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FIGURE S.1 The Hindu-Kush Himalayan region extends over 2,000 km across South Asia and includes all or parts of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Nepal, and Pakistan. The region is the source of many of Asia’s major rivers, including the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra.

consumption patterns, water management decisions including groundwater pumping, agricultural water-use dynamics, and the extent of pollutants will affect water availability in the region.

Despite these important uncertainties, not everything is uncertain or unknown. The National Research Council Committee on Himalayan Glaciers, Hydrology, Climate Change, and Implications for Water Security was charged with addressing questions about four aspects of water security in the region. The Committee’s overarching conclusions are that while there remains substantial scientific uncertainty, snow and glacial melt will likely continue to be important sources of water in the region and there will be several climatological, glaciological, and hydrological factors that control the rate, volume, and timing of snowmelt and icemelt. The means of adapting to change will mostly be small in nature, and adaptive solutions will be essential. Effective management institutions will also be critical and will need to operate flexibly. Monitoring systems will be critical to implementing effective adaptation solutions and improving water management



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