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Appendix B Professional Standards for Early Childhood Programs This appendix presents a comparison of the salient provisions of the six major sets of standards for early childhood programs. Into of them, the Head Start performance standards and the Federal Interagency Day Care Requirements (FIDCR), were established as criteria for federal program support. The Head Start standards still govern the operation of Head Start programs. The FIDCR, which governed the operation of child programs receiving federal support through Title XX of the Social Security Act, were suspended when Title XX became the Social Services Block Grant program in 1981. The four sets of standards developed by professional groups and in- dividuals demonstrate the practical application of research on out-of-home care. Compliance is voluntary. Each of the sets of standards was established for different reasons and at different times, but they have much in common. Two of them, the accreditation criteria of the National Association of the Education of Young Children's (NAEYC) and the standards for child care service of the Child Welfare League of America (CWLA), were established as guidelines for programs to assess and improve their own performance. The NAEYC standards are the criteria that are used for accrediting early childhood programs. The safeguards of the National Black Child Devel- opment Institute (NBCDI) were established as broad guidelines for public schools' initiating early childhood programs serving minority children. The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS) was established by child development scholars at the University of North Carolina as an in- strument for assessing program quality for research purposes. The first part of this appendix briefly notes the major purposes and intended audience of the six sets of standards. The second part compares 324
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APPENDIX B 325 15 provisions of these standards, what the panel calls indicators of qual- ity, grouped in five general categories: caregiver qualifications and roles; group sizes and staff/child ratios; curriculum content and structure; physical characteristics of programs; and parental participation. PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL FUNDING Accreditation Criteria and Procedures of the National Academy of Early Childhood Programs, National Association for the Education of Young Chil- dren (NAEYC) The accreditation criteria were developed in 1984 to "im- prove the quality of life for young children." Center-based programs determine their compliance with the standards through a process of self- evaluation involving staff, parents, and a professional validator. Programs meeting the criteria are recognized with a certificate of recognition that is valid for 3 years. The standards are designed for programs serving children aged birth through 8 years in center-based programs serving 10 or more children. Compliance is voluntary. (S. Bredekamp, ed. Washington, D.C.: National Association for the Education of Young Children, 1984) Safeguards: Guidelines for Establishing Programs for Four Year Olds in the Public Schools, National Black Child Development Institute (NBCDI) These guidelines were developed in 1987 to "offer clear and direct sug- gestions for ways of ensuring that early education programs in the public schools create a learning environment for Black children which is pro- ductive, effective and long lasting in positive outcomes." Center-based programs in the public schools can determine their compliance with the standards through a process of self-evaluation; however, one of the safe- guards states: `'Public school-based early childhood programs should be subject to a regular, external review by community members and early childhood development experts." There are no incentives for meeting the guidelines. The standards are designed for programs serving 4-year-olds in public schools. Compliance is voluntary. (Washington, D.C.: National Black Child Development Institute, 1987) Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS): These standards were developed in 1980 `'to provide a basis for evaluation and planning." Center-based programs determine their compliance with the standards through a process of self-evaluation, which can involve staff, trainers, and outside professionals. There are no incentives for meeting the standards. The standards are designed for programs serving children at least 9 months of age in child care centers. Compliance is voluntary. (T. Harms and R.M. Clifford. New York: Teachers College Press, 1980)
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326 APPENDIX ~ Standards for DO Care Service, Child Welfare League of America (CWLA) These standards were developed in 1960 and revised in 1984 "to be goals for continual improvement of services to children and families. They represent practices considered to be most desirable . . . These are therefore standards for social welfare services for children, regardless of auspices or setting." Agencies, center-based programs, and family day care homes determine their compliance with the standards through a process of self-evaluation and community assessment. There are no incentives for meeting the standards. The standards are designed for comprehensive programs and urge planning of services to meet children's needs. The standards for center-based programs are designed primarily for programs serving children aged 3 and older, and the standards note that "family day care is suitable for all children and may be preferable for infants" (p. 18~. Compliance is voluntary. (New York: Child Welfare League of America, 19~) Federal Interagency Day Care Requirements (FIDCR) ~~~~ These require- ments for federal funding were developed In I~d and revised in 1980 in an effort to standardize the requirements of federally funded programs providing comprehensive services to children. However, the FIDCR were suspended in 1981. The basic responsibility for enforcement of the re- quirements lay with the administering agency. Acceptance of federal funds was an agreement to abide by the requirements. The requirements were designed for family day care homes, group day care homes, and child care centers. The requirements address the needs of children from infancy through 14 years of age, but no requirements were set for center-based care of children under 3 years of age. Compliance was mandatory for programs receiving federal funds. (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, U.S. Office of Economic Opportunity, and U.S. Department of Labor [DHEW Publ. No. OHDS 78-31081], 1968) Head Start Performance Standards These standards for federal fund- ing were promulgated in 1975. They cover all Head Start programs, which are for children between 3 years of age and the age of compulsory school attendance unless the Head Start agency's approved grant provides other- wise. "While compliance with the performance standards is required as a condition of Federal Head Start funding, it is expected that the standards will be largely self-enforcing." (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [45-CFEl-1304], 1984)
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APPENDIX B 327 INDICATORS OF QUALITY: COMPARISON OF STANDARDS Caregiver Qualifications and Roles INDICATOR: The potential for forming an affectionate relationship with a familiar caregiver. NAF~C: Each staff member has primary responsibility for and devel- ops a deeper attachment to an identified group of children. Every attempt is made to have continuity of adults who work with children particularly infants and toddlers. Infants spend the majority of the time interacting with the same person each day (p. 64~. NBCDI: Not covered. ECERS: Not covered. COLA: Each child should have a particular teacher on whom he or she can depend for comfort, security, and protection. Young children need a warm, close contact with a friendly adult, especially when they are in a group and away from home for long hours (p. 45~. FIDCR: Not covered. Head Start: Not covered. INDICATOR: Frequent positive interaction between caregiver and chil- dren. Caregivers who are responsive, positive, accepting, and comforting. NAFS6C: Staff interact frequently with children. Staff express respect for and affection toward children by smiling, holding, touching, and speak- ing to children at their eye level throughout the day, particularly on arrival and departure and when diapering or feeding very young children.... Staff are available and responsive to children; encourage them to share experi- ences, ideas, and feelings, and listen to them with attention and respect (p. 8~. NBCDI: Not covered. ECERS: Calm but busy atmosphere. Children seem happy most of the time. Staff and children seem relaxed, voices cheerful, frequent smiling. Adults show warmth in physical contact (i.e., gentle holding, hugging). Mutual respect exists among adults and children (p. 33~. Child given help and encouragement when needed. Teacher shows appreciation of children's work (p. 23~. COLA: Not covered.
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328 APPENDIX B FIDCR: Not covered. Head Start: Provides environment of acceptance which helps each child build ethnic pride, develop a positive self-concept, enhance his indi- vidual strengths and develop facility in social relationships (p. 6~. Promot- ing language understanding and use in an atmosphere that encourages easy communication among children and between children and adults (p. 7~. INDICATOR: Caregiver training related to child development. NAF~C: The program is staffed by individuals who are 18 years of age or older, who have been trained in early childhood education/child development, and who demonstrate the appropriate personal characteris- tics for working with children as exemplified in the criteria for interactions among staff and children and curriculum. Staff working with school-age children have been trained in child development, recreation, or a related field. The amount of training required will vary depending on the level of professional responsibility of the position [see Table B-13.... The chief administrative officer has training and/or experience in business administra- tion. If the chief administrative officer is not an early childhood specialist, an early childhood specialist is employed to direct the educational program (p. 18~. NBCDI: Teachers in public school-based programs should be required to have specific training in preschool education and/or ongoing, inservice training provided by qualified staff (p. 8~. Premise The skills of the center teachers are key determinants of the quality of the school and of how and what the children learn. The creation of the entire learning atmosphere is largely dependent upon the teacher. Therefore, schools should employ highly trained individuals for these positions. Suggestions 1. Center directors should have a masters degree in early childhood education or, in addition to a degree in elementary education or a related field, must have completed coursework in early child- hood education equivalent to child development associate (CDA) training or equivalent to the requirements of the local or state department of education, whichever is higher. Directors should also have previous experience in child development and training in management and staff-parent relations. 2. Teachers should have at minimum a bachelor of arts degree in early childhood education, or a degree in a related field with a completion of certification courses required by the local or state
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330 APPENDIX B department of education or CDA credentialing, or a combination of both if CDA provides more rigorous standards. 3. At least every three years, recertification should be required in order to help teachers keep abreast of changing trends and im- provements in the field. 4. For principals at the public schools where programs for four year olds are located, there should be provisions made for basic training in early childhood education. There should also be proper ori- entation of other school personnel including lunchroom workers, aides, and guidance counselors. Staff development seminars at the district level could provide such orientation. Local colleges and technical schools could provide basic child development courses. 5. Every attempt should be made to make use of the experience of private day care personnel and other community day care workers. When qualified, these individuals should be given consideration as staff. Their training and/or recertification could be facilitated by utilizing CDA credentialing and/or by local school district staff development programs which are certified by the local or state department of education. ECERS: Not covered. COLA: Staff Required for Day Care Service. In addition to an execu- tive director, a day care service that offers both center care and family day care requires the following basic staff to carry out the program. Management . Director of Day Care Service (where day care is one of multiple services for children), with professional education in child develop- ment, early childhood education, or social work · Center Director, with professional education in early childhood . . - . ... . . . . . . . . . education, chEd development, or social work, and experience in working with children and on-site supervision of teaching staff Supervisor of Teaching Staff (when program is large), professionally qualified and experienced in early childhood education; for school- age programs, qualified in group work or in elementary education and experienced in out-of-school programs · Social Work Supervisor (when group is large), with professional education and experience in social work (this responsibility may be carried by the director or through arrangements with another social agency)
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APPENDIX B Direct Delivery . 331 · Social Workers, with professional education in social work and experience in social services for families and children · Teachers of Preschool Children, at least one for each group in the day care center, with professional education and experience in- early childhood education or child development, and with teaching experience · Leaders for School-Age Children, at least one for each group of school-age children, with professional education in early childhood education, elementary education, or social group work, and expe- rience in working with school-age children Aides, with some education, training, and experience with children and families, to work under the supervision of professional teaching or social work staff (p. 20) FIDCR: Educational activities must be Cinder the supervision and direction of a staff member trained or experienced in child growth and development. Such supervision may be provided from a central point for day care homes (p. 240~. The persons providing direct care for children in the facility must have had training or demonstrated ability in working with children (p. 241~. Head Start: Not covered. INDICATOR: Opportunities for caregiver training. NAETYC: In cases where staff members do not meet the specified qualifications, a training plan, both individualized and center-wide, has been developed and is being implemented for those staff members. The training is appropriate to the age group with which the staff member is working (p. 18~. The center provides regular training opportunities for staff to improve in working with children and families and expects staff to participate in staff development. These may include attendance at work- shops and seminars, visits to other children's programs, access to resource materials, in-service sessions, or enrollment in college level/technical school courses. Itaining addresses the following areas: health and safety, child growth and development, planning learning activities, guidance and dis- cipline techniques, linkages with community services, communication and relations with families, and detection of child abuse (p. 19~. NBCDI: Teachers in public school-based programs should be required to have specific training in preschool education and/or ongoing, inservice training provided by qualified staff. All districts should have an ongoing, inservice training program implemented by the center director and/or-in
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332 APPENDIX B conjunction with a larger,district-wide staff development program. This should include seminars, visits to other child development programs and classrooms and intra-district, access to resource materials and to college and technical schools offering coursework in Early Childhood Education and related field study, and videotaped sessions featuring the center staff and followed up by a constructive, critical sharing and evaluation component (Pe 91. , ECERS: Good professional library, current materials on wide variety of subjects readily available. Regular staff meetings, which include staff development activities. Plans for orienting new staff members. Planned sharing of professional materials among staff. Inservice training includes workshops and courses available in community as well as training in staff meetings. Support available for inservice training (i.e.. released time. travel costs, scholarships) (p. 37). CARLA: Not covered. = ~, _ , FIDCR: The operating or administering agency must provide or ar- range for the provision of orientation, continuous inservice training, and supervision for all staff involved in a day care program-professionals, nonprofessionals, and volunteers in general program goals as well as spe- cific program areas; i.e., nutrition, health, child growth and development, including the meaning of supplementary care to the child, educational guidance and remedial techniques, and the relation of the community to the child.... Staff must be assigned responsibility for organizing and coordinating the training program (p. 244). Nonprofessional staff must be given career progression opportunities which include job upgrading and work related training and education (p. 245). Head Start: The plan shall provide methods for enhancing the knowl- edge and understanding of both staff and parents of the educational and developmental needs and activities of children in the program (p. 10~. Staff and parent training, under a program jointly developed with all compo- nents of the Head Start program, in child development and behavioral developmental problems of preschool children (p. 11). Staff training in identification of and handling children with special needs and working with the parents of such children, and in coordinating relevant referral resources (p. 12).
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APPENDIX B INDICATOR: Group Sizes and Ratios Maximum group size. Child Heada Age NAEYC NBCDIa ECERSa CWLA FIDCR Start D-12 most 6 - ~- 12-24 most 6 -12 - 2 yrs. 8 - 12 -- - 3 yrs. 14 - 20 14 15 4 yrs. 16 - 20 16 20 5 yrs. 16 - 20 18 20 6-8 yrs. 20 - 24 20 25 aNot covered. INDICATOR: Staff/child ratio. Child . Heada Age NAEYC NBCDIa ECERSa CWLA FIDCR Start 0-12 most 1:3-1:4 1:3 1:4 12-24 most 1:3-1:4 1:3 1:4 2 yrs. 1:4-1:6 1:3 1:4 3 yrs. 1:7-1:10 1:7 1:5 4 yrs. 1:8-1:10 1:8 1:7 5 yrs. 1:8-1:10 1:9 1:7 6-8 yrs. 1:10-1:12 1:10 1:15 aNot covered. 333 Curriculum Content and Structure INDICATOR: Curriculum encompassing both socioemotional and cogni- tive development. NAETYC: Staff provide a variety of developmentally appropriate ac- tivities and materials that are selected to emphasize concrete experiential learning and to achieve the following goals: a. foster positive self-concept. b. develop social skills. c. encourage children to think reason, question, and experiment. d. encourage language development. e. enhance physical development and skills. f. encourage and demonstrate sound health, safety, and nutritional practices. g. encourage creative expression and appreciation for the arts. h. respect cultural diversity of staff and children (p. 13~.
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334 APPENDIX B NBCDI: Curriculum for preschool-age children in the public schools should be culturally sensitive and appropriate to the child's age and level of development (p. 10~. The schedule should be well-balanced with provisions for both teacher- and child-oriented activities, taking into account the personality, interests, and varied strengths of individual children. Each day should be designed to facilitate cognitive, social, physical, cultural, and emotional development (p. 11~. EVER;: Not covered. CELIA: Social and educational goals. The activities and experiences of each child, including relationships with other children and teachers, as well as the use of materials and equipment, should be planned according to individual needs. The child should be able to enjoy the following experiences: emotional support, warmth, and caring exposure to adult models with whom to identify participation in work with tools or other objects from the natural environment, sometimes in play, sometimes in purposeful pursuits of the real world performance of a variety of tasks so as to have an opportunity to achieve competence in some skill areas a balance of freedom, of space, time, and choice · a balance of independence from adults and dependence on adults · assumption of individual and group responsibilities · interaction with other children, making friends, and participation in group fun and planned activities · affirmation of his or her own heritage and culture and an acceptance and appreciation of others · work at his or her own developmental level and pace, yet with appropriate challenge · learning to handle success and failure opportunity for exploring, inventing,and pursuing individualized ideas and interests (pp. 36-37~. FIDR: The daily activities for each child in the facility must be designed to influence a positive concept of self and motivation and to enhance his social, cognitive, and communication skills (p. 241~. Head Start: Provide children with a learning environment and the varied experiences which will help them develop socially, intellectually, physically, and emotionally in a manner appropriate to their age and stage of development toward the overall goal of social competence (p. 4~.
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APPENDIX B 335 INDICATOR: Children have opportunities to select activities. NAFYC: Staff provide materials and time for children to select their own activities during the day. Children may choose from among several activities which the teacher has planned or the children initiate. Staff respect the child's right to choose not to participate at times (p. 13~. NBCDI: Curriculum for preschool-age children in the public schools should be culturally sensitive and appropriate to the child's age and level of development. There should be a variety of activities in which the children may choose to participate (pp. 10-11~. ECERS: Many materials present for free choice and supervised use. At least one planned activity daily. (Example: reading books to children, story telling, flannel board stories, finger plays, etc.) (p. 19~. COLA: Not covered. FIDCR: Not covered. Head Start: Providing a balanced program of staff directed and child initiated activities (p. 7~. INDICATOR: Experience with cooperative group process. NAF~C: Staff fosters cooperation and other prosocial behaviors among children (p. 10~. NBCDI: Not covered. ECERS: Not covered. COLA: Not covered. FIDCR: Not covered. Head Start: Not covered. INDICATOR: Curriculum is structured but not overly rigid. NAF~C: The daily schedule is planned to provide a balance of activ- ities on the following dimensions: a. indoor/outdoor quiet/active individual/small group/large group large muscle/small muscle child initiated/staff initiated (p. 12~.
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336 APPENDIX B Staff are flexible enough to change planned or routine activities according to the needs or interests of children or to cope with changes in weather or other situations which affect routines without unduly alarming children (p. 14~. NBCDI: There should be some flexibility in the routine and daily schedule to allow for constructive spontaneity in experience, group mood and energy level changes, and changes in weather (p. 11~. ECERS: Schedule provides balance of structure and flexibility. Sev- eral activity periods, some indoors and some outdoors, are planned each day in addition to routine care (p. 29~. COLA: The program should have flexibility as well as continuity, and should be related to the progressive developmental requirements of the children in the group. For all children, the program should provide a rhythm in the day, with intervals of stimulation and relaxation, and a balance between periods of active and quiet play, or rest. Regularity in day-to-day routines gives children a sense of stability and continuity and prepares them for what will happen next. FIDCR: Not covered. Head Start: Not covered. INDICATOR: Recognition and appreciation of children's culture. NAEYC: Developmentally appropriate materials and equipment which project heterogeneous racial, sexual, and age attributes are selected and used (p. 12~. NBCDI: Each day in the class there should be evidence of consistent, positive acknowledgment and appreciation of the cultural heritage of Black children through the use of well-chosen visual aids, books, records, and other learning material (p. 11~. ECERS: Cultural awareness evidenced by liberal inclusion of mul- tiracial and nonsexist materials (i.e., dolls, illustrations in story books, and pictorial bulletin board materials). Cultural awareness is part of curriculum through planned use of both multiracial and nonsexist materials (i.e., in- cluding holidays from other religions and cultures, cooking of ethnic foods, introducing a variety of roles for women and men through stories and dramatic play) (p. 33~. COLA: Not covered. FIDCR: Not covered.
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APPENDIX B 337 Head Start: Having curriculum which is relevant and reflective of the needs of the population served (bilinguaVbicultural, multicultural, rural, urban, reservation, migrant, etch. Having staff and program resources reflective of the racial and ethnic population of the children in the program (p. 8~. Physical Characteristics of Programs INDICATOR: Physical environment is child oriented. NAETYC: Age-appropriate materials and equipment of sufficient quan- tity, variety, and durability are readily accessible to children and arranged on low, open shelves to promote independent use by children (p. 26~. NBCDI: Not covered. ECERS: FuJ1 range of learning activity furnishings regularly used plus provision for appropriate independent use by children (i.e., through picture-word labeling or other guidance) (p. 15~. Variety of developmentally appropriate perceptual/fine motor materials in good repair used daily by children rotated to maintain interest. Materials organized to encourage self-help, activities planned to enhance fine motor skills (p. 23~. CELIA: The equipment, furnishings, and materials in the playroom should be selected on the basis of suitability for the children who will use them, durability, and adaptability for various uses (p. 92~. FIDCR: Each facility must have toys, games, equipment and ma- terial, books, etc., for educational development and creative expression appropriate to the particular type of facility and age level of the children (p. 241~. Head Start: The plan shall provide for appropriate and sufficient furniture, equipment and materials to meet the needs of the program, and for their arrangement in such a way as to facilitate learning, assure a balanced program of spontaneous and structured activities, and encourage self-reliance in the children. The equipment and materials shall be geared to the age, ability, and developmental needs of the children (pp. 13-14~. INDICATOR: Physical setting is orderly and differentiated. NAETYC: Activity areas are defined clearly by spatial arrangement. Space is arranged so that children can work individually, together in small groups, or in a large group. Space is arranged to provide clear pathways for children to move from one area to another and to minimize distractions (p. 25~.
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338 APPENDIX B NBCDI: Not covered. ECERS: Three or more interest centers defined and conveniently equipped (i.e., water provided, shelving adequate). Quiet and noisy centers separated. Appropriate play space provided in each center (i.e., rug or table area out of flow of traffic). Easy visual supervision of centers.... Centers selected to provide a variety of learning experiences. Arrangement of centers designed to promote independent use by children (i.e., labeled open shelves, convenient doing space for art work). Additional materials organized and available to add to or change centers (p. 17~. COLA: Furnishings, equipment, and materials should be arranged in orderly, clearly defined areas of interest, with sufficient space in each for the children to see the various activities available to them and to have at hand all the equipment and materials necessary for a particular activity (p. 93~. FIDCR: Not covered Head Start: The plan shall provide for appropriate and sufficient fur- niture, equipment and materials to meet the needs of the program, and for their arrangement in such a way as to facilitate learning, assure a balanced program of spontaneous and structured activities, and encour- age self-reliance in the children. The equipment and materials shall be accessible, attractive, and inviting to the children (pp. 13-14~. Parental Participation INDICATOR: Parental involvement. NAE:YC: Parents are welcome visitors in the center at all times (for example, to observe, eat lunch with a child, or volunteer to help in the classroom). Parents and other family members are encouraged to be involved in the program in various ways, taking into consideration working parents and those with little spare time (p. 16~. NBCDI: The entire school atmosphere as well as organized activities should reflect respect for and welcome to parents at all times. Parents should know they can visit the school at all times, and every effort should be made to make parents feel part of the total program, erasing the air of intimidation and rejection that is often felt in public schools (p. 5~. ECERS: Parents welcomed to be a part of program (i.e., eat lunch with child, share a family custom with child's class) (p. 37~. CWL`A: Not covered.
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APPENDIX B 339 FIDCR: Opportunities must be provided parents at times convenient to them to work with the program and, whenever possible, observe their children in the day care facility (p. 245). Head Start: Not covered. INDICATOR: Parent-staff conferences and communication. NAFYC: Conferences are held at least once a year and at other times, as needed, to discuss children's progress, accomplishments, and difficulties at home and at the center (p. 17~. NBCDI: Not covered. ECERS: Parent/staff information exchanged at regular intervals (i.e., through parent conferences, newsletter, etch. Parents made aware of approach practiced at facility (i.e., through information sheets, parent meetings, etc.) (p. 37~. COLA: In addition to the daily informal contacts, periodic confer- ences with center staff members or the family day care provider and with the teacher in group day care should be scheduled for parents so they may discuss the child's progress, consider whether he or she is benefiting, and, if necessary, modifier the plan or receive help in making a more suitable arrangement (p. 32~. FIDCR: Not covered. Head Start: Participation in staff and staff-parent conferences and the making of periodic home visits (no less than two) by members of the education staff. (p. 11~.
Representative terms from entire chapter: