president of the Asso- ciation of American Veterinary Medical Colleges and was the vice chair for the National Commission on Veterinary Economic Issues. King received his B.S. and D.V.M. degrees from the Ohio State University, an M.S. in epi- demiology from the University of Minnesota, and an M.P.A. from American University. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine. Paul Citron, M.S.E.E., retired as vice president of technology policy and academic relations from Medtronic, Inc., after a 32-year career there. His previous positions include vice president of science and technology, vice president of ventures technology, and vice president as well as director of applied concepts research. Citron received a B.S. in electrical engineering 155
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156 RANKING VACCINES: A Prioritization Framework from Drexel University and an M.S. in electrical engineering from the Uni- versity of Minnesota. He has authored many publications, has served on several committees of the National Academies, and holds several medical device pacing-related patents. Citron was elected a founding fellow of the American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering and has twice won the American College of Cardiology Governor’s Award for Excellence and was inducted as a fellow of the Medtronic Bakken Society, the compa- ny’s highest technical honor. Citron is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. Rita Colwell, Ph.D., is a distinguished university professor both at the University of Maryland at College Park and at Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health. Her interests are focused on global infectious diseases, water, and health, and she is currently developing an international network to address emerging infectious diseases and water issues, including safe drinking water for both the developed and developing world. Colwell has shown how changes in climate, adverse weather events, shifts in ocean circulation, and other ecological processes can create condi- tions that allow infectious diseases to spread. In addition to her academic roles, Colwell is senior adviser and chairperson of Canon U.S. Life Sciences, and chairman and president of CosmosID, which is exploring the potential applications of molecular diagnostic technologies to the field of life sci- ences. Colwell served as the 11th director of the National Science Foun- dation from 1998 to 2004. Colwell has previously served as chairman of the board of governors of the American Academy of Microbiology and also as president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Washington Academy of Sciences, the American Society for Microbi- ology, the Sigma Xi National Science Honorary Society, and the Interna- tional Union of Microbiological Societies. Colwell has also been awarded 54 honorary degrees from institutions of higher education, including her alma mater, Purdue University. Colwell holds a B.S. in bacteriology and an M.S. in genetics, from Purdue University, and a Ph.D. in oceanography from the University of Washington. Colwell is a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society. She is the recipient of the Order of the Rising Sun bestowed by the emperor of Japan and the National Medal of Science bestowed by the president of the United States. She is a U.S. science envoy and a member of the National Academy of Sciences. Kathryn Edwards, M.D., is the Sarah H. Sell Professor of Pediatrics in the Division of Infectious Diseases at Vanderbilt University School of Medi-
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157 Appendix D cine. As a graduate of the University of Iowa College Of Medicine, Edwards was elected to Alpha Omega Alpha. She completed her pediatric resi- dency and fellowship in infectious diseases at Children’s Memorial Hospi- tal, Northwestern University School of Medicine in Chicago, Illinois, and then served as a postdoctoral fellow and instructor in immunology at Rush Medical School, Presbyterian St. Luke’s Hospital, also in Chicago. Then she joined the faculty of the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine in Nash- ville, Tennessee, where she has remained and risen in the ranks to profes- sor and director of the Vanderbilt Vaccine Research Program. Edwards has spent much of her career evaluating the safety and effectiveness of vac- cines. As a member of both the Centers for Disease Control and Preven- tion (CDC) Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Vaccines and Related Products Advisory Committee, she has played a critical role in recommending new vaccines for licensure and establishing guidelines for their use. She has also been a frequent advisor to the U.S. National Institutes of Health, where she was a member of the advisory council of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and to the CDC in improving ways to evaluate vaccines and to ensure their safety. Edwards served on numerous data safety and monitoring boards for national and international trials in high-risk groups such as pregnant women, infants, children, and members of developing nations. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine. Joshua Epstein, Ph.D., is professor of emergency medicine at Johns Hop- kins University (JHU), with joint appointments in the departments of economics, biostatistics, and environmental health sciences. He is direc- tor of the JHU Center for Advanced Modeling in the Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences. He is an external professor at the Santa Fe Institute and member of the New York Academy of Sciences. Earlier, Epstein was senior fellow in economic studies and director of the Center on Social and Economic Dynamics at the Brookings Institution. He is a pioneer in agent-based computational modeling of biomedical and social dynamics. He has authored or co-authored several books including Growing Artifi- cial Societies: Social Science from the Bottom Up, with Robert Axtell (MIT Press/Brookings Institution); Nonlinear Dynamics, Mathematical Biology, and Social Science (Addison-Wesley); and Generative Social Science: Stud- ies in Agent-Based Computational Modeling (Princeton University Press). Epstein holds a B.A. from Amherst College and a Ph.D. from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He has received a Director’s Pioneer Award from the National Institutes of Health and a honorary doctorate from Amherst College.
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158 RANKING VACCINES: A Prioritization Framework Dennis Fryback, Ph.D., is professor emeritus of population health sciences and industrial and systems engineering at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. He specializes in methodological issues underpinning medical decision making, cost-effectiveness analysis of health care interventions, and health policy. Fryback was a member of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and also of the U.S. Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine—two working groups that have been influential for national pol- icy on comparative effectiveness research methods in health care. Among other honors he has received the Career Achievement Award of the Society for Medical Decision Making, which he helped to found over 30 years ago. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine. Patricia Garcia, M.D., Ph.D., M.P.H., is the dean and professor in the School of Public Health and adjunct professor in the School of Sciences at Cayetano Heredia University (UPCH) in Peru. She is also director of the unit of epidemiology, STD and HIV; an affiliate professor in the Depart- ment of Global Health, School of Public Health, University of Washington; an affiliate professor in the School of Public Health at Tulane University; and former chief of the Peruvian National Institute of Health. Garcia has also worked at the National STD/AIDS Program in Peru as chief of com- prehensive care of patients with HIV/AIDS and STDs and as vice dean of research at UPCH. She was also a member of the senior technical advisory group of the Reproductive Health Department at the World Health Orga- nization; chair of the WHO HPV Vaccine Expert Advisory Group, secretary of research of the Latin American Association for the Control of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI), and Latin American regional director of the International Union Against STI. Garcia is a member of several interna- tional scientific societies and is actively involved in research and training on STIs and HIV, global health and informatics, and training in Peru. She is also a principal investigator for the Frameworks for Global Health in Peru, co–principal investigator for the ICORHTA project (operations research in TB and HIV), and principal investigator for the QUIPU informatics research training center for the Andean region as well as a Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation–funded project for the implementation of rapid syphilis tests for pregnant women in Peru. Demissie Habte, M.D., is the first president of the Ethiopian Academy of Sciences and is chair of the board of trustees of the International Clinical Epidemiology Network. He completed his undergraduate medical educa- tion at the American University of Beirut in Lebanon and his pediatrics training at the New York Hospital–Cornell Medical Center. He spent the
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159 Appendix D first three decades of his professional life in Ethiopia working as a clini- cian and as member of the Faculty of Medicine, Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia, where he rose to become professor and chairman of the Depart- ment of Pediatrics and Child Health, and later the dean of the faculty. Other positions he has held in the past are executive director of the International Centre for Diarrheal Diseases in Dhaka, Bangladesh; senior health special- ist for the African region at the World Bank, Washington, DC; and founding international director of the James P. Grant School of Public Health, BRAC University in Bangladesh. He is a recipient of the Rosen von Rosenstein Medal of the Swedish Pediatric Society. He is a fellow of the African Acad- emy of Sciences and Honorary Fellow of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Victoria Hale, Ph.D., is founder, former chief executive officer, and chair emeritus of OneWorld Health, the first nonprofit pharmaceutical com- pany in the United States. Under her leadership the organization devel- oped a new cure for visceral leishmaniasis, launched a novel approach to treat dehydrating diarrhea, and developed a platform technology to reduce the cost of malaria drugs by more than ten-fold. Presently, Hale is founder and chief executive officer of Medicines360, a second generation non- profit pharmaceutical company. Hale established her expertise in all stages of bio- and pharmaceutical drug development at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and at Genentech, Inc. She earned her Ph.D. from Univer- sity of California, San Francisco, where she maintains an adjunct associ- ate professorship in biopharmaceutical sciences. Her honors include being named a MacArthur Fellow and receiving the President’s Award of Distinc- tion from the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists and the Economist’s Social and Economic Innovation Award. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine. Tracy Lieu, M.D., M.P.H., is professor of population medicine and of pediatrics, and director of the Center for Child Health Care Studies at Harvard Medical School and the Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute. Lieu has studied vaccine safety, delivery, and economics for almost two decades and has published many papers about the effectiveness and cost- effectiveness of immunization programs. Her research includes the semi- nal cost-effectiveness analyses of varicella vaccine and pneumococcal con- jugate vaccine for children, conducted with collaborators from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Northern California Kaiser Permanente. She has served as senior investigator of several related eval- uations of the economic impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination,
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160 RANKING VACCINES: A Prioritization Framework including an economic impact evaluation for PneumoADIP. In addition to research, Lieu serves as the Children’s Hospital Boston site director of the Harvard Pediatric Health Services Research Fellowship, teaches in the Harvard School of Public Health, and practices pediatrics part time with Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates. She was a member of CDC’s Advi- sory Committee on Immunization Practices, the expert group that issues authoritative recommendations on vaccine use in the United States. William Paul, M.D., is a National Institutes of Health (NIH) distinguished investigator and chief of the Laboratory of Immunology at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the NIH. He received his undergraduate education at Brooklyn College and his M.D. from the State University of New York Downstate Medical Center. After serving a medi- cal internship and residency at the Massachusetts Memorial Hospitals (now Boston Medical Center) in Boston, he began his research career in the Endocrinology Branch of the National Cancer Institute and was then a postdoctoral fellow at the New York University School of Medicine. He joined the Laboratory of Immunology of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases as a principal investigator in 1968 and in 1970, took on his present position of chief of the laboratory. Paul also was director of the Office of AIDS Research at NIH and was associate NIH director for AIDS Research. Paul is well known for his discovery of interleukin-4 and for his extensive analysis of the functions, signaling mechanisms, and regulation of the production of this cytokine and for pioneering studies of CD4 T cell differentiation. He has also made important contributions to the field of B cell activation and antigen-recognition by T cells. He received the Founder’s Prize of the Texas Instruments Foundation, the 3M Life Sci- ences Award from the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, the Tovi Comet–Wallerstein Prize of Bar-Ilan University, and the Max Delbruck Medal. He is the recipient of six honorary doctorates. He has been president of the American Society for Clinical Investigation and of the American Association of Immunologists. Paul is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a member of the National Academy of Sciences and of the Institute of Medicine. Charles Phelps, Ph.D., is university professor and provost emeritus at the University of Rochester. Phelps began his research career at the RAND Corporation, where he served as senior staff economist and director of the Program on Regulatory Policies and Institutions. At RAND Phelps’s research included the economics of health care, U.S. petroleum price regu- lations, water markets in California, and environmental regulatory policy.
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161 Appendix D Later Phelps moved to the University of Rochester, where he held appoint- ments in the departments of economics and political science and served as director of the Public Policy Analysis Program and chair of the Depart- ment of Community and Preventive Medicine in the School of Medicine and Dentistry. He served as provost of the University of Rochester from 1994 to 2007. Phelps’s research cuts across the fields of health econom- ics, health policy, medical decision analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis of various medical interventions, and other related topics. He wrote a leading textbook in the field, Health Economics (Addison Wesley, now in its fifth edition), and Eight Questions You Should Ask About Our Health Care System (Even if the Answers Make You Sick) (Hoover Institution Press). Phelps has testified before congressional committees on health policy and intellectual property issues. He serves on the board of directors of VirtualScopics, Inc. and as a consultant to Gilead Sciences, Inc. and CardioDx. He is a founding member of the Health Care Task Force of the Hoover Institution at Stan- ford University. He received his B.A. in mathematics from Pomona College, an M.B.A. in hospital administration, and Ph.D. in business economics from the University of Chicago. Phelps is a fellow of the National Bureau of Eco- nomic Research and a member of the Institute of Medicine. Rino Rappuoli, Ph.D., is global head of vaccines research for Novartis Vaccines. Previously, he was chief scientific officer and vice president, Vaccines Research, Chiron Corporation. Rappuoli joined IRIS, the Chiron S.p.A. Research Institute, in 1992 and obtained various leadership positions in vaccine discovery and research within the company. Prior to that, he was a head of the Laboratory of Bacterial Vaccines at the Scalvo Research Center and a visiting scientist at Harvard Medical School and the Rock- efeller Institute. He is the author of more than 300 original papers in peer- reviewed journals and has served as reviewer for numerous scientific pub- lications. Rappuoli obtained his doctoral degree in biological sciences at the University of Siena, delivering his experimental thesis on the use of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in biological systems. Rappuoli has been awarded the Albert Sabin Gold Medal in recognition of his work in the field of vaccine discoveries and the Gold Medal by the Italian Presi- dent for contributions to public health care. He is an elected member of the European Molecular Biology Organization and the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Arthur Reingold, M.D., is Edward Penhoet Distinguished Professor of Global Health and Infectious Diseases at the School of Public Health, Uni- versity of California, Berkeley (UCB). He is also professor of epidemiol-
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162 RANKING VACCINES: A Prioritization Framework ogy and biostatistics and clinical professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). His research interests include emerging and reemerging infections and vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States and developing countries. Reingold serves on the World Health Organization’s Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on vaccines and vac- cine policy, is director of the California Emerging Infections Program, and is director of the U.S. National Institutes of Health Fogarty AIDS Interna- tional Training and Research Program at the UCB/UCSF. His recent publi- cations include articles on the impact of the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the United States and related topics. Before joining the faculty at UCB, Reingold worked for 8 years at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine. Vinod Sahney, Ph.D., is senior fellow at the Institute for Health Care Improvement. He previously served as senior vice president and chief strat- egy officer at Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts. Earlier, he served as senior vice president at Henry Ford Health System for 25 years. He has served on the faculty of Harvard University for more than 35 years and has been a faculty member for Harvard’s Executive Program in Health Policy and Management. His current board service includes Radius Ventures, Healthsense, and Dynamic Computer Corporation. His past board service includes the Institute for Healthcare Improvement as a founding member, director, and board chair; St. Joseph Mercy–Macomb Hospital; St. Joseph Mercy–Oakland Hospital; Enterprise Development Fund; Michigan’s Chil- dren; Group Practice Improvement Network as a founding member and director; Society for Healthcare Strategy and Market Development; found- ing member and president of the Society for Health Systems; Faculty Prac- tice Plan at Washington University School of Medicine; and Henry Ford OptimEyes. He has received a number of awards, including the Dean Con- ley Award from the American College of Health Care Executives for the best paper published in health care management; the Best Paper Award and Quality Award from Health Care Information and Management Sys- tems Society of the American Hospital Association; a Distinguished Ser- vice Award from the Institute of Industrial Engineers; the Founders Award from the Society of Health Systems; the Distinguished Service Award from the University of Wisconsin, Madison; the Gold Award from the Engineer- ing Society of Detroit; and the Gilbreth Award for Lifetime Achievement from the Institute for Industrial Engineering. Sahney is a member of the Institute of Medicine and the National Academy of Engineering.
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163 Appendix D Robert Steinglass, M.P.H., is immunization team leader for the Mater- nal and Child Health Integrated Program at John Snow, Inc. and project director for the Africa Routine Immunization System Essentials at John Snow Research and Training Institute, Inc. Steinglass received his M.P.H. from the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health and has led immunization projects for John Snow, Inc. since 1990. In this capacity and in partnership with global, regional, and country partners, he has overseen the technical agenda and implementation of a series of proj- ects funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development engaged primarily in strengthening routine immunization program performance, introducing new vaccines, and controlling vaccine-preventable diseases. Steinglass has served in leadership positions on IMMUNIZATIONbasics, BASICS II, BASICS, REACH II, and REACH at John Snow, Inc. Steinglass began his career in smallpox eradication for the World Health Organiza- tion (WHO) in Ethiopia and Yemen and served for 10 years as the resident WHO technical officer for the Expanded Program on Immunization in Yemen, Oman, and Nepal. Steinglass’ immunization work has taken him to nearly 50 developing and transitional countries. His recent and current involvement at the global level includes work in such areas as the epidemi- ology of the unimmunized child, the role of gender and sex in immuniza- tion, the effect of new vaccine introduction on immunization systems and health systems, and the feasibility of measles eradication. He has worked with the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee, the Vaccine Pre- sentation and Packaging Advisory Group, the Program Advisory Group of Project Optimize, the Cold Chain and Logistics Task Team, and he is advis- ing the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on its global immuniza- tion research agenda. Staff Guruprasad Madhavan, Ph.D. (Study Director), is a program officer in the Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice at the Insti- tute of Medicine. He is also a program officer for the Committee on Sci- ence, Engineering, and Public Policy—a joint unit of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medi- cine. Madhavan received his M.S. and Ph.D. in biomedical engineering and an M.B.A. from the State University of New York (SUNY). He has worked in the medical device industry as a research scientist developing cardiac surgical catheters for ablation therapy. Madhavan has received the AT&T Leadership Award, the SUNY Chancellor’s Promising Inventor Award,
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164 RANKING VACCINES: A Prioritization Framework the Rotary International Foundation’s Paul Harris Fellowship, the Insti- tution of Engineering and Technology’s Mike Sargeant Career Achieve- ment Award, EE Times’ Student of the Year Award, the American College of Clinical Engineering’s Thomas O’Dea Advocacy Award, the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers’ Robert Stewart Engineer- ing–Humanities Award, the Association for the Advancement of Medi- cal Instrumentation’s AAMI–Becton Dickinson Award for Professional Achievement, the District of Columbia Council on Engineering and Archi- tectural Societies’ Young Engineer of the Year Award, and the IEEE–USA Professional Achievement Award. Madhavan was also selected as one among 14 people as the “New Faces of Engineering” in the USA Today in 2009. He is an IEEE ambassador and has co-edited three books. Kinpritma Sangha, M.P.H., is a research associate in the Board on Popu- lation Health and Public Health Practice at the Institute of Medicine. She has internship experiences with the National Women’s Law Center as well as the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials. She previously served as a research assistant in the University of California, Davis, Medi- cal Center’s Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network. She received her B.S. in cellular and molecular biology, and Asian American studies from University of California, Davis, and an M.P.H. in health policy from George Washington University. Malcolm Biles is a senior program assistant with the Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice at the Institute of Medicine. He previ- ously served as a program assistant for the National Academies Roundtable on Value and Science Driven Health Care. He received his B.A. in broadcast telecommunications and mass media from Temple University. Rose Marie Martinez, Sc.D., is senior director of the Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice at the Institute of Medicine. Under her leadership, the board has examined such topics as the safety of childhood vaccines, pandemic influenza preparedness, the revival of civilian immuni- zation against smallpox, the health effect of environmental exposures, the capacity of governmental public health to respond to health crises, systems for evaluating and ensuring drug safety post-marketing, the soundness and ethical conduct of clinical trials to reduce maternal to child transmission of HIV/AIDS, and chronic disease prevention, among others. Prior to joining the Institute of Medicine, Martinez was a senior health researcher at Math- ematica Policy Research, where she conducted research on the impact of health system change on the public health infrastructure, access to care for
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165 Appendix D vulnerable populations, managed care, and the health care workforce. Mar- tinez is a former assistant director for health financing and policy with the U.S. General Accounting Office, where she directed evaluations and policy analysis in the area of national and public health issues. Her experience also includes 6 years directing research studies for the Regional Health Ministry of Madrid, Spain. Martinez received her Sc.D. from the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health. Patrick Kelley, M.D., Dr.P.H., is senior director of the Board on Global Health and the Board on African Science Academy Development at the National Academies. Kelley has overseen a portfolio of Institute of Medicine studies and activities on subjects as wide-ranging as the evaluation of the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the U.S. com- mitment to global health, sustainable surveillance for zoonotic infections, global violence prevention, and setting priorities to build capacity for food and drug regulation in low- and middle-income countries. Prior to joining the National Academies, Kelley served on active duty in the U.S. Army for more than two decades as a public health physician–epidemiologist focus- ing on infectious disease surveillance and control and as a preventive medi- cine residency director and research program manager. In his last position within the U.S. Department of Defense, Kelley founded and directed the Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System. He also served as the specialty editor for the two-volume textbook Military Preven- tive Medicine: Mobilization and Deployment. Kelley obtained his M.D. from the University of Virginia and a Dr.P.H. in infectious disease epidemiology from the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health. Consultants Modeling and Software Development Scott Levin, Ph.D., is an assistant professor in the Department of Emer- gency Medicine and holds a joint appointment in the Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. He also works as a member of the Department of Oper- ations Integration to advance operational, quality, and financial improve- ment initiatives within the Johns Hopkins Health System. Levin’s research focuses on the use and development of systems engineering tools to study and improve the effectiveness, safety, and efficiency of health care deliv- ery, including an emphasis on improving quality of care, access to care, and medical decision making. Levin’s research has been funded by the National
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166 RANKING VACCINES: A Prioritization Framework Science Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, and the Department of Homeland Security. Levin received his Ph.D. in biomedical engineering from Vanderbilt University. Matthew Toerper is a senior software engineer for the Department of Emergency Medicine at Johns Hopkins University, where he is the prin- cipal information technology resource and administrator of databases. Toerper started his career with Harley Davidson, where he helped support over 1,200 workstations and hundreds of applications. Subsequently Toer- per worked with Johns Hopkins University’s Clinical Practice Association, where he designed and implemented four enterprise-wide applications to automate manually performed data-entry work. He has also served as a software consultant for T. Rowe Price. Following his return to Johns Hop- kins University, Toerper worked at the Institute for Computational Medi- cine in the Whiting School for Engineering, where he contributed to the Cardiovascular Research Grid project. Toerper received a B.S. in informa- tion systems from the York College of Pennsylvania. Panayiotis Karabetis is partner and lead information designer at VIM Interactive, where he focuses on developing software prototypes for web, mobile, and desktop applications. Karabetis received his bachelor’s degree in visual design and communication from the University of Maryland, where he graduated at the top of his class with honors. Michael Kapetanovic is founding partner and project manager at Reef Light Interactive. He has previously served as chief operating officer of Web 2.0 start-up, FriendTones, as vice president of the Uyiosa Corporation, and as a senior consultant at Booz Allen Hamilton. Kapetanovic attended George Mason University, where he graduated magna cum laude with a degree in decision sciences and management information systems. Concept Evaluation Jon Andrus, M.D., is the deputy director of the Pan American Health Orga- nization (PAHO). Previously Andrus served as lead technical advisor for PAHO’s immunization program, with a focus on the poorest communities of the Americas. He was also professor and director of George Washing- ton University’s Global Health M.P.H. Program. He also holds adjunct fac- ulty appointments at the University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine and the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Among other posts, he served as a medical epidemiologist at the Global
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167 Appendix D Immunization Division at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta and, on assignment by the CDC, as regional advisor for polio eradication and chief of vaccines and biologicals for the South-East Asia Regional Office of WHO. He has received the Emil M. Mrak Interna- tional Award from the University of California, Davis; the Distinguished Service Medal—the highest award of United States Public Health Ser- vice—for leadership in polio eradication in South-East Asia; and the Philip R. Horne Award for sustained worldwide leadership in the global and regional immunization initiatives to eradicate polio and eliminate measles and rubella and to control other vaccine-preventable diseases. Claire Broome, M.D., is an adjunct professor in the Department of Global Health at Emory University’s Rollins School of Public Health. Previously she held several positions at the Centers for Disease Control and Preven- tion, including as deputy director. Broome has served as an advisor for the following institutions: the World Health Organization; the World Bank; the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; the Burroughs Wellcome Fund; the Wellcome Trust; the U.S. Agency for International Development; the U.S. Food and Drug Admin- istration (as a member of the Vaccines and Related Biologicals Advisory Committee); and the National Institutes of Health. Broome’s research experience includes developing and implementing research programs in bacterial disease epidemiology, observational epidemiology for vaccine evaluation, and public health surveillance methodology. She also has infor- matics experience, including leading the development and implementa- tion of the National Electronic Disease Surveillance System. Broome has received numerous honors and awards, including the Infectious Disease Society of America’s Squibb Award for Excellence of Achievement in Infec- tious Diseases, the American Public Health Association Epidemiology Sec- tion’s John Snow Award, the Public Health Service Distinguished Service Medal, the Surgeon General’s Medallion, and the Charles Shepard Award. Broome received her B.A. from Harvard University and her M.D. from Harvard Medical School, and she specialized in internal medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, and completed a fellowship at Mas- sachusetts General Hospital in infectious diseases. Broome is a member of the Institute of Medicine. Joachim Hombach, Ph.D., M.P.H., is acting head of World Health Orga- nization’s Initiative for Vaccine Research (IVR). In his former position at IVR, he was in charge of implementation research and the flavivirus vac- cine portfolio, and he has been working in particular on dengue and Japa-
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168 RANKING VACCINES: A Prioritization Framework nese encephalitis vaccines. Before joining WHO, Hombach had assign- ments as director of vaccine policy at GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals S.A. and as a scientific officer with the European Commission. In the latter role he was seminal in setting up the European and Developing Countries Clini- cal Trials Partnership. He also served as a board member of the European Malaria Vaccine Initiative. Hombach started his career as a researcher in molecular and cellular immunology, working at the University of Zürich in Switzerland and the Max Planck Institute for Immunology in Freiburg, Germany. He holds a Ph.D. from the University of Cologne, Germany, and an M.P.H. from Johns Hopkins University. Philip Hosbach is vice president of immunization policy and government relations at Sanofi Pasteur. He serves as Sanofi Pasteur’s principal liaison with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. He coordinated Sanofi Pasteur’s global efforts in responding to the emerging H1N1 pan- demic. Hosbach joined Sanofi Pasteur (then Connaught Labs) in clinical research and held positions of increasing responsibility, including director of clinical operations. He also served as project manager for the develop- ment and licensure of Tripedia, the first diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administra- tion for use in U.S. infants, and he has contributed to the development and licensure of seven vaccines. He is a graduate of Lafayette College and a member of the Institute of Medicine’s Forum on Microbial Threats. Robert Lawrence, M.D., is Center for a Livable Future Professor and a professor of environmental health sciences, health policy, and interna- tional health at the John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health as well as a professor of medicine at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Lawrence is a founding member of Physicians for Human Rights and has served as a member of the board of directors. Lawrence graduated from Harvard Medical School, trained in internal medicine at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, and served for 3 years as an epidemic intel- ligence service officer at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Lawrence has also served as director of health sciences at the Rockefeller Foundation and has been of the faculty of University of North Carolina and Harvard Medical School. Lawrence is a master of the American College of Physicians and a fellow of the American College of Preventive Medicine. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine. Adel Mahmoud, M.D., Ph.D., is a professor at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs and the Department of Molecular Biol-
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169 Appendix D ogy at Princeton University. He recently retired as president of Merck Vac- cines and was also a member of the management committee of Merck & Company, Inc. At Merck, Mahmoud led the effort to develop four new vac- cines, including a combination of measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella; rotavirus; shingles; and human papillomavirus. Previously Mahmoud spent 25 years at Case Western Reserve University and the University Hospital of Cleveland and served as chairman of medicine and physician-in-chief. Mahmoud earned his M.D. from the University of Cairo and received his Ph.D. from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine. Gregory Poland, M.D., is Mary Lowell Leary Professor of Medicine and director of the Mayo Vaccine Research Group at the Mayo Clinic and Foundation. Poland is certified by the American Board of Internal Medi- cine. His research interests include pediatric and adult vaccines, vaccine delivery and public policy, immunogenetic influences on vaccine respon- siveness, and vaccines against agents. Poland has received the Secretary of Defense Medal for Outstanding Public Service, a Doctor of Humane Let- ters from Illinois Wesleyan University, the Dr. Charles Merieux Lifetime Achievement Award in Vaccinology and Immunology from the Foundation Merieux and the National Foundation for Infectious Diseases, and the Sec- retary of Defense Award for Excellence and was awarded a mastership in the American College of Physicians. Jaime Sepulveda, M.D., Sc.D., M.P.H., is executive director of University of California, San Francisco, Global Health Sciences. Previously he was senior fellow and director of special initiatives in the Global Health Pro- gram at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Sepulveda served for more than 20 years in a variety of senior health posts in the Mexican govern- ment, including as director of the National Institutes of Health of Mexico. He also served for a decade as director general of Mexico’s National Insti- tute of Public Health and dean of the National School of Public Health. As Mexico’s director general of epidemiology and later vice minister of health, Sepulveda designed Mexico’s Universal Vaccination Program, which eliminated polio, measles, and diphtheria by more than doubling child- hood immunization coverage in 2 years. He also modernized the national health surveillance system and founded Mexico’s National AIDS Council. Sepulveda holds a medical degree from National Autonomous University of Mexico and three advanced degrees from the Harvard School of Public Health. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine.
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170 RANKING VACCINES: A Prioritization Framework Edward Shortliffe, M.D., Ph.D., is president and chief executive officer of the American Medical Informatics Association. He is an adjunct professor in the Department of Biomedical Informatics at Columbia University. Previ- ously he has served as a professor at the University of Texas Health Science Center, at Arizona State University, and at the University of Arizona Col- lege of Medicine. Before that he was the Rolf A. Scholdager Professor and chair of the Department of Biomedical Informatics at Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York City and professor of medicine and of computer science at Stanford University. He received his A.B. in applied mathematics from Harvard College, a Ph.D. in medical information sci- ences, and an M.D. from Stanford University. His research interests include the broad range of issues related to integrated decision-support systems, their effective implementation, and the role of the Internet in health care. He is a master of the American College of Physicians and editor-in-chief of the Journal of Biomedical Informatics. Shortliffe is a fellow of the American College of Medical Informatics and the American Association for Artificial Intelligence and an elected member of the American Society for Clinical Investigation and the Association of American Physicians. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine. Alastair Wood, M.B., Ch.B., is a partner at Symphony Capital LLC, a pri- vate equity company in New York. Wood is professor emeritus of both medicine and pharmacology at Vanderbilt University, where he has served as assistant vice chancellor and associate dean. He is currently a profes- sor of medicine and pharmacology at Weill Cornell Medical College. Wood served on the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) editorial board and was the editor of NEJM Drug Therapy for many years. He has served as chair of the Nonprescription Drugs Advisory Committee at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and as a member of the FDA’s Cardiovas- cular and Renal Advisory Committee. His research interests have been focused on understanding the mechanisms for inter-individual variability in drug response and toxicity. Wood is a fellow of the American College of Physicians, the American Association of Physicians, and the American Society for Clinical Investigation, and an honorary fellow of the American Gynecological and Obstetrical Society. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine.