Personal Factors Vector or Agent Factors Physical Environmental Factors Social Environmental Factors Policy Factors

  •  Out-group cultural insensitivity

  •  Out-group resistance to examining the justice of their own actions

  •  Occupation of or other violations of sovereignty (e.g., political meddling, targeted assassinations, presence of military “advisors,” drone attacks, etc.)

  •  Imposition of alien political systems such as “democracy”


  •  Neuroendocrine status at the time of attacks

  •  Autonomic nervous system status

  •  Emotional status

  •  Sufficient self control for risky or suicidal militant action

  •  Perceived vulnerability of targets

  •  Physical access to target

  •  Usually carefully planned encounter with out-group representatives; presence of peer witnesses; sluggish, poorly coordinated defensive responses

  •  Politically influenced gaps in defense

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