Page 273

Index

A

Abetalipoproteinemia, 99

Absorption of nutrients age and, 19, 104

ß-carotene, 83

carotenoids, 79, 80-81, 83, 86

consideration in formulating RDAs, 13

fiber intake and, 42

physiological requirements and, 11

see also specific nutrients

Acetyl coenzyme A, 45, 166

Achlorhydria, 5, 162

Adenosine triphosphate, 166, 184

Age groupings, for RDAs, changes in, 2

Alcohol (ethanol) caloric value of, 25, 39

underreporting intakes of, 36, 68

Alcoholics and alcoholism, 126, 189

American Academy of Pediatrics biotin recommendation for infants, 168

chloride recommendation for infants, 258

copper recommendation for infants, 227-228

fluoride recommendations for children, 239

linoleic acid allowance for infants, 48

thiamin allowance for infants, 128

Amino acids

age and requirements for, 56-58, 63, 64-68

conversion to glucose, 41

deficiency symptoms, 56

digestibility of, 69

essential, 53, 56-58, 64

excess intakes of, 53

metabolism, 142, 143, 150, 160, 166

and nitrogen balance, 56

nonessential, 262

patterns of dietary intake, 68-69

requirements for, 13, 56-58, 64-68

reutilization of, 52, 54

scoring of dietary protein quality, 58, 67-70

Amygdalin, 268

Anemia copper deficiency, 224, 226-227

definitions of, 196

hemolytic, 112

macrocytic, 152

megaloblastic, 155, 159

normocytic, 133

pernicious, 5, 160, 161, 162, 195, 196-197, 200

from vitamin A deficiency, 83

from vitamin B6 deficiency, 143

Application of RDAs, 8-9, 10, 20-21

Arachidonic acid, 47

Arginine, 53

Arsenic, 267

Ascorbic acid, see Vitamin C

Avidin, 166

B

Basal metabolic rate, 25, 26

Beriberi, 125

Biotin

adult requirements, 167-168

bioavailability of, 167, 168

deficiency, 166-167

dietary sources and usual intakes, 167

ESADDI, 7, 13, 167-168, 284

forms and functions of, 165-166

infant and child requirements, 168

intestinal synthesis of, 165-166, 167, 168

during pregnancy and lactation, 168



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Page 273 Index A Abetalipoproteinemia, 99 Absorption of nutrients age and, 19, 104 ß-carotene, 83 carotenoids, 79, 80-81, 83, 86 consideration in formulating RDAs, 13 fiber intake and, 42 physiological requirements and, 11 see also specific nutrients Acetyl coenzyme A, 45, 166 Achlorhydria, 5, 162 Adenosine triphosphate, 166, 184 Age groupings, for RDAs, changes in, 2 Alcohol (ethanol) caloric value of, 25, 39 underreporting intakes of, 36, 68 Alcoholics and alcoholism, 126, 189 American Academy of Pediatrics biotin recommendation for infants, 168 chloride recommendation for infants, 258 copper recommendation for infants, 227-228 fluoride recommendations for children, 239 linoleic acid allowance for infants, 48 thiamin allowance for infants, 128 Amino acids age and requirements for, 56-58, 63, 64-68 conversion to glucose, 41 deficiency symptoms, 56 digestibility of, 69 essential, 53, 56-58, 64 excess intakes of, 53 metabolism, 142, 143, 150, 160, 166 and nitrogen balance, 56 nonessential, 262 patterns of dietary intake, 68-69 requirements for, 13, 56-58, 64-68 reutilization of, 52, 54 scoring of dietary protein quality, 58, 67-70 Amygdalin, 268 Anemia copper deficiency, 224, 226-227 definitions of, 196 hemolytic, 112 macrocytic, 152 megaloblastic, 155, 159 normocytic, 133 pernicious, 5, 160, 161, 162, 195, 196-197, 200 from vitamin A deficiency, 83 from vitamin B6 deficiency, 143 Application of RDAs, 8-9, 10, 20-21 Arachidonic acid, 47 Arginine, 53 Arsenic, 267 Ascorbic acid, see Vitamin C Avidin, 166 B Basal metabolic rate, 25, 26 Beriberi, 125 Biotin adult requirements, 167-168 bioavailability of, 167, 168 deficiency, 166-167 dietary sources and usual intakes, 167 ESADDI, 7, 13, 167-168, 284 forms and functions of, 165-166 infant and child requirements, 168 intestinal synthesis of, 165-166, 167, 168 during pregnancy and lactation, 168

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Page 274 Body composition  age and, 30 and energy requirements, 29, 30 gender and, 30 Body weight and bone fracture risk, 178 and energy allowances, 33 extrapolation of RDAs and ESADDIs by, 86, 221, 232, 245 and folate allowances, 152-153, 154 and iron allowances, 199, 201-202 and magnesium allowances, 190, 191 and manganese ESADDIs, 232 and molybdenum  ESADDIs, 245 physical activity and, 27 and protein allowances, 66 and resting energy expenditure, 26 and selenium allowances, 220, 221 and vitamin A allowances, 83, 84, 86 and vitamin B12, allowances, 163 and vitamin E requirements, 103, 104 and vitamin K allowances, 111 weight-for-height ratios, reference, 2, 14-18, 33 and zinc allowances, 209 Bone demineralization 224 formation and retention, 174, 176-178 fractures, 178 peak bone mass, 2, 5, 18, 96, 176, 177, 179 Boron, 176, 267 Breast milk, see Human milk C Cadmium, 267 Caffeine, 263 Calcium absorption, 5, 93-96, 175-176, 179-180 adult and adolescent requirements, 179-180 biological role of, 174-175, 176-178, 179 carbohydrate intake and, 175 changes in RDAs, 5 dietary sources and usual intakes of, 176 excessive intakes and toxicity, 180-181 excretion, 175 infant and child requirements, 180 interaction with other dietary constituents, 176, 177, 181, 189 and phosphorus intake, 5, 72, 175, 177, 178-179, 186 during pregnancy and lactation,  180 and protein intake, 72, 175, 177, 178-179 recommended allowances, 179-180 sodium intake and, 175 vitamin A and, 5, 93-94, 95, 96, 175, 176, 177 Cancer calcium  intake and, 179 carotenoids, retinoids, and preformed vitamin A, and, 86-87 and chromium, 243 fat intake and, 49 vitamin C and, 120 Carbohydrates cariogenicity of, 41 and alcium balance, 175 complex, 39, 40; see also Dietary fiber and copper deficiency, 226 digestible, 40-42 energy conversion factor for, 25, 41 intakes and sources, 40 metabolism of, 125, 128, 166, 169 pathophysiological significance of, 41-42 recommended intakes of, 41 value in food composition tables, 40 Carnitine, 265-266 Carotenoids absorption and bioavailability of, 79, 80-81, 83, 86, 88 and cancer, 87 ß-carotene, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 85, 87 contribution to vitamin  A activity, 81, 84 deposition in human tissues, 79 dietary sources of, 81 efficiency of conversion to vitamin A, 13, 88 nutritional relationship with pre-formed vitamin A, retinoids, and, 80-81 precursors of retinol, 78 toxicity, lack of, 88 Ceruloplasmin, 224 Chloride biological role of, 257-258 changes in ESADDI, 13 deficiency, 258 dietary sources and usual intakes of, 258 estimate of requirements, 253, 258 excessive intakes and toxicity, 258-259 Chlorophyll, 268 Cholesterol (blood) biological role of, 45 biotin deficiency and, 166 determinants of, 49 fat intake and, 49

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Page 275 fiber intake and, 42 structure, 44 Cholesterol (dietary) efficiency of absorption of, 45 recommended intakes of, 50 Choline, 263-264 Chromium absorption and excretion, 241 bioavailability of, 242 biological role, 241, 242 and cancer, 243 deficiency, 241 ESADDI, 13, 241-242, 284 excessive intakes and toxicity, 242-243 intakes (usual), 241 Chylomicrons, 79, 94, 100, 108 Cigarette smoking, and vitamin C, 4, 119 Climate adjustment of RDAs for, 19, 31 and energy requirements, 31-32 and nutrient losses, 213 Clinical considerations in RDAs, 20, 49, 71-72, 86-87, 96-97, 111-112, 120-121, 140, 155, 161, 178, 180 Cobalt, 267-268 Coenzymes, 268 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals energy intake data from, 36 see alsoNationwide Food Consumption Surveys Copper adult requirements, 226-227 bioavailability, 226 deficiency, 224, 226 dietary sources and usual intakes, 225 ESADDI, 7, 13, 226-228, 284 evidence for human requirement, 224-225 excessive intakes and toxicity, 228 indicators of status, 224 infant and child requirements, 227-228 interaction with other nutrients, 176, 210-211, 224, 225, 226, 245 losses, 7, 226, 228 Coronary heart disease, 49 Cystine, 53, 56, 57, 66, 67, 68, 71 D Definition of RDAs, 1, 10 Dehydroascorbate, 115, 117 Dental caries, 41-42 Dietary data amino acid scoring patterns relative to, 58 underestimation of food intakes, 36 underreporting of alcohol intakes, 36, 68 Dietary fiber, 39, 42, 69, 175-176, 198, 206, 207, 208 Dietary recommendations establishment of, 12-13 for meeting RDAs, 9, 13-14 see also specific nutrients Diseases, see specific diseases Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 45, 47, 48-49 E Eicosanoids, 45, 47, 48 Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), 45, 47, 48-49 5,8,1l-Eicosatrienoic acid, 47 Elderly people activity levels of, 30, 33 amino acid requirements of, 57-58 anemia in, 201 energy expenditures of, 30 energy requirements of, 33-34 intestinal absorption of minerals, 19 iron status of, 201 estimation of nutrient requirements for, 19 folate needs of, 153 malabsorption of vitamin B12, 162 referenceprotein requirement for 59-60 thiamin requirements of, 127 vitamin A status, 84 vitamin B12 deficiency in, 159 vitamin C status, 118-119 vitamin D status of, 93, 95 vitamin E requirements, 103 vitamin K requirements, 111 water needs of, 249-250 zinc status in, 208 Endemic cretinism, 215 Endemic goiter, 213-214 Energy major dietary sources of, 39, 40, 45 values, 24-25, 39 Energy allowances age and, 33-34 activity factor in, 28-29, 32-33, 36 adjustments in, 32 for adults, 32-34 body height and, 33 body weight and, 31, 33, 36 changes in, 2, 37 comparison with reported energy in-takes, 36 estimation of, 2, 12, 21, 24, 28-29, 32-37

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Page 276 energy requirement calculation for, 28, 31 gender differences in, 36 for infants, children, and adolescents, 33, 35-36 for lactation, 33, 34-35 during pregnancy, 33, 34 resting energy expenditure and, 32-33 Energy conversion factors, 25 Energy expenditures age and, 30 body size and, 31 climate and, 31-32 day-to-day variation in, 30 growth, costs of, 31 hobbling effect of clothing, 32 measurements of, 35 occupational, 26, 31, 32 in physical activity, 26-29, 32 and protein requirements, 54-55, 61 and riboflavin requirements, 134 thermic effect of meals, 25, 30 total, 25, 26 see also Resting energy expenditure Energy intakes and body weight and body composition, 24 comparison of RDAs with, 36 niacin allowances and, 140 and nitrogen balance, 59-60 and protein synthesis and breakdown, 54-55, 61 surplus, 12, 45 WHO data on, 35 Energy requirements and activity level, 3, 19, 28-29 age and, 30, 35 body composition and, 29, 30 body size and, 31 climate and, 31-32 definition of, 24 deuterium oxide methodology for extimating, 35 distribution of, 12 estimation of, 25-32, 35 gender and, 30-31, 36 for growth, 31, 32 individual variability in, 24 for pregnancy and lactation, 34, 140 and metabolic response to food, 29-30 physical activity and, 3, 19, 26-29 resting energy expenditures and, 25-26, 28 ESADDI, see Estimated safe and adequate daily dietary intakes Estimated safe and adequate daily dietary intakes (ESADDI) caution, 7 changes in, 7-8, 13 summary table, 284 see also specific nutrients Estrogen therapy, 177-178 F Fat digestion of, 45 energy conversion factor for, 25 intestinal absorption of vitamins with, 45, 80, 83, 86, 108 malabsorption of, 80, 99, 108, 112 and plasma cholesterol, 49 recommended intakes of, 41, 49-50 stored during pregnancy, 35 see also Triglycerides Fatty acids carbohydrate intake and, 41 conversion of some dietary fiber to, 39 efficiency of absorption of, 45 as an energy source, 45 essential, 45, 46-49 metabolism of, 45, 100, 102, 137, 166, 169 structure, 44-45 tissue differences in composition of, 102 see also Saturated fatty acids; Monounsaturated fatty acids; Polyunsaturated fatty acids Fiber, see Dietary fiber Flavonoids, 263 Fluoride bioavailability, 237-238 and bone disease, 236 and dental caries, 42, 236 dietary sources and usual intakes, 235, 237-238 effects of food processing on, 237 ESADDI, 13, 238-239, 284 excessive intakes and toxicity, 238 status as essential nutrient, 235 Folate absorption of, 150-151, 153, 154, 155 activity, measures of, 150 adult and adolescent requirements, 152-153 bioavailability, 150-151, 153, 154 changes in RDAs, 4, 156 deficiency, 151-155 dietary sources and usual intakes, 150 estimation of allowances, 152 excessive intakes and toxicity, 155 excretion of, 151 forms and functions of, 115, 150, 160 deficiency, 150, 151-152

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Page 277 indicators of nutritional status, 151-152 infant and child requirements, 154-155 intestinal synthesis of, 151 during pregnancy and lactation, 153-154 recommended allowances, 152-155 stability, 150, 155 Food fortification with folate, 154 with niacin, 139 recommendations on, 13, 14 with vitamin A, 81 with vitamin C, 116 with vitamin D, 93, 94, 96, 177 Fructose, 40, 226 G Gluconeogenesis, 166, 169 Glucose, 41, 45, 125, 262 Goitrogens, 214, 215 Growth energy costs of, 31 folate and, 150, 154 iron needs during, 202 and protein requirements, 55, 56, 62-63 riboflavin and, 135 velocity, 35-36 vitamin A and, 86 vitamin E and, 104 zinc and, 210 Growth factors, 268 H Health and welfare programs, use of RDAs in, 21-22 Height-to-weight ratios, reference, 2, 14-18 Hemochromatosis, 203 Hesperidin, 263 High-fructose corn syrup, 40 Histidine, 53, 56-57, 67, 115 Human balance studies, see Metabolic balance studies; Nitrogen balance studies Human milk average production, 35, 62, 72, 85, 103, 119, 210 bioavailability of nutrients in, 18, 119, 184, 227 colostrum, 104, 155 efficiency of maternal energy conversion to milk energy, 34-35 efficiency of vitamin A transfer to, 85 electrolyte levels in, 254, 256 energy content of, 34 and infant growth rates, 63 lipid content of, 48 mineral content of, 180, 184, 186, 191 protein content of, 62, 63, 64, 145 reference protein pattern for human milk substitutes, 64 trace element content of, 209, 215, 221, 225, 227, 232, 233, 237 vitamin content of, 85-86, 93-96, 103, 104, 109, 119-120, 128, 135, 140, 145, 154, 155, 163, 168, 171 water content of, 250 Hypertension, 7, 179, 254, 255, 256, 259 I Infants amino acid requirements of, 53, 56-57, 63, 64, 72 average milk consumption, 18 biotin deficiency in, 166-167 copper deficiency in, 225 estimation of allowances for, 18, 35-36 hypocalcemic tetany in, 186 hyponatremia in, 254 hypoprothrombinemia in, 111 linoleic acid deficiency in, 47-48 nutrient requirements, see specific nutrients phosphorus deficiency in, 185 premature and low birth weight, 53, 72, 96, 99, 104, 120, 153, 154, 185, 201-202, 225, 254 protein requirements of, 62-64, 72 PUFA intakes, 104 reference, 94-95, 135 scurvy in, 115, 120 thiamin deficiency in, 125, 128 vitamin B6 deficiency in, 143, 145-146 vitamin B12 deficiency in, 163 vitamin supplements for, 64, 93, 94, 96, 104, 111, 128 International units derivation for vitamin A, 80 derivation for vitamin D, 94 derivation for vitamin E, 100 Iodine absorption, transport, and excretion, 213 biological role, 213 deficiency, 213, 214, 216 dietary sources and usual intakes, 214 environmental distribution of, 213, 214 excessive intakes and toxicity, 215-216 indicators of status, 213, 214, 215 recommended allowances, 215 value of iodized salt, 214, 216 Iron absorption of, 13, 115, 120, 181, 195, Continued to page 278

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Page 278 Continued from page 277 197, 198-199, 200 adult requirements. 199-201 child and adolescent requirements, 202 deficiency, 14, 195-197, 199, 200, 201 dietary sources, 197-198 diets lacking animal protein, 202 excessive intakes and toxicity, 195, 202-203 functional and storage forms, 195, 198 indicators of status of, 120, 196, 197, 199, 200 infant requirements, 201-202 interaction with other nutrients, 13, 86, 115, 120, 181, 197, 198, 207, 208, 224 intestinal regulation of, 195 physiological requirements for, 12 during pregnancy and lactation, 201 recommended allowances, 5-6, 199-202 vitamin C and, 13, 115, 120, 197, 198 Isoleucine, 53, 56-57, 67 L Lactose, 39, 175 Laetrile, 268 Lead, 267 Lean body mass age and, 30 and protein requirements, 55, 60 and resting energy expenditure, 25, 30 and vitamin A requirements, 86 Lecithins, 44 Leucine, 53, 56-57, 67 Lignin, 39 Linoleic acid, 45, 46-49, 102 a-Linolenic acid, 47 Lipids energy sources, 45 digestion of, 45 metabolism of, 145, 166 sources and intakes, 46 structure of, 44-45 transport abnormalities, 99 variations in tissues, 102 see also Fat; Fatty acids; andother specific lipids Lipoproteins high-density, 101, 211 low-density, 49, 101 very-low-density, 100-101 Lithium, 267 Lycopene, 87 Lysine, 53, 57, 66-71, 115 M Magnesium absorption of, 188 adult requirements, 190-191 biological role of, 187-188, 189 changes in RDAs, 5 deficiency, 189 dietary sources and usual intakes, 189-190 excessive intakes and toxicity, 192 infant and child requirements, 191-192 metabolic balance studies of, 190, 191 during pregnancy and lactation, 191 recommended allowances, 190- 192 role in biotin metabolism, 166 Manganese adult requirements, 231-232 biological role of, 230 deficiency, 230 dietary sources and usual intakes, 231 ESADDI, 7-8, 13, 231-233, 284 excessive intakes and toxicity, 233 indicators of status, 231 infant and child requirements, 232 during pregnancy and lactation, 232-233 Menadione, 107, 112 Menaquinones, 107-111 Metabolic balance studies physiological requirements determined through, 11 of trace element requirements, 8, 190, 191, 207, 208, 210, 219, 220, 226, 231-232 Metabolic rate basal, 25, 26 eating and, 29-30 environmental temperature and, 32 and protein requirements, 59 Metabolism, inborn errors of, 56, 126, 166, 203, 244; see also specific nutrients Methionine, 53, 56, 57, 66, 67, 68, 71, 160, 244 Minerals deficiencies in infants, 96 fiber intake and absorption of, 42, 175-176 see also specific minerals Molybdenum bioavailability of, 245 biochemical role, 243 deficiency, 243, 244, 245 dietary sources and usual intakes, 244-245 ESADDI, 7-8, 13, 245, 284 excessive intakes and toxicity, 245 Monounsaturated fatty acids, 44-45 Myo-inositol, 266

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Page 279 N National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (11) energy intakes, 36 impaired iron status, 197, 203 iron intakes, 197 protein intakes, 68-68 vitamin A intakes, 81 weight-for-height data, 15 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey calcium intakes, 176 energy intakes, 36 iron intakes, 198 protein intakes, 146 vitamin D intakes, 95 water intakes, 249 Niacin adult requirements, 139 bioavailability of, 138, 139 biological functions of, 137 deficiency, 137 dietary sources and usual intakes, 138-139 and energy intake, 140 excessive intakes and toxicity, 140 indicators of nutritional status, 137, 138 infant and child requirements, 140 metabolism, 137 during pregnancy and lactation, 140 recommended allowances, 139-140 riboflavin and function of, 132, 133 toxicity of, 14 tryptophan conversion to, 132, 137, 138, 140 Nickel, 267 Nitrogen balance studies of amino acid requirements, 56 methodologic problems in, 55 of protein requirements, 3, 54-55, 58, 60-61 Nutrients intakes, 20-21 essentiality, 263-268 losses during food processing and preparation, 13 pharmacologic and toxic effects of, 14, 72-73, 87-88, 96-97, 112, 120, 121, 129, 140, 146, 155, 160, 166, 167, 192, 238 surpluses of, 14, 20 O Obesity, 2, 12, 31, 49 Oleic acid, 45, 47, 262 Orotic acid, 269 Osteoporosis, 5, 72, 178, 179, 180, 238 P Palmitic acid, 45, 262 Pangamic acid, 269 Pantothenic acid adult requirements, 171 deficiency, 170 dietary sources and usual intakes, 170 ESADDI, 13, 171-172, 284 excessive intakes and toxicity, 172 infant, child, and adolescent requirements, 171-172 intestinal synthesis of, 170, 171 physiological roles, 169 during pregnancy and lactation, 171 Pellagra, 137, 140 Pharmacologic actions, see Nutrients Phenylalanine, 53, 56-57, 67 Phosphorus absorption of, 184 biological role of, 184 and calcium balance, 5, 72, 175, 177, 178-179, 184, 185, 186 deficiency, 185 dietary sources and usual intakes, 184-185 excessive intakes and toxicity, 186 recommended allowances, 185-186 zinc interaction with, 207 Phylloquinone, 107-112 Physical activity age and patterns of, 30, 33, 36 climate and, 19, 32 energy costs of, 27-28, 32 and energy requirements, 3, 19, 26-29 health promotion through, 27 and protein requirements, 59, 60, 70-71 and riboflavin requirements, 134 strenuous, 19, 71, 134 and sweat losses, 19, 71, 253 Physiological requirements for nutrients criteria for determining, 11 estimation of, 11-12 individual variability in, 11 of populations, 12 Polyunsaturated fatty acids, 44-45, 47, 48, 100, 102, 103, 104 Potassium biological role, 255 changes in ESADDI, 13 deficiency, 255 dietary sources and usual intakes, 255-256 estimation of requirements, 7, 253, 256-257 excessive intakes and toxicity, 257 interaction with magnesium, 189 Pregnancy and lactation amino acid patterns for, 66

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Page 280 calculation of nutrient needs during, 2-3, 15, 18 efficiency of maternal energy conversion to milk energy, 34-35 folate deficiency during, 153-154 tryptophan to niacin interconversion during, 138, 140 vitamin A toxicity during, 87-88 see also Human milk; and specific nutrients Premenstrual syndrome, 146 Proline, 115 Protein age and requirements for, 58-60, 64-68 amino acid composition, 54, 64, 67-68 biochemical indices of, 55 and calcium balance, 72, 175, 177, 178-179 criteria of adequacy, 55-56 deficiency, 53, 224 dietary sources of, 67 digestibility, 54, 59, 64, 69-70 energy balance and, 54-55, 61 energy conversion factor for, 25 estimation of requirements, 53-55 excessive intakes and toxicity, 72-73 growth rate and, 55, 56 interaction with other dietary components, 4, 41, 72, 86, 143, 144, 146, 175, 177, 178-179, 206, 207-208 lean body mass and, 55, 60 metabolic changes and, 59 net protein utilization, 69 nitrogen balance and, 3, 54, 55, 58, 59-62, 63 and obligatory nitrogen loss, 54 physical activity and, 59, 60 physiological requirements for, 12 during pregnancy and lactation, 54, 60-62, 66, 145 quality of, 54, 59, 67, 68, 69-71 recommended intakes, 41, 58 sources and intakes, 21, 68-70, 73 turnover rates, 52, 53-54, 55, 59, 60, 62 and vitamin B6 requirement, 4, 143, 144, 146 Protein allowances adjustment for dietary quality, 69-71 amino acid pattern and, 58, 64-70 basis for, 3, 13 changes in, 3, 72 dietary intake and, 68-70 factorial method for predicting requirements, 54, 60, 61-62, 63-65 physical activity and, 70-71 reference protein requirement in, 58-66, 69-70 standard deviation of requirement, 58 steps for establishing, 58 see also Amino acids and specific amino acids PUFA, see Polyunsaturated fatty acids Pyridoxal phosphate, 142-144 Pyridoxamine phosphate, 142, 143 Pyridoxine, 132, 142 Pyrroloquinoline quinone, 268 Pyruvate carboxylase, 230 Q Quercetin, 263 R Reference individuals, 2, 14-18, 20, 37, 94-95, 135 Resting energy expenditures body size and, 31 body weight and, 26 defined, 25 equations for, 26, 30, 32 estimation of, 25-26 gender and, 31 and lean body mass, 25, 30, 31 measurement of, 25 Retinoids absorption of, 79 and cancer, 86 nutritional relationship between pre-formed vitamin A, carotenoids, and, 80-81 vitamin A activity, 78 Retinol esterification of, 79 metabolism of, 79 requirements, 84 supplements, 83, 87-88 toxicity, 87-88 Retinol equivalents, defined, 81 Riboflavin absorption and excretion, 132, 134, 135 adult requirements for, 133 biological role of, 132 deficiency, 132-133, 135 dietary sources and usual intakes, 133 energy expenditure and, 134 and nitrogen balance, 134 during pregnancy and lactation, 134-135 recommended allowances, 133-135 Rickets, 92, 93, 96, 185 Rutin, 263 S Safety margin in RDAs and ESADDIs, 2, 11, 20, 71, 85, 96, 103, 118, 120,

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Page 281 Continued from page 280 128, 129, 135, 200, 209, 215, 220, 233, 242 Saturated fatty acids, 44-45, 49, 50 School feeding programs, 21 Scurvy, 115, 117, 118 Selenium adult requirements, 219-220 bioavailability of, 218-219 biological role of, 100, 217 deficiency, 217-218 dietary sources and usual intakes, 218-219 excessive intakes and toxicity, 221-222 indicators of' status, 219 interrelationship with vitamin E, 217, infant and child requirements, 221 during pregnancy and lactation, 220-221 recommended allowances, 6, 13, 219-221 Silicon, 176, 267 Skinfold thickness, Tanner standards, 36 Sodium adult requirements, 252-253 biological role of, 250-251 changes in ESADDI, 13 deficiency, 251 dietary sources and usual intakes, 251-252 estimates of requirements, 7, 252-254 excessive intakes and toxicity, 254-255 homeostatic control of, 250-251 infant and child requirements, 254 interaction with other dietary components, 41, 175, 253 obligatory losses, 252 during pregnancy and lactation, 253-254 Sorbitol, 41, 269 Spermine and spermidine, 268 Starches, 39, 40 Stearic acid, 45, 262 Stress, and nitrogen loss, 71 Sucrose, 40, 41 Sugars, 39, 40, 41, 262 Supplements and supplementation bioavailability of, 80 calcium, 181 ß-carotene, 82 excessive intakes through, 81 fiber concentrates, 42 folic acid, 153, 154, 155 for infants, 64, 93, 94, 96, 104, 111, 128, 155, 207, 210 iron, 7, 14, 201, 202 pantothenic acid, 171 prevalence of use of, 81, 117 recommendations on, 13 retinol, 83 salt, 251 therapeutic, 14, 82-83 thiamin, 128 toxicity of, 97, 202, 211 tryptophan, 138 vitamin A, 80, 81, 82, 85 vitamin B6, 146 vitamin B12, 163 vitamin C, 117, 120 vitamin D, 93, 96, 97 vitamin E, 104, 105 vitamin K, 110 zinc, 207, 208, 210, 211 T Taurine, 264 Thiamin absorption and excretion of, 125, 127, 128 adult requirements, 126-128 biological role of, 125, 128 and carbohydrate metabolism, 125, 128 child and adolescent requirements, 129 deficiency, 125-126, 127 dietary sources and usual intakes, 126 excessive intakes and toxicity, 129 indicators of status, 127 infant requirements, 128 during pregnancy and lactation, 128 recommended allowances, 126-129 Thiaminase, 126 Threonine, 53, 57, 66, 67, 68, 71 Tin, 267 Total Diet Study, 190, 214, 225, 231, 237, 245, 251 Toxicity of nutrients, 14, 72-73, 87-88, 96-97, 112, 121, 129, 146, 202-203, 210-211,215-216, 211-212, 233, 238, 245, 257, 258-259 Trace elements essential in animals, 267-268 metabolic balance studies of, 11, 190, 191, 207, 208, 210, 219, 220, 226, 231-232 changes in ESADDI, 13 factorial methods for, 232 fiber intake and absorption of, 198, 206, 207, 209 with no biological function, 262 summary table, 284 see also specific trace elements Triglycerides, 41, 44, 45, 101 Tryptophan, 115, 132 conversion to niacin, 137-140

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Page 282 excretion of, 53 hormonal status and metabolism of, 144 load test for vitamin B6 status, 143, 146 and protein quality, 68, 70, 71 requirements, 57, 64, 66, 67 supplements, 138 Tyrosine, 53, 56-57, 67, 115 U Ultraviolet light, and vitamin D synthesis, 92, 93 V Valine, 53, 56-57, 67 Vanadium, 267 Vegetarians, 95, 120, 160-161, 162, 163 Vitamin A absorption of, 45, 79, 86 activity, 78, 80-81 adult requirements, 81-85 age and, 84 biological role of, 78 and body weight, 83, 84 and cancer, 86-87 and color intensity of fruits and vegetables, 81 day-to-day variability in intakes, 21 deficiencies of other nutrients affecting utilization of, 86 deficiency signs, 80, 82, 83, 86 depletion rate of body stores, 84 depletion-repletion studies, 82-83 dietary sources and usual intakes, 81, 82 excessive intakes and toxicity, 14, 87-88, 146 fetal utilization of, 85 infant and child requirements, 85-86 metabolism of, 20, 78-79 nutritional relationship between retinoids, carotenoids, and, 80-81 precursors of, 13, 78 during pregnancy and lactation, 85 recommended allowances, 81-87 storage, 79 supplementation, 82, 85 therapeutic uses at high doses, 14 see also Carotenoids; Retinoids; Retinol Vitamin B6 absorption of, 143 adult requirements, 144-145 bioavailability of, 144 changes in RDAs, 4 deficiency, 143, 144 dietary sources and usual intakes, 143-144 drugs affecting metabolism of, 144 excessive intakes and toxicity, 14, 146 forms and biological functions, 142 indicators of nutritional status, 143, 145 infant and child requirements, 145-146 during pregnancy and lactation, 145 and protein intake, 4, 143, 144, 146 recommended allowances, 144-146 Vitamin B12 absorption of, 159, 160, 162 adult requirements, 162 basis for establishing allowances, 161 changes in RDAs, 4-5, 163-164 deficiency, 159-160, 161-162 dietary sources and usual intakes of, 159 forms and functions of, 158-159, 160 infant and child requirements, 163 intestinal synthesis of, 159 metabolism, 160-161 pool size and turnover, 20, 161, 162 during pregnancy and lactation, 162-163 recommended allowances, 162-163 Vitamin C absorption, transport, storage, and excretion, 116, 117-118 adult requirements, 117-119 biological role of, 100, 115 and cancer, 120 cigarette smoking and metabolic turn-over of, 4, 119 and colds and respiratory illnesses, 120 deficiency, 115, 117 dietary sources and usual intakes, 116 indicators of nutritional status, 117 infant and child requirements, 119 interaction with other nutrients, 13, 115, 120, 197, 198,226 and iron absorption, 13, 115, 120, 197, 198 losses during food preparation, 117, 118 and nitrosamine formation, 120 pharmacological intakes and toxicity, 120 during pregnancy and lactation, 119 recommended allowances, 4, 117-120 supplementation, 117, 120 Vitamin D absorption of, 45 adult requirements, 95-96 biochemistry and metabolism of, 93-94 biological role of, 92 and calcium balance, 5, 93-94, 95, 96, 175-177

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Page 283 deficiency signs, 92-93 dietary sources and usual intakes, 94-95 essentiality of, 93 indicators of status, 94 infant and child requirements, 96 malabsorption of, 93 during pregnancy and lactation, 93, 94, 96 recommended allowances, 95-96 stability in foods, 94 supplements, 93, 96, 97 synthesis of, 92 toxicity of, 14, 96-97 Vitamin E absorption of, 45, 100, 104 adult requirements, 102-103 deficiency, 99, 100 dietary sources and usual intakes, 101-102 excessive intakes of, 104-105 function and metabolism of, 100-101 infant and child requirements, 99, 103-104 interrelationship with other nutrients, 86, 217, 218 losses during cooking and processing, 101 occurrence and biological activity, 99-100 polyunsaturated fatty acids and, 48, 100, 102, 103 during pregnancy and lactation, 103 recommended allowances, 102-105 supplements, 104, 105 Vitamin K adult requirements, 109-111 biological indicators of status, 110 biological role of, 107, 108 compounds, 107 deficiency, 107, 109, 111, 112 dietary source and usual intakes, 109 excessive intakes and toxicity, 112 infant and child requirements, 111 metabolism of, 108 during pregnancy and lactation, 111 recommended allowances, 3-4, 13, 109-112 supplementation, 110 synthesis by intestinal bacteria, 108, 110 Vitamin P factors, 263 Vitamin Q, 263 W Water estimate of requirements, 249-250 excessive intakes and toxicity, 249, 250 intake and loss routes and magnitudes, 247-249 sources, 249 thirst sensation, 249 Weight, see Body weight X Xerophthalmia, 80 Z Zinc adult requirements, 208-209 bioavailability of, 206, 207-208 biological role of, 205-206 body pool and turnover rates, 206 deficiency, 206-207, 210 dietary sources and usual intakes, 207-208 excessive intakes and toxicity, 210-211 homeostatic regulation of, 206, 208 infant and child requirements, 210 interaction with other dietary components, 86, 176, 181, 206, 207-208, 210-211,225, 226 indicators of status, 208 during pregnancy and lactation, 206, 209-210 recommended allowances, 6, 208-210