agement all see advantages that may be scientific, computational, and resource driven. That is, the value of integrated and shared capabilities exceeds the value perceived in the current, fragmented mode of function. Based on this, the benefits achieved to date of investments in infrastructure are as much social and organizational as they are technical.
There are many tangible examples of successes in infrastructure investments; we highlight three. The first is the National Unified Operational Prediction Capability (NUOPC), which has brought together NOAA, the Navy, and the Air Force to coordinate planning and model development. As stated in the NUOPC mission:
The NUOPC partners determined that the Nation’s global atmospheric modeling capability can be advanced more effectively and efficiently with their mutual cooperation to provide a common infrastructure to perform and support their individual missions.7
NUOPC strives to address long-existing challenges of links between research and operations and addresses issues of workforce stresses by sharing of intellectual resources and experiences.
The second example is one of connecting both communities and scales. An important user of climate information is the hydrology community. The European Commission funded the development of the Open Modeling Interface, OpenMI, a common software framework within the hydrology community. Within the community defined by the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science,8 OpenMI has been used with ESMF to connect hydrologic and global models. This allows connections not simply to individual researchers, but also from community to community. It also supports the concerted development of both scientific and infrastructure capabilities across spatial and temporal scales.
The final example reaches back to the earlier reports Improving Effectiveness and High-End Climate Science. At that time, one of the reasons that European models were considered to be more prominently cited in assessment studies was attributed to the investment in software infrastructure. An archetypal example was the European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts, where infrastructure was viewed as an essential part of ECMWF’s strategy to sustain excellent science, to engage external collaborators, and to stay ahead of changes in computational hardware. In addition, the managed model environment and attention to infrastructure at the UK Met Office (UKMO) eases execution of controlled experiments with global and regional models as