Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page 367
H Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program (REMP) Under federal regulations, all nuclear power plants have stringent en- vironmental monitoring programs to ensure there are no negative effects from plant operations. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) requires licensees to begin these programs at nuclear plant sites at least 2 years before the plant starts operating. Because radiation is naturally pres- ent in the environment, the preoperational monitoring is designed to estab- lish a baseline the company later will use to ensure that the plant’s impact on the environment remains minimal. The USNRC requires nuclear plants to submit a report each year on the results of their monitoring programs. The USNRC requires the operators of nuclear power plants to sample air at various locations in the vicinity of the plants to determine if releases are detectable in the environment off site. The environmental monitoring system is covered under the Radiological Environmental Monitoring Pro- gram (REMP): typically, measurements are made at five stations: three near the plant boundary in the direction of most likely wind transport; one in the vicinity of a community likely to have the greatest chance of exposure; and one at control location 15 to 30 km distant in the upwind direction of prevailing winds (NUREG 1301). Radioiodine is measured weekly and gross beta activity of particulates captured on filters is measured quarterly. Analyses to identify gamma-emitting radionuclides are done on composite samples weekly. The results of a licensee’s effluent release program, which provides estimates of the public health impact of the releases, and radiological envi- ronmental monitoring program must be reported annually to the USNRC. Both reports are available to the public via the USNRC website. Historical 367
OCR for page 368
368 APPENDIX H reports are available electronically in the USNRC system from about 2000 to the present. Prior to that, reports are available only in microfiche. For a waterborne exposure pathway a sampling and analysis program shown in Table H.1 is recommended. The Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications (RETS) require that the licensee submit: 1. An annual radiological environmental monitoring report which is designed to assess the impact of radiological effluent releases into the environment; and 2. A Special Report within 30 days of discovery of the event if prede- termined levels of radioactivity are exceeded. The USNRC also requires that the licensee participate in an Interlaboratory Comparison Program to ensure the accuracy and precision of the licensee’s data. The REMP has allowed licensees significant flexibility to make changes to their programs without prior USNRC approval.1 The historical trend has been to reduce the scope of the program as a result of continued nondetec- tion of radioactivity. 1 However, licensees must notify the USNRC of any changes, and the USNRC has regulatory recourse if the changes are not in accord with regulations.
OCR for page 369
369 APPENDIX H TABLE H.1 Water Sampling and Analysis Recommendations Number of Representative Samples Sampling and Type and Frequency of Sample and Sample Locations Collection Frequency Analysis Surface One sample upstream Composite sample over Gamma isotopic analysis water (Wa1), one sample 1-month period monthly; composite for downstream (Wa2) tritium analysis quarterly Groundwater Samples from one or Quarterly Gamma isotopic and two sources (Wb1, tritium analysis quarterly Wb2) only if likely to be affected Drinking One sample of each composite sample 1-131 analysis on each water of on to three (Wc1– over 2-week period composite when the Wc3) of the nearest when I-131 analysis is dose calculated for water supplies that performed; monthly the consumption of could be affected by its composite otherwise the water is greater discharge; one sample than 1 mrem per year. from a control location Composite for gross beta (Wc4) and gamma isotopic analyses monthly. Composite for tritium analysis quarterly. Sediment One sample from Semiannually Gamma isotopic analysis from downstream area with semiannually shoreline existing or potential recreational value (Wd1) NOTES: a. Gamma isotopic analysis means the Identification and quantification of gamma-emitting radionuclides that may be attributable to the effluents from the facility. b. The “upstream sample” shall be taken at a distance beyond significant influence of the discharge. The “downstream” sample shall be taken in an area beyond but near the mixing zone. “Upstream” samples in an estuary must be taken far enough upstream to be beyond the plant influence. Saltwater shall be sampled only when the receiving water is utilized for recreational activities. c. A composite sample is one in which the quantity (aliquot) of liquid sampled is proportional to the quantity of flowing liquid and in which the method of sampling employed results in a specimen that is representative of the liquid flow. In this program composite sample aliquots shall be collected at time intervals that are very short (e.g., hourly) relative to the compositing period (e.g., monthly) in order to ensure obtaining a representative sample. d. Groundwater samples shall be taken when this source is tapped for drinking or irriga- tion purposes in areas where the hydraulic gradient or recharge properties are suitable for contamination. SOURCE: Offsite Dose Calculation Manual Guidance: Standard Radiological Effluent Controls for PWRs, Generic Letter 89-01, Supplement No. 1, April 1991, U.S. NRC, NUREG-1301.
OCR for page 370