TABLE II-4 Haddon Matrix for Violent Extremist Groups: Known or Suspected Risk Factors for the Occurrence and Dissemination of Political Violence

Personal Factors Vector or Agent Factors Physical Environmental Factors Social Environmental Factors Policy Factors

  •  Gene variations impacting in-group affiliation/out-group derogation, perceived injustice, moral certainty, aggression

  •  Acquired variations in in-group affiliation/out-group derogation, perceived injustice, moral certainty, aggression

  •  Pro-aggressive endophenotype

  •  Personal psychodynamics

  •  Depression

  •  Frustration of aspirations

  •  Attribution of that frustration to political out-group

  •  Atypical steroid or peptide hormone metabolism

  •  Fetal environment

  •  Environmental factors causing epigenetic variation

  •  Childhood biological influences

  •  History of actual major life losses

  •  History of actual victimization by outgroup

  •  Media dissemination/glorification of extremist ideology and actions

  •  Inadequate physical defenses

  •  Insufficient police/military presence

  •  Ability to travel

  •  Anonymity afforded by large cities

  •  Access to weapons, including WMDs

  •  Awareness of ready escape routes and hideouts

  •  Childhood (especially familial) psychodynamic influences

  •  Widespread social disaffection

  •  Social learning of violence

  •  Positive social image of extremist role models

  •  Communal support for extremist group

  •  Social network influences

  •  Exposure to charismatic ideologues

  •  Collective moral condemnation of out-group

  •  Fear of challenges to social or sexual order from out-group

  •  Perceived social injustice

  •  Political oppression

  •  Systematic prejudice in laws, housing, education, or employment against out-groups

  •  Educational systems biased against outgroups

  •  Government facilitation of corporate arms sales

  •  Mismatch between a government’s stated and actual values

  •  Poor control of media representations of terrorist ideology and behavior

  •  Out-group police, military, and judicial policies blind to justice or likely to be interpreted as unjust

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