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Index A Acoustic measurements, see Fathometers Africa, 149, 152 Alaska, 49 Albedo, 10, 26, 186-187, 190, 191 Algae, 22 Alkali, 197 Alluvium, 124-125, 134 Alps, 176 Altitude and altimetry, 4, 10, 30, 31, 175 glaciers, 172, 174 model, 166, 176-177 Quaternary shorelines, dislocated, 93, 104-114 Antarctic Ice Sheets, 4, 7, 10, 11, 13, 21, 28, 29, 31-32, 47, 48, 73, 81, 82, 100, 173-175, 172, 177, 179, 180-182, 190, 194 ice surge, 99-100, 102 Aquifers, see Groundwater Arabia, 146, 153 Aragonite, 196 Araki Island, 109, 11~111 Aral Sea, 13 Archeozoic Period, 24 Arctic, 94, 112 see also Greenland Asia, 41, 44, 46, 49, 146, 153 Astronomical observations, 46, 48 see also Satellites Atlantic Ocean, 18, 19, 52-62, 65-66, 68-69 coastal zones, 52-62, 65-66, 68-69, 70, 112 Gulf Stream, 26, 188-189, 212-213 North Atlantic, 52-62, 65-66, 68-69, 70, 112 steric processes, 14, 30, 209-214, 216, 226 Atmospheric processes, 8-9 angular momentum, 69 carbon dioxide, 181, 193-205 chemical, 186, 190, 193, 196 circulation, 4, 11, 26, 28, 32, 96, 168-169, 177, 178,188, 191, 197 models, 4, 11, 26, 28, 29, 32, 53, 57, 67, 168-169, 173, 176-177, 178, 185-191, 193, 195-201 pressure, 5, 6, 8, 18, 25, 38, 39, 53, 55, 57, 60 surface coupling, 26, 69, 178, 185-188, 190, 191, 195-196, 197-205 water vapor, 13, 30, 31, 180, 187 see also Climate and weather; Greenhouse effect; Winds Australia, 18-19, 149 229 B Barbados, 18, 97, 101, 107, 110 Basins, fluvial, 153, 174 B. asins, marine, 15- 16, 22, 146 age distribution, 152-153 continental crust thickness and, 146-147 ocean cooling, 147 Pacific, 144 subduction, 152 subsidence, 131, 134-135, 136, 145, 150 see also Bathymetry; Eustasy; Seafloor Bathymetry fathometers, 30, 31, 134, 225, 226 Gulf Stream, 189 paleo, 24, 92, 117, 134, 135 Benthos, 150 Bermuda, 61, 209-214, 226 Biological evidence, 21, 22 algae, 22 coral reefs, 18, 19, 21, 89, 90, 91, 93, 93-100, 105-109, 110-114 foraminifera, 21, 22, 94-96, 146, 153 forests, 26, 187 mollusca, 90, 107 oxygen isotopes, 18, 19, 21-22, 91, 92-95, 96-101, 105, 11~111, 114

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230 peats, 18, 89-90, 92 plankton, 21, 94, 95, 101, 146, 190 radiocarbon dating, 19, 90, 75, 76, 86, 90, 92, 111, 112 stratigraphy, general, 117, 122-123, 131, 132-133 Boreholes, 24, 89, 136, 150 C California San Andreas Fault, 76, 12~125 San Francisco, 39, 65-66, 69, 70 San Pedro, 39 California Cooperative Fisheries, 214-216 Calving, glaciers, 10, 11, 21, 174, 177-179 Canada, 75, 79 Carbon dating, see Radiocarbon dating Carbon dioxide, 10, 16, 26, 96, 169, 181, 185, 190-191, 193-205 cycling, 195-201 fossil fuels, 27-28, 29, 195-196, 201-204 see also Greenhouse effect Caspian Sea, 13 Cenozoic Era, 11, 12, 22, 23, 88-89, 102, 148, 165 seismic stratigraphy, 129, 130, 132, 136 Chemical processes atmospheric, 186, 190, 193, 196 carbon cycling, 195-201 diagenesis, 122, 123, 169 erosive, 142 marine, 124, 186, 19~191, 193, 196-197 see also Isotope geochemistry Clams, 92 CLIMAP, 96, 97, 99 Climate and weather, 22, 25-27, 39, 75, 96, 185-192 clouds, 28 forcing functions, 53-57, 61 models, 4, 11, 26, 28, 29, 53, 57, 67, 96, 173, 185, 199-201, 185-191, 193, 195-201 precipitation, general, 10, 11, 77, 162, 166-167, 170, 187 seasonal variation, 5, 14, 18, 53, 54, 56-60, 61, 174, 177, 189-190, 209-210 snow, 10, 173-178, 180 storms, 5, 6, 126 temporal dimension, 38, 61 winds,5,6,8,11, 18,39,52-53, 55-58, 60-61, 66-67, 142, 173, 186, 188 see also Greenhouse effect INDEX Clouds, 28 Coastal zones, 5, 8, 12, 64, 164 aggradation, 134-135 Atlantic, 52-62, 65-66, 68-69, 70, 112 continental shelf sediments, 164 E encroachment, 135 onlap, 122, 128, 129, 131, 134-136, 194 Pacific, 39, 65-66, 69, 70 see also Shorelines; Tides and tide gauges Community Climate Global Atmospheric Circulation Model, 168-169 Conservation, 5 Continental processes crustal thickness, 146-147 epeirogeny, 4, 6, 15-16, 22, 141-156 freeboard, 24-25, 143, 145, 147-148, 150, 153, 154, 155-156 glacial isostasy, 6, 8, 19, 73-86, 92 glaciology, general, 3 - , 141, 145, 155, 171-182 Pleistocene maximum continental ice movement, 7, 18, 73, 75, 79, 92, 96, 101, 190 sediments, 12, 163-164 volume, 92-93, 142, 145 water-bearing capacity, 166 see also Altitude and altimetry; Flooding; Mountains; Rivers and fluvial processes; Tectonism Conventional International Origin, 81 Corals, see Reefs Cratonic sediments, 163, 165 Cretaceous Period, 4, 6, 15-16, 22, 24, 27, 32, 129, 151, 153-155, 169, 188, 190, 194 Crustal processes, 6, 7-8, 222 continental thickness, 146-147 epeirogeny, 4, 6, 15-16, 22, 141-156 oceanic, 22, 152-155 subduction, 7, 16, 76, 141, 142, 152-155 see also Isostasy; Seafloor; Subsidence; Tectonism; Uplift Currents, marine, 8-9, 18, 39, 49 baroclinic, 61, 66-67, 70 California 215 deep, 124 El Nino, 9, 25, 64, 223 Gulf Stream, 26, 188-189, 212-213 D Density and density measurement, 14, 46, 53, 57, 60, 61, 81 glaciology, 174 seismic, 119, 120, 124, 152 subsidence equation, 126-127 see also Steric processes Diagenesis, 122, 123, 169 Earth Observing System, 30 Earth orbit, 18 Earth rotation, 38, 46, 47-48 angular momentum, 69 deglaciation, Pleistocene Epoch, 7, 48, 76, 81-83 Economic factors, 5 El Nino, 9, 25, 64, 223 Energy factors albedo, 10, 26, 186-187, 190, 191 ice mass, altitude, 10, 175-176 solar radiation, 10, 18, 26, 176, 186-187, 190, 191 see also Temperature effects and measurements Engineering, 5 Eocene Epoch, 149 Epeirogeny, 4, 6, 15-16, 22, 141-156 Equations, see Models Erosion, 142 Error and uncertainty, see Uncertainty and error Europe, 18, 19, 21, 53, 73, 76, 79, 8i85, 112-113, 135, 146, 149, 151 Eustasy, 11-13, 15-16, 24, 88, 111, 117, 142, 145-147 coastal aggradation, 13~135, 194 continental flooding and, 147-148 epeirogeny and, long-term, 141-156 geoidal influences, 131, 151 glacial processes and, 6, 88-89, 96-97, 100-101, 105, 129, 150, 175, 195 greenhouse effect, 27-29 lakes, 13 pore space, 11, 12, 13, 161-162, 166-170 stratigraphic measures, 88-89, 100-101, 105, 129, 13~136 F Fathometers, 30, 31, 134, 225, 226 Faults San Andreas, 76, 124-125 seismic reflections, 122-123 Firn, 10, 177-178 Flooding, 117, 141, 142-144, 147-150, 151, 152, 155-156, 189, 191 see also Freeboard Florida, 65-66, 68-69, 85, 165 Foraminifera, 21, 22, 94-96, 146, 153

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INDEX Forecasts, see Projections Forests, 26, 187 Fossil fuels, carbon dioxide, 27-28, 29, 195-196, 201-204 Freeboard, 24-25, 143, 145, 147-148, 150, 153, 154, 155-156 G General circulation models, 4, 11, 28, 32, 96, 168-169, 177, 178, 186, 191, 197 Geochronology, 90-91, 132-133 peats, 18, 89-90, 92 pollen, 19 tephrochronology, 107 see also Biological evidence; Boreholes; Radiometric dating; Stratigraphy Geodynamic Laser Ranging System, 30 Geoid, 7-8, 75, 76, 84, 131, 152, 223-224 eustasy, 131, 151 reference points, 39 Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale, 132 Geophysical processes, general, 18-25 see also specific processes Geosynclinal sediments, 163-164 Glaciers, Ice Sheets, and Sea Level: Effects of a CO2-Induced Climatic Change, 172 Glaciology, 4, 6, 7, 9-12, 18-27, 48-49, 64, 73-86, 105-107 Antarctic, 4, 7, 10, 11, 13, 21, 28, 28, 31-32, 47-48, 73, 81, 82, 99-100, 102, 173-175, 177, 179, 180-181, 182, 190, 194 calving, 10, 11, 21, 174, 177-179 continental, general, 3-4, 141, 145, 155, 171-182 dislocated shorelines, 105-107 earth rotation during Pleistocene, 7, 48, 76, 81-83 eustatic processes, 6, 88-89, 96-97, 100-101, 105, 129, 150, 175, 195 Greenland, 4, 7, 9-10, 13, 28, 29, 31-32, 47-48, 81, 82, 173-175, 176, 177, 194 ice budget, 9 ice caps, 19, 26, 29, 38, 172-173 isostasy, 6, 8, 19, 73-86, 92 mass, 4, 7, 172, 173-174, 175-176, 194 models, 19, 76, 77-86, 172-173, 174, 177-179, 226 mountains, 6, 9-10, 26, 48-49, 124-125, 175-178, 188, 194 North America, 8, 18, 21, 73-77, 79, 84, 85, 112-113, 181-182 231 Pleistocene maximum continental ice movement, 7, 18, 73, 75, 79, 92, 96, 101, 190 projections, 4, 89, 96-97, 100-101, 174, 175-181 runoff, 10, 172, 173-174, 175, 176, 177-178 volume, 19, 20, 21-22, 31, 145-146, 161-162 volume/temperature relationship, 91-92, 93, 94-96, 99-100 Global Positioning System, 4, 30, 32, 226 Global Sedimentary Geology Program, 4, 32 Gravity, 4, 30, 32, 56, 76, 79-81, 82-83, 131, 223-224, 226 Greenhouse effect, 3, 4, 6, 10-11, 25, 27-29,37,46,64,75,96, 171-182, 185, 186, 190-191, 193-205 Greenland Ice Sheet, 4, 7, 9-10, 13, 28, 29, 31-32, 47~8, 81, 82, 173-175, 176, 177, 194 sea, 14 Groundwater, 11-13, 161-170 Gulf of Mexico, 8 Gulf Stream, 26, 188-189, 212-213 Gyres, 45, 49, 69, 70, 226 H Historic period and perspective, 88 carbon cycle, 195 glacier wastage, 7, 173, 174 global sea level research, 37-41, 43, 44-49 North Atlantic, 52-62, 65-66, 68~69, 70 steric processes, 214-216, 226 very-low-frequency change, 60, 63-71, 221-226 see also Tides and tide gauges Holocene Epoch, 19, 89, 90, 93, 105, 108-109, 111-113, 165, 194 Hydrocarbons, groundwater, 169 Ice and ice processes, see Glaciology Ice caps, 19, 26, 29, 38, 172-173 Images and image processing iceberg calving, 174 seismic, 119 tomography, 225-226 India, 153 Interferometry, 4, 30, 32, 81, 226 Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (UNESCO), 4, 31 International activities, 5, 81 measurement programs, 4, 31, 32 International Union of Geological Sciences, 4 Irrigation, 13 Islands, 91, 177, 209-214 Araki, 109, 110-111 Barbados, 18, 97, 101, 107, 110 Bermuda, 61, 209-214, 226 Vanuatu, 109 see also Reefs Isostasy, 16, 25, 111, 112-113, 142, 150, 154, 170 glacial, 6, 8, 19, 25, 73-86, 92 Isotope geochemistry, 18, 19, 21-22, 96-97 oxygen, 18, 19, 21-22, 91, 92-95, 96-101, 105, 110-111, 114 potassium-argon dating, 132 radiocarbon, 19, 90, 75, 76, 86, 90, 92, 104, 111, 112 uranium-series, 90-91, 93 J Japan, 76 Jurassic Period, 151 L Lakes, 13 Laser technologies, 4, 30, 31, 32, 224 Law, 5 Limestone, 164, 165 Liquid water, 11, 13, 26, 161-162 lakes, 13, 162 see also Flooding; Groundwater; Rivers and fluvial processes Louisiana, 8 Lunar influences, 83 Magnetic measurements, 89, 91, 107, 125, 126, 132, 133 Marine processes, 100, 194 atmospheric-ocean-sediments, coupled models, 190, 195, 196, 197-205 bathymetry, 24, 30, 31, 92, 117, 134, 135, 189, 225, 226 carbon cycling, 195-196 chemical, 124, 186, 190-191, 193, 196-197 circulation, 4, 8-9, 11, 32, 45, 49, 53, 55-56, 57-58, 61, 69, 168-169, 178, 188-189, 191, 197, 226

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232 currents, 8-9, 18, 25, 26, 39, 49, 61, 64, 66-67, 70, 124, 188-189, 212-213, 215, 223 gyres, 45, 49, 69, 70, 226 models, 4, 11, 26, 28, 32, 96, 168-169, 177, 178, 186, 188, 190, 190, 191, 195-201 reefs, 18, 19, 21, 89, 90, 91, 93, 93-100, 105-109, 1 10-1 14 seafloor, 8, 15, 24, 26, 56, 141, 152-155, 185, 191, 224-225 sediments, 6, 8, 12, 16, 22, 24, 117-118, 116-137, 141-142, 146-149, 190, 195, 196, 197, 199-201 wave processes, 5, 8, 18, 39, 66-69, 70-71, 105 see also Islands; Tides and tide r. gauges; specific oceans Mass and mass measurements, 3-4, 6, 8-11, 30 earth rotation, 47 freshwater-saltwater balance, 166, 167 ice, 4, 7, 172, 173-174, 175-176, 194 ice and energy, altitude, 10, 175-176 Mathematical models, see Models; Statistical analysis Mean sea level, 37-39, 46, 222 Measurements and measurement instruments, 49, 52 flooding, 143-144 global sea level, 37-45, 61, 75, 135 graphs, 104-114 instruments and techniques, general, 4, 5, 30-31, 38-49 international programs, 4, 31, 32 problems, 39, 45 Quaternary Period, 89-99, 104-114 relative sea level, 31, 37-49 station location, 38, 39, 40-45, 49, 61, 214, 215 steric processes, 209, 215-216, 222-223 very-low-frequency change, 8, 60, 63-71, 221-226 see also Geochronology; Projections; Statistical analysis; Uncertainty and error; specific instruments and techniques Mesozoic Era, 11, 22, 132, 148-149, 151, 169 Methane, 27 Mineralization, 169 diagenesis, 122, 123, 169 Miocene Epoch, 132, 149 Mississippi River, 8, 129 Models, 24, 26, 61 INDEX ~2 atmospheric/climatic, 4, 11, 26, 28, 29, 32, 53, 57, 67, 168-169, 173, 176-177, 178, 185-191 (passim), 193, 195-201 carbon processes, 195-205 continental water-bearing capacity, 166 density effects, 53 forcing functions, 5~57 general circulation, 4, 11, 26, 28, 32, 168-169, 177, 178, 188, 190, 191, 197 glaciology, 19, 76, 77-86, 172-173, 174, 177-179, 226 mantle convection, 151-152 marine, 4, 11, 26, 28, 32, 96, 168-169, 177, 178, 186, 188, 190, 190, 191, 195-201 measurement station location, 38, 39, 40-45, 49, 61 mid-ocean ridge volume changes, 143-145, 155 ocean cooling, 147 Quaternary shorelines, 104-1 14 reefs, 105-1 10 seafloor spreading, 153-155, 185, 191 sedimentary geology, 88-89, 126-129, 190, 195, 196, 197-201 subduction, 152-153 subsidence, 24, 126-129, 135, 145 tectonism, general, 223 thermal expansion coefficient, 14, 208-209 uplift, 109 see also Statistical analysis Mollusca, 90, 107 Moon, 83 Mountains, 6, 9-10, 26, 48-49, 124-125, 175-178, 188, 194 fire, 10, 177-178 orogenesis, 146 Multiple regression analysis, 57-60, 96, 110, 111-112 N National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 28 National Center for Atmospheric Research, 168 National Institute of Standards and Technology, 224-225 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 28, 31, 226 National Ocean Service, 85 National Research Council, 5, 28 Neogene Period, 133 Neozoic Era, 155 Netherlands, 5 New Guinea, 18, 21, 100, 101, 107, 108-109, 110, 114, 151 North America, 24, 135, 169 glaciology, 8, 18, 21, 73-77, 79, 84, 85, 112-113, 181-182 epeirogeny, 149, 151,153, 155 Norwegian Sea, 14 Nova Scotia, 151 o Oceans, see Marine processes; specific oceans Oligocene Epoch, 133 Oxygen isotopes, 18, 19, 21-22, 91, 92-95, 96-101, 105, 1 10-1 1 1, 1 14 p Pacific Ocean, 15-16, 66-68, 144, 214-216 coastal zones, 39, 65-66, 69, 70 El Nino, 9, 25, 64, 223 reefs, 18, 19, 21, 10O, 101, 107, 109 San Francisco, 39, 65-66, 69, 70 volcanism, 145-146, 155 Paleocene Epoch, 22, 149 Paleozoic Era, 24, 165, 169 Panulirus, 209-214 Peats, 18, 89-9O, 92 Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level, 39, 53 Phanerozoic Eon, 142 Photography, 174 Plankton, 21, 94, 95, 101, 146, 190 Pleistocene Epoch, 106, 1 10, 141, 145 earth rotation and glaciation, 7, 48, 76, 81-83 glaciology, maximum continental ice movement, 7, 18, 73, 75, 79, 92, 96, 101, 190 stratigraphy, 89, 90, 124 Polar regions, 94, 96 ice sheets, 38, 48 see also Antarctic; Greenland Pollen, 19 Porosity, 11,12, 13,161-162,164, 165-170 Portugal, 65-66, 69, 70 Potassium-argon dating, 132 Precambrian Era, 24 Precipitation (meteorology), 10, 11, 77, 187 groundwater and, 162, 166-167, 170 snow, 10,173-178, 180

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INDEX Pressure effects and measurements, 14, 147, 226 atmospheric, 5, 6, 8, 18, 25, 38, 39, 53, 55, 57, 60, 188 baroclinity, 61, 66-67, groundwater, 169 ice sheets, 11, 178, 179 methane in sediments, 27 seafloor, 224-225 sea-level, 38, 53 sediment compaction, 46, 117-118 see also Isostasy Projections, 3-4 glaciology, 4, 89, 96-97, 100-101, 174, 175-181 greenhouse effect, 6, 27-29, 171-182, 193 very-low-frequency change, 8, 60, 221-226 see also Uncertainty and error Q 70. 224-225 Quaternary Period, 88-102 dislocated shorelines, 93, 104-114 see also specific epochs R Radar, 4, 31 Radiocarbon dating, 19, 90, 75, 76, 86, 90, 92, 111, 112 Radiometric dating, 30, 31 oxygen isotopes, 18, 19, 21-22, 91, 92-95, 96-101, 105, 110-111, 114 potassium-argon dating, 132 radiocarbon dating, 19, 90, 75, 76, 86, 90, 92, 111, 112 uranium-series dating, 90-91, 93 Rain, 187 Reefs, 18, 19, 21, 89, 90, 91-93,--93-100, 105-109, 110-114 Relative sea level (RSL), 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 16-18, 19, 22, 142 deglaciation and, 73-86 measurement, 31, 37-49 Residuals, statistics, 59-60 Responding to Changes in Sea Level: Engineering Implications, 5 Rivers and fluvial processes, 5, 13, 18, 153 deltas, 110, 125, 129 erosion, 142 runoff, 8, 18, 39, 162 sediments, 8, 135 see also Alluvium 233 Runoff glacial, 10, 172, 173-174, 175, 176, 177-178 river, 8, 18, 39, 162 subsurface, 162, 168-169 S Salinity, 5, 21, 39, 56-57, 60, 61, 124, 189 freshwater interface, 166, 169 see also Steric processes San Andreas Fault, 76, 124-125 Sand, 164, 165 San Francisco, 65-66, 69, 70 San Gabriel Mountains, 124 Satellites, 4, 30, 31, 32, 83, 174, 224, 226 Scandanavia, 49 Seafloor, 8, 15, 24, 26, 56, 141, 152-155, 185, 191, 224-225 see also Basins, topographic Seasonal variation, 5, 14, 18, 53, 54, 61 glaciers, 174, 177 multiple regression analysis, 57-60 steric, 209-210 surface temperature, 189-190 thermohaline, 56-57 Sediments and sedimentation alluvium, 124-125, 134 atmospheric-ocean-sediments, coupled models, 190, 195, 196, 197-205 basin subsidence, 134-135 carbon cycle, 195-196 coastal onlap, 122, 128, 129, 131, 134-136, 194 compaction,46, 117-118, 126-127, 134 continental, 163-164 continental flooding and, 148 Cretaceous, 153 deltas, 110, 125, 129 diagenesis, 122, 123, 169 groundwater pore space, 11, 12, 13, 161-162, 164-165, 166-170 hydrologic reservoirs, 164-165 marine, 6, 8, 12, 16, 22, 24, 117-118, 116-137, 141-142, 146-149, 190, 195, 196, 197, 199-201 methane, 27 oxygen isotopes, 18, 19, 21-22, 91, 92-95, 96-101, 105, 110-111, 114 Quaternary sea level change, 88-102 radiocarbon dating, 19, 90, 75, 76, 86, 90, 92, 111, 112 reservoirs of continental blocks, 163-164 river, 8, 110, 125, 129 subduction, 142 uranium-series dating, 90-91, 93 see also Stratigraphy Seismology models, 80, 151-152 San Andreas Fault, 76, 124-125 stratigraphic, 22, 24, 116-137, 170 subsidence, 117-118, 123, 126-129, 131, 134-136 Shorelines, 5, 92, 117 Quaternary, dislocated, 93, 104-114 see Coastal zones; Tides and tide gauges Smithsonian Institution, 104 Snow, 10, 173-178 180 Solar radiation, 186 albedo, 10, 26, 186-187, 190, 191 altitude and, 10, 175-176 seasonal variation, 18 see also Greenhouse effect Sonic measurements, fathometers, 30, 31, 134, 225, 226 Southern Oscillation, 25 Soviet Union, 13 Spatial dimension, 3, 6, 31, 104, 105 measurement station location, 38, 39, 40-45, 49, 61 steric processes, 214, 215 SPECMAP, 91 Statistical analysis, 49 average area approach, 42-45 empirical orthogonal function, 40-42, 43-44, 45, 53-54, 59-60, 61, 67, 210, 211 forcing functions, 53-57, 61 glaciology, 173 key station approach, 40-42, 214-216 multiple regression analysis, 57-60, 96, 110, 111-112 residuals, 59-60 thermal expansion coefficient, 14, 208-209 very-low-frequency change, 8, 60, 63-71, 221-226 see also Uncertainty and error Steric processes, =8, 14-15, 21, 22, 26, 28-29, 30-31, 46, 56-57, 61, 134, 208-216, 222-223, 225-226 Atlantic Ocean, 14, 30, 209-214, 216, 226 fathometers, 30, 31, 134, 225 Pacific Ocean, 214-216, 226 Storms, 5, 6, 126 Stratigraphy bio, 117, 122-123, 131, 132-133 glacio-eustasy, 100-101

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'l, 234 magneto, 89, 91, 107, 125, 126, 132, 133 Quaternary Period, 88-91, 92 seismology and, 22, 24, 116-137, 170 sequencing, 24, 136 subsidence, 117-118, 123, 126-129, 131, 134-136 Subduction, .7, 16, 76, 141, 142, 152-155 Subsidence, 24, 39, 46, 144, 145, 150, 151, 189 Quaternary shorelines, 112-113, relative sea level determination, 6, 8, 11, 17-18, 22, sediment compaction, 46, 117-118, 12~127, 134-136 seismic stratigraphy, 117-118, 123, 12~129, 131, 134-136 underground fluids, 11 Surfaces and interfaces albedo, 10, 26, 186-187, 191 atmospheric-surface coupling, 26, 69, 178, 185-188, 190, 191, 195, 196 glacier runoff velocity, 174, 175, 178 infiltration, 166, 168, 169, 177 seafloor, 8, 15, 24, 26, 56, 141, 152-155, 185, 191, 224-225 temperature, 26, 46, 96, 176, 186-187, 189-190, 191 topography, 8, 26, 56, 57 wetness, 26, 186-187, 191 T Tectonism, 6, 8, 22, 39, 71, 76, 105, 150, 223, 226 Quaternary dislocated shorelines, 104-114 seismic stratigraphy, 22, 24, 116, 129-132 subduction, 7, 16, 76, 141, 142, 152-155 see also Subsidence; Uplift Temperature effects and measurements, 4,5, 18,21,26,38,39,56-57,70, 124, 194 ice volume, relationship, 91-92, 93, 94-96, 99-100 ocean cooling, 147 seafloor spreading, 152, 185 subsidence, 150-151 surface, 26, 46, 95, 96, 176, 186-187, 189-190, 191 tide gauges, 221 INDEX uplift, 145-146 see also Greenhouse effect; Steric processes; Volcanoes Temporal dimension, 3, 6-7, 9, 53, 61, 78, 85, 117, 136, 194 aquifer residence time, 166 carbon dioxide, long-term effects, 193-205 day, average length, 47, 69 eustasy and epeirogeny, long term, 141-156 global sea level estimates, 38, 39, 40-45, 46, 47, 135 groundwater hydrology, 169 ice wastage and dynamic response, 176-177 polar wandering, 48 radiogenic heat loss, 142 reefs, 105-109 steric processes, 14, 31, 60, 209-211 subduction, 152 subsidence model, 126-127 tide gauges, 221 very-low-frequency change, 8, 60, 63-71, 221-226 see also Geochronology; Projections; Seasonal variation Tides and tide gauges, 3, 4, 5, 16-18, 20, 30, 39, 105 glaciers, 10, 75-77, 85, 177-178 gravity and, 223-224 land elevation, 8 North Atlantic, 52-62 sediment transport, 126 very-low-frequency change, 63-71, 221, 222, 223, 226 Tomography, 225-226 TOPEX/POSEIDON, 31 Triassic Period, 24 U Uncertainty and error, 4, 16, 18, 29, 30, 31,52,76, 105 carbon dioxide persistence, 201 coastal onlap, 135 epeirogeny, 149-150 glaciology, 172, 173 low-frequency change, 221-222 ocean-atmosphere chemistry, 190, 193 radiocarbon dating, 104 recent changes in sea level, 37-45, 47-48, 49 signal-noise ratio, 63-71 standard deviation, 55, 56, 59-60, 149, 214 steric measurements, 209, 215-216, 222-223 stratigraphy, 89-91, 132-133, 134 volumetrics, 144, 161-162, 173 UNESCO, 4, 5, 31 Uplift, 6, 8, 17-18, 22, 39, 46, 93-94, 112-113, 125, 131, 142, 145, 169 epeirogeny, 4, 6, 15-16, 22, 141-156 islands, 91 reefs, 19, 105-109, 110-114 volcanic, 145-146 Uranium-series dating, 90-91, 93 V Vanuatu, 109 Very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI), 4, 30, 32, 81, 226 Viscosity and viscoelasticity, 76-77, 78-82, 84, 152 Volcanoes, 16, 25, 185 sediment, 163-164 tephrochronology, 107 uplift, 145-146, 155 Volume, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 14-15, 144, 147, 151 continental, 92-93, 142, 145 flooding and, 151 groundwater, 13, 161-162, 166-170 ice, 19, 20, 21-22, 31, 145-146, 161-162, 172-182 ice-temperature, relationship, 91-92, 93, 94-96, 99-100 lakes, 13 mid-ocean ridges, 143-145, 149, 155 precipitation, 166 runoff, 162, 172, 176, 178 sediment, 146, 163-164 see also Eustasy; Steric processes W Wave processes, marine, 5, 8, 18, 39, 66-69, 70-71, 105 Weather, see Climate and weather Winds, 5, 6, 8, 11, 18, 39, 52-53, 55-56, 61, 66-67, 173, 186, 188 erosion, 142 multiple regression analysis, 57, 58, 60 World Climate Research Program, 4, 31 World Ocean Circulation Experiment, 226