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CONTAGION OF VIOLENCE Workshop Summary Deepali M. Patel, Melissa A. Simon, and Rachel M. Taylor, Rapporteurs Forum on Global Violence Prevention Board on Global Health
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Govern- ing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineer- ing, and the Institute of Medicine. This study was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of Health and Human Services: Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Administration on Community Living, Office on Women’s Health; Anheuser-Busch InBev; the Avon Foundation for Women; BD (Becton, D ickinson and Company); Catholic Health Initiatives; the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; the Department of Education: Office of Safe and Healthy Students; the Department of Justice: National Institute of Justice; Eli Lilly and Company; the F. Felix Foundation; the Fetzer Institute; the Foundation to Promote Open Society; the Joyce Foundation; Kaiser Permanente; the National Institutes of Health: National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Office of Research on Women’s Health, John E. Fogarty Interna- tional Center; the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation; and the Substance Abuse and M ental Health Services Administration. The views presented in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided sup- port for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-26364-1 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-26364-6 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. For more information about the Institute of Medicine, visit the IOM home page at: www.iom.edu. Copyright 2013 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The serpent ad- opted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin. Suggested citation: IOM (Institute of Medicine) and NRC (National Research Council). 2013. Contagion of violence: Workshop summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Acad- emy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding en- gineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineer- ing programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is presi- dent of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Insti- tute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sci- ences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Coun- cil is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
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PLANNING COMMITTEE FOR WORKSHOP ON THE CONTAGION OF VIOLENCE1 L. ROWELL HUESMANN (Chair), Amos N. Tversky Collegiate Professor of Psychology and Communication Studies; Director, Research Center for Group Dynamics, Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan JACQUELYN C. CAMPBELL, Anna D. Wolf Chair and Professor, Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing BRIAN W. FLYNN, Adjunct Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences; Associate Director, Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress, Uniformed Services University School of Medicine GARY SLUTKIN, Executive Director, Cure Violence (formerly CeaseFire); Professor of Epidemiology and International Health, University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health EVELYN TOMASZEWSKI, Senior Policy Advisor, Human Rights and International Affairs, National Association of Social Workers CHARLOTTE WATTS, Professor in Social and Mathematical Epidemiology; Founding Director, Gender Violence and Health Centre, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine 1 Institute of Medicine planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the work- shop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. v
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FORUM ON GLOBAL VIOLENCE PREVENTION1 JACQUELYN C. CAMPBELL (Co-Chair), Anna D. Wolf Chair and Professor, Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing MARK L. ROSENBERG (Co-Chair), President and Chief Executive Officer, The Task Force for Global Health ALBERT J. ALLEN, Senior Medical Fellow, Bioethics and Pediatric Capabilities, Global Medical Affairs and Development Center of Excellence, Eli Lilly and Company CLARE ANDERSON, Deputy Commissioner, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Department of Health and Human Services FRANCES ASHE-GOINS, Deputy Director, Office on Women’s Health, Department of Health and Human Services KATRINA BAUM, Senior Research Officer, Office of Research Partnerships, National Institute of Justice, Department of Justice SUSAN BISSELL, Associate Director, Child Protection Section, United Nations Children’s Fund ARTURO CERVANTES TREJO, General Director of Health Promotion for Mexico, Federal Ministry of Health, Mexico XINQI DONG, Associate Director, Rush Institute for Healthy Aging; Associate Professor of Medicine, Behavioral Sciences, and Gerontological Nursing, Rush University Medical Center AMIE GIANINO, Senior Global Director, Beer & Better World, Anheuser-Busch InBev KATHY GREENLEE, Administrator, Administration on Community Living; Assistant Secretary for Aging, Administration on Aging, Department of Health and Human Services RODRIGO V. GUERRERO, Mayor, Cali, Colombia JOHN HAYES, Executive Director, National Network of Depression Centers DAVID HEMENWAY, Director, Injury Control Research Center and the Youth Violence Prevention Center, Harvard University School of Public Health FRANCES HENRY, Advisor, F. Felix Foundation LARKE NAHME HUANG, Senior Advisor, Office of the Administrator, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Department of Health and Human Services 1 Institute of Medicine Forums and Roundtables do not issue, review, or approve individual documents. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. vii
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viii L. ROWELL HUESMANN, Amos N. Tversky Collegiate Professor of Psychology and Communication Studies; Director, Research Center for Group Dynamics, Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan PAUL KESNER, Director, Safe and Supportive Schools Program, Office of Safe and Healthy Students, Department of Education CAROL M. KURZIG, President, Avon Foundation for Women JACQUELINE LLOYD, Health Scientist Administrator, Prevention Research Branch, Division of Epidemiology, Services and Prevention Research, National Institute on Drug Abuse BRIGID McCAW, Medical Director, NCal Family Violence Prevention Program, Kaiser Permanente JAMES A. MERCY, Special Advisor for Strategic Directions, Division of Violence Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention MARGARET M. MURRAY, Director, Global Alcohol Research Program, National Institute for Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health MICHAEL PHILLIPS, Director, Suicide Research and Prevention Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine COLLEEN SCANLON, Senior Vice President, Advocacy, Catholic Health Initiatives KRISTIN SCHUBERT, Interim Team Director, Public Health and Program Officer, Vulnerable Populations, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation EVELYN TOMASZEWSKI, Senior Policy Advisor, Human Rights and International Affairs, National Association of Social Workers ELIZABETH WARD, Chair, Violence Prevention Alliance, University of the West Indies, Mona Campus IOM Staff DEEPALI M. PATEL, Program Officer RACHEL M. TAYLOR, Research Associate MEGAN M. PEREZ, Senior Program Assistant KATHERINE M. BLAKESLEE, Global Program Advisor ALICIA DAVIS, Intern MELISSA A. SIMON, Institute of Medicine Anniversary Fellow JULIE WILTSHIRE, Financial Officer PATRICK W. KELLEY, Director, Board on Global Health
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Reviewers T his workshop summary has been reviewed in draft form by indi- viduals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent re- view is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institu- tion in making its published workshop summary as sound as possible and to ensure that the workshop summary meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their re- view of this workshop summary: DAVID ADDISS, Director, Children Without Worms, The Task Force for Global Health BRIAN W. FLYNN, Adjunct Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences; Associate Director, Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress, Uniformed Services University School of Medicine VALERIE MAHOLMES, Director, Child and Family Processes/Child Maltreatment & Violence Program, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health ZOE MENTEL, Policy Analyst, U.S. Department of Justice EVELYN TOMASZEWSKI, Senior Policy Advisor, Human Rights and International Affairs, National Association of Social Workers ix
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x REVIEWERS Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of the workshop summary before its release. The review of this workshop summary was overseen by Dyanne D. Affonso, Director, Research Infrastructure, Office of Vice President of Research, University of Hawaii System. Appointed by the Institute of Medicine, she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this workshop summary was carried out in a ccordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this work- shop summary rests entirely with the authors and the institution.
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Acknowledgments T he Forum on Global Violence Prevention was established to develop multisectoral collaboration among stakeholders. Violence prevention is a crossdisciplinary field that could benefit from increased dialogue among researchers, policy makers, funders, and practitioners. As awareness of the insidious and pervasive nature of violence grows, so too does the imperative to mitigate and prevent it. The Forum seeks to illuminate and explore evidence-based approaches to the prevention of violence. A number of individuals contributed to the development of this work- shop and summary. These include a number of staff members from the Institute of Medicine and the National Academies: Pamela Bertelson, D aniel Bethea, Leigh Carroll, Marton Cavani, Angela Christian, Alicia Davis, Laura Harbold DeStefano, Pablo Flores, Meg Ginivan, Sandra Jones, Wendy Keenan, Patrick Kelley, Eileen Milner, Jose Portillo, Patsy Powell, Samantha Robotham, Julie Wiltshire, and Sarah Ziegenhorn. The Forum staff, including Deepali Patel, Megan Perez, and Rachel Taylor, also put forth considerable effort to ensure this workshop’s success. The planning committee contributed several hours of service to develop and execute the agenda, with the guidance of Forum membership. Reviewers also provided thoughtful remarks in reading the draft manuscript. Finally, these efforts would not be possible without the work of the Forum member- ship itself, an esteemed body of individuals dedicated to the concept that violence is preventable. The overall successful functioning of the Forum and its activities de- pends on the generosity of its sponsors. Financial support for the Forum on xi
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xii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Global Violence Prevention is provided by the Department of Health and Human Services: Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Admin istration on Community Living, Office on Women’s Health; Anheuser- Busch InBev; the Avon Foundation for Women; BD (Becton, Dickinson and Company); Catholic Health Initiatives; the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; the Department of Education: Office of Safe and Healthy Students; the Department of Justice: National Institute of Justice; Eli Lilly and Company; the F. Felix Foundation; the Fetzer Foundation; the Founda- tion to Promote Open Society; the Joyce Foundation; Kaiser Permanente; the National Institutes of Health: National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Office of Research on Women’s Health, John E. Fogarty International Center; the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation; and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
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Contents 1 Introduction 1 PART I: WORKSHOP SUMMARY 2 Patterns of Transmission of Violence 7 3 Processes and Mechanisms of the Contagion of Violence 17 4 The Role of Contextual Factors in the Contagion of Violence 28 5 Contagion and Interruption in Practice 41 PART II: PAPERS AND COMMENTARY FROM SPEAKERS II.1 Violence: Contagion, Group Marginalization, and Resilience 53 or Protective Factors Carl C. Bell II.2 School-Based Violence and Interruption 59 Patrick Burton II.3 Contagion of Collective Violence: Contagion from Ethnopolitical Violence to Other Forms of Aggression and Violence 64 F. Dubow Eric II.4 The Contagion of Suicidal Behavior 68 Madelyn S. Gould and Alison M. Lake xiii
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xiv CONTENTS II.5 The Potential Role of Mirror Neurons in the Contagion of Violence 73 Marco Iacoboni II.6 Contagion of Violence 78 Eleanor Taylor-Nicholson and Barry Krisberg II.7 Native Aspirations: Addressing the Contagion of Violence in the Context of Historical Trauma 83 PrettyPaint and Corinne Taylor Iris II.8 Contagion of Violence Against Refugee Women in Migration and Displacement 88 Fariyal Ross-Sheriff II.9 Violence Is a Contagious Disease 94 Gary Slutkin II.10 Emotional and Evolutionary Aspects of Contagious Violence: Overlapping Factors in the Genesis of Diverse Types of Non-Sanctioned Human Aggression 112 Jeffery Victoroff APPENDIXES A Workshop Agenda 147 B Glossary 154 C Speaker Biographical Sketches 156