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Appendix A Recommendations of the National Prevention Council and Evidence Cited in Its Report Recommendation Supporting Evidence-Based Interventions HEALTHY AND SAFE COMMUNITY ENVIRONMENTS Improve quality of air, • HP: Reduce exposure to selected environmental chemicals in the land, and water. population, as measured by blood and urine concentrations of the substances or their metabolites. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=12 • HP: Improve quality, utility, awareness, and use of existing information systems for environmental health. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=12 • HP: Increase the number of states, territories, tribes, and the District of Columbia that monitor diseases or conditions that can be caused by exposure to environmental hazards. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=12 Design and promote • HP: Reduce indoor allergen levels. affordable, accessible, http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ safe, and healthy objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=12 housing. • HP: Increase the number of homes with an operating radon mi­i­ ation system for persons living in homes at risk for radon tg exposure. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=12 • HP: Increase the percentage of new single family homes (SFHs) constructed with radon-reducing features, especially in high- radon-potential areas. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=12 continued 347

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348 U.S. HEALTH IN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE Recommendation Supporting Evidence-Based Interventions HEALTHY AND SAFE COMMUNITY ENVIRONMENTS  Continued • HP: Increase the percentage of new single family homes (SFHs) constructed with radon-reducing features, especially in high- radon-potential areas. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=12 • HP: Reduce the number of U.S. homes that are found to have lead-based paint or related hazards. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=12 • HP: Reduce the proportion of occupied housing units that have moderate or severe physical problems. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=12 Strengthen state, • HP: Increase the proportion of tribal and state public health tribal, local, and agencies that provide or assure comprehensive laboratory territorial public health s ­ ervices to support essential public health services. departments to provide http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ essential services. objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=35 • HP: Increase the proportion of tribal, state, and local public health agencies that provide or assure comprehensive epidemiol- ogy services to support essential public health services. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=35 • IOM: The committee finds that the core functions of public health agencies at all levels of government are assessment, policy development, and assurance. http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10548&page=411 Integrate health • HP: Reduce the number of new schools sited within 500 feet of criteria into decision an interstate or federal or state highway. making, where http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ appropriate, across objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=12 multiple sectors. Enhance cross-sector • IOM: Private and public purchasers, health care organiza- collaboration in tions, clinicians, and patients should work together to redesign community planning health care. and design to promote http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10027&page=8 health and safety. Expand and increase • HP: Increase the number of states that record vital events using access to information the latest U.S. standard certificates and report. technology and http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ integrated data systems objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=35 to promote cross- • HP: Increase the proportion of quality, health-related websites. sector information http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ exchange. objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=18 • HP: Increase the proportion of online health information s ­ eekers who report easily accessing health information. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=18

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APPENDIX A 349 Recommendation Supporting Evidence-Based Interventions • HP: Increase the proportion of medical practices that use e ­ lectronic health records. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=18 Identify and implement • IOM: Making evidence the foundation of decision making and strategies that are the measure of success. proven to work and http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10548&page=4 conduct research where evidence is lacking. Maintain a skilled, • IOM: Greater emphasis in public health curricula should be cross-trained, and placed on managerial and leadership skills, such as the ability diverse prevention to communicate important agency values to employees and en- workforce. list their commitment; to sense and deal with important changes in the environment; to plan, mobilize, and use resources ef- fectively; and to relate the operation of the agency to its larger community role. http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10548&page=418 • IOM: Schools of public health should strengthen their response to the needs for qualified personnel for important, but often neglected aspects of public health such as the health of minority groups and international health. http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10548&page=418 • IOM: Schools of public health should encourage and assist other institutions to prepare appropriate, qualified public health personnel for positions in the field. When educational institu- tions other than schools of public health undertake to train personnel for work in the field, careful attention to the scope and capacity of the educational program is essential. http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10548&page=418 CLINICAL AND COMMUNITY PREVENTIVE SERVICES Support the National • CG: Increasing Tobacco Use Cessation: Provider Reminders Quality Strategy’s When Used Alone. focus on improving http://www.thecommunityguide.org/tobacco/cessation/provider cardiovascular health. reminders.html • CG: Increasing Tobacco Use Cessation: Provider Reminders with Provider Education. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/tobacco/cessation/provider reminderedu.html • CG: Increasing Tobacco Use Cessation: Reducing Client Out-of- Pocket Costs for Cessation Therapies. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/tobacco/cessation/outof pocketcosts.html • USPSTF: Recommends that clinicians ask all adults about t ­obacco use and provide tobacco cessation interventions for those who use tobacco products. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspstbac2.htm continued

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350 U.S. HEALTH IN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE Recommendation Supporting Evidence-Based Interventions CLINICAL AND COMMUNITY PREVENTIVE SERVICES  Continued • USPSTF: Recommends that clinicians ask all pregnant women about tobacco use and provide augmented, pregnancy-tailored counseling for those who smoke. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspstbac2.htm • USPSTF: Recommends the use of aspirin for men aged 45 to 79 when the potential benefit due to a reduction in myocardial infarctions outweighs the potential harm due to an increase in gastrointestinal hemorrhage. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspsasmi.htm • USPSTF: Recommends the use of aspirin for women aged 55 to 79 when the potential benefit of a reduction in ischemic strokes outweighs the potential harm of an increase in gastrointestinal hemorrhage. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspsasmi.htm • USPSTF: Recommends screening for high blood pressure in adults age 18 and older. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspshype.htm • USPSTF: Strongly recommends screening men age 35 and older for lipid disorders. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspschol.htm • USPSTF: Recommends screening men aged 20 to 35 for lipid disorders if they are at increased risk for coronary heart disease. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspschol.htm • USPSTF: Strongly recommends screening women age 45 and older for lipid disorders if they are at increased risk for coronary heart disease. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspschol.htm • USPSTF: Recommends screening women aged 20 to 45 for lipid disorders if they are at increased risk for coronary heart disease. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspschol.htm • USPSTF: Recommends that clinicians ask all adults about tobacco use and provide tobacco cessation interventions for those who use tobacco products. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspstbac2.htm • USPSTF: Recommends that clinicians ask all pregnant women about tobacco use and provide augmented, pregnancy-tailored counseling for those who smoke. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspstbac2.htm • HP: Increase the proportion of adults who have had their blood pressure measured within the preceding 2 years and can state whether their blood pressure was normal or high. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=21 • HP: Increase the proportion of adults who have had their blood cholesterol checked within the preceding 5 years. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=21

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APPENDIX A 351 Recommendation Supporting Evidence-Based Interventions • P: Increase the proportion of adults with hypertension who are H taking the prescribed medications to lower their blood pressure. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=21 • HP: Increase the proportion of adults with hypertension whose blood pressure is under control. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=21 • HP: Increase smoking cessation attempts by adult smokers. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=41 • HP: Increase recent smoking cessation success by adult smokers. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=41 • HP: Increase tobacco cessation counseling in health care settings. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=41 Use payment and • IOM: That purchasers, regulators, health professions, educa- reimbursement tional institutions, and the Department of Health and Hu- mechanisms to man Services create an environment that fosters and rewards encourage delivery improvement by (1) creating an infrastructure to support of clinical preventive evidence-based practice, (2) facilitating the use of information services. technology, (3) aligning payment incentives, and (4) preparing the workforce to better serve patients in a world of expanding knowledge and rapid change. http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10027&page=5 Expand use of • HP: Increase the proportion of persons who use electronic interoperable personal health management tools. health information http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ technology. objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=18 • HP: Increase the proportion of quality, health-related websites. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=18 • HP: Increase the proportion of medical practices that use e ­ lectronic health records. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=18 Support • USPSTF: Integrating Evidence-Based Clinical and Community implementation of Strategies to Improve Health. community-based http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf07/methods/ preventive services and tfmethods.htm enhance linkages with • IOM: Clinicians and patients, and the health care organiza- clinical care. tions that support care delivery, adopt a new set of principles to guide the redesign of care processes. http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10027&page=5 continued

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352 U.S. HEALTH IN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE Recommendation Supporting Evidence-Based Interventions CLINICAL AND COMMUNITY PREVENTIVE SERVICES  Continued Reduce barriers to • P: Increase the proportion of persons with a usual primary H accessing clinical and care provider. community preventive http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ services, especially objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=1 among populations at • HP: Increase the proportion of persons who have a specific greatest risk. source of ongoing care. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=1 • HP: Reduce the proportion of individuals who are unable to obtain or delay in obtaining necessary medical care, dental care, or prescription medicines. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=1 Enhance coordination • HP: Increase the proportion of persons who use electronic and integration of personal health management tools. clinical, behavioral, http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ and complementary objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=18 health strategies. • HP: Increase the proportion of quality, health-related websites. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=18 • HP: Increase the proportion of medical practices that use elec- tronic health records. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=18 • IOM: All health care organizations, professional groups, and private and public purchasers should pursue six major aims; specifically, health care should be safe, effective, patient- centered, timely, efficient, and equitable. http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10027&page=6 • IOM: Private and public purchasers, health care organizations, clinicians, and patients should work together to redesign health care processes. http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10027&page=8 EMPOWERED PEOPLE Provide people with • HP: Increase the proportion of elementary, middle, and senior tools and information high schools that provide school health education to promote to make healthy personal health and wellness in the following areas: hand wash- choices. ing or hand hygiene, oral health, growth and development, sun safety and skin cancer prevention, benefits of rest and sleep, ways to prevent vision and hearing loss, and the importance of health screenings and checkups. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=11

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APPENDIX A 353 Recommendation Supporting Evidence-Based Interventions • HP: Increase the proportion of college and university students who receive information from their institution on each of the pri- ority health risk behavior areas (all priority areas; unintentional injury; violence; suicide; tobacco use and addiction; alcohol and other drug use; unintended pregnancy, HIV/AIDS, and STD infec- tion; unhealthy dietary patterns; and inadequate physical activity). http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=11 Provide people with • IOM: Industry should make obesity prevention in children and tools and information youth a priority by developing and promoting products, oppor- to make healthy tunities, and information that will encourage healthful eating choices. behaviors and regular physical activity. http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11015&page=8 • IOM: Nutrition labeling should be clear and useful so that par- ents and youth can make informed product comparisons and deci- sions to achieve and maintain energy balance at a healthy weight. http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11015&page=8 Promote positive • HP: Increase the proportion of the nation’s elementary, middle, social interactions and high schools that have official school policies and engage and support healthy in practices that promote a healthy and safe physical school decision making. environment. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=12 • IOM: Schools should provide a consistent environment that is conducive to healthful eating behaviors and regular physical activity. http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11015&page=13 • IOM: Parents should promote healthful eating behaviors and regular physical activity for their children. http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11015&page=15 • IOM: Local governments, private developers, and community groups should expand opportunities for physical activity includ- ing recreational facilities, parks, playgrounds, sidewalks, bike paths, routes for walking or bicycling to school, and safe streets and neighborhoods, especially for populations at high risk of childhood obesity. http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11015&page=11 Engage and • HP: Increase the proportion of elementary, middle, and senior empower people high schools that have health education goals or objectives that and communities to address the knowledge and skills articulated in the National plan and implement Health Education Standards (high school, middle, elementary). prevention policies and http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ programs. objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=11 continued

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354 U.S. HEALTH IN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE Recommendation Supporting Evidence-Based Interventions EMPOWERED PEOPLE  Continued • HP: Increase the proportion of the nation’s public and private schools that require daily physical education for all students. http://healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=33 • IOM: Local governments, public health agencies, schools, and community organizations should collaboratively develop and promote programs that encourage healthful eating behaviors and regular physical activity, particularly for populations at high risk of childhood obesity. Community coalitions should be formed to facilitate and promote cross-cutting programs and community-wide efforts. http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11015&page=10 Engage and empower • IOM: Industry should develop and strictly adhere to marketing people and communities and advertising guidelines that minimize the risk of obesity in to plan and implement children and youth. prevention policies and http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11015&page=9 programs. Improve education • HP: Eliminate very low food security among children. and employment http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ opportunities. objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=29 • HP: Reduce household food insecurity, and in doing so, reduce hunger. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=29 • IOM: Health professions educational institutions (HPEIs) gov- erning bodies should develop institutional objectives consistent with community benefit principles that support the goal of increasing health care workforce diversity including, but not limited to, efforts to ease financial and nonfinancial obstacles to URM participation, increase involvement of diverse local stakeholders in key decision-making processes, and undertake initiatives that are responsive to local, regional, and societal imperatives. http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10885&page=17 ELIMINATION OF HEALTH DISPARITIES Ensure a strategic • HP: Increase the number of community-based organizations focus on communities (including local health departments, tribal health services, at greatest risk. nongovernmental organizations, and state agencies) providing population-based primary prevention services in the following areas: injury, violence, mental illness, tobacco use, substance abuse, unintended pregnancy, chronic disease programs, nutri- tion, and physical activity. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=11

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APPENDIX A 355 Recommendation Supporting Evidence-Based Interventions • IOM: Private and public (e.g., federal, state, and local gov- ernments) entities should convene major community benefit stakeholders (e.g., community advocates, academic institutions, health care providers), to inform them about community benefit standards and to build awareness that placing a priority on diversity and cultural competency programs is a societal expec- tation of all institutions that receive any form of public funding. http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10885&page=17 Reduce disparities in • USPSTF: To continue the improvement in the health of the access to quality health people in the United States, we need to use the complete array care. of effective prevention tools at our disposal, increase their effec- tiveness and utilization by connecting them where possible, and systematically apply them at all levels of influence on behavior. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf07/methods/ tfmethods.htm • HP: Increase individuals’ access to the Internet. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=18 • IOM: All health care organizations, professional groups, and private and public purchasers should pursue six major aims; specifically, health care should be safe, effective, patient-­ centered, timely, efficient, and equitable. http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10027&page=6 • IOM: HPEIs should be encouraged to affiliate with community- based health care facilities in order to attract and train a more diverse and culturally competent workforce and to increase access to health care. http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10885&page=15 Increase the capacity • IOM: Health professions education accreditation bodies should of the prevention develop explicit policies articulating the value and importance workforce to identify of providing culturally competent health care and the role it and address disparities. sees for racial and ethnic diversity among health professionals in achieving this goal. http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10885&page=12 • IOM: Health professions education accreditation bodies should develop standards and criteria that more effectively encourage health professions schools to recruit URM students and faculty, to develop cultural competence curricula, and to develop an institutional climate that encourages and sustains the develop- ment of a critical mass of diversity. http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10885&page=12 • IOM: Private entities should be encouraged to collaborate through business partnerships and other entrepreneurial rela- tionships with HPEIs to support the common goal of develop- ing a more diverse health care workforce. http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10885&page=12 continued

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356 U.S. HEALTH IN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE Recommendation Supporting Evidence-Based Interventions ELIMINATION OF HEALTH DISPARITIES  Continued Support research • IOM: Additional data collection and research are needed to more to identify effective thoroughly characterize URM participation in the health profes- strategies to eliminate sions and in health professions education and to further assess health disparities. the benefits of diversity among health professionals, particularly with regard to the potential economic benefits of diversity. http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10885&page=18 Standardize and collect • IOM: Collect data on granular ethnicity using categories that data to better identify are applicable to the populations it serves or studies. Catego- and address disparities. ries should be selected from a national standard on the basis of health and health care quality issues, evidence or likelihood of disparities, or size of subgroups within the population. The selection of categories should also be informed by analysis of relevant data (e.g., Census data) on the service or study population. In addition, an open-ended option of “Other, please specify:—” should be provided for persons whose granular ethnicity is not listed as a response option. http://www.ahrq.gov/research/iomracereport/reldatasum.htm . • IOM: Pursue studies on different ways of framing the questions and related response categories for collecting race and ethnicity data at the level of the OMB categories, focusing on complete- ness and accuracy of response among all groups. http://www.ahrq.gov/research/iomracereport/reldatasum.htm TOBACCO-FREE LIVING Support comprehensive • CG: Reducing Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke: tobacco-free policies Smoking Bans and Restrictions. and other evidence- http:// www.thecommunityguide.org/tobacco/environmental/ based tobacco control smokingbans.html policies. • CG: Decreasing Tobacco Use Among Workers: Smoke-Free Policies to Reduce Tobacco Use. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/tobacco/worksite/smoke freepolicies.html • HP: Reduce the proportion of nonsmokers exposed to second- hand smoke. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=41 • HP: Increase the proportion of persons covered by indoor work-site policies that prohibit smoking. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=41 • HP: Increase tobacco-free environments in schools, including all school facilities, property, vehicles, and school events. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=41

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APPENDIX A 357 Recommendation Supporting Evidence-Based Interventions Support full • CG: Restricting Minors’ Access to Tobacco Products: Commu- implementation of the nity Mobilization with Additional Interventions. 2009 Family Smoking http://www.thecommunityguide.org/tobacco/restrictingaccess/ Prevention and communityinterventions.html Tobacco Control Act • HP: Reduce tobacco use by adolescents. (Tobacco Control Act). http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=41 • HP: Reduce the initiation of tobacco use among children, ado- lescents, and young adults. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=41 • HP: Reduce the proportion of adolescents and young adults in grades 6-12 who are exposed to tobacco advertising and promotion. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=41 • HP: Reduce the illegal sales rate to minors through enforcement of laws prohibiting the sale of tobacco products to minors. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=41 Expand use of tobacco • CG: Decreasing Tobacco Use Among Workers: Incentives & cessation services. Competitions When Combined with Additional Interventions. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/tobacco/worksite/incentives. html • CG: Increasing Tobacco Use Cessation: Provider Reminders When Used Alone. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/tobacco/cessation/provider reminders.html • CG: Increasing Tobacco Use Cessation: Provider Reminders with Provider Education. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/tobacco/cessation/provider reminderedu.html • CG: Increasing Tobacco Use Cessation: Reducing Client Out-of- Pocket Costs for Cessation Therapies. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/tobacco/cessation/outof pocketcosts.html • CG: Increasing Tobacco Use Cessation: Multicomponent Inter- ventions That Include Telephone Support. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/tobacco/cessation/multi componentinterventions.html • USPSTF: Clinicians ask all adults about tobacco use and pro- vide tobacco cessation interventions for those who use tobacco products. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspstbac2. htm • HP: Increase smoking cessation attempts by adult smokers. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=41 continued

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364 U.S. HEALTH IN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE Recommendation Supporting Evidence-Based Interventions HEALTHY EATING Continued • HP: Reduce severe allergic reactions to food among adults with a food allergy diagnosis. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=14 • HP: Increase the proportion of consumers who follow key food safety practices. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=14 • IOM: Integrating Food Safety Programs and Educating the Public. http://www.iom.edu/Reports/2010/Enhancing-Food-Safety-The- Role-of-the-Food-and-Drug-Administration.aspx • IOM: Enhancing the Efficiency of Inspections. http://www.iom.edu/Reports/2010/Enhancing-Food-Safety-The- Role-of-the-Food-and-Drug-Administration.aspx ACTIVE LIVING Encourage • CG: Environmental and Policy Approaches to Increase Physical community design Activity: Community-Scale Urban Design Land Use Policies. and development that http://www.thecommunityguide.org/pa/environmental-policy/ supports physical communitypolicies.html activity. • CG: Environmental and Policy Approaches to Increase Physical Activity: Street-Scale Urban Design Land Use Policies. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/pa/environmental-policy/ streetscale.html • CG: (Expanding Evidence) Environmental and Policy Ap- proaches to Increase Physical Activity: Transportation and Travel Policies and Practices. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/pa/environmental-policy/ travelpolicies.html • CG: (Expanding Evidence) The available studies do not provide sufficient evidence to determine if the intervention is, or is not, effective. This lack of evidence does NOT mean that the inter- vention does not work, but that additional research is needed to determine whether the intervention is effective. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/about/methods.html • HP: (Developmental) Increase legislative policies for the built environment that enhance access to and availability of physical activity opportunities. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=33

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APPENDIX A 365 Recommendation Supporting Evidence-Based Interventions Promote and • CG: Behavioral and Social Approaches to Increase Physical strengthen school Activity: Enhanced School-Based Physical Education. and early learning http://www.thecommunityguide.org/pa/behavioral-social/school policies and programs based-pe.html that increase physical • HP: Increase the proportion of the nation’s public and private activity. schools that require daily physical education for all students. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=33 • HP: Increase the proportion of adolescents who participate in daily school physical education. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=33 • HP: Increase regularly scheduled elementary school recess in the United States. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=33 • HP: Increase the proportion of school districts that require or recommend elementary school recess for an appropriate period of time. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=33 • HP: Increase the number of states with licensing regulations for physical activity provided in child care. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=33 Facilitate access to • CG: Environmental and Policy Approaches to Increase Physical safe, accessible, and Activity: Creation of or Enhanced Access to Places for Physical affordable places for Activity Combined with Informational Outreach Activities. physical activity. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/pa/environmental-policy/ improvingaccess.html • HP: Reduce the proportion of adults who engage in no leisure- time physical activity. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=33 • HP: Increase the proportion of the nation’s public and private schools that provide access to their physical activity spaces and facilities for all persons outside of normal school hours (that is, before and after the school day, on weekends, and during sum- mer and other vacations). http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=33 • IOM: Those responsible for modifications or additions to the built environment should facilitate access to, enhance the attrac- tiveness of, and ensure the safety and security of places where people can be physically active. http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11203&page=14 continued

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366 U.S. HEALTH IN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE Recommendation Supporting Evidence-Based Interventions ACTIVE LIVING Continued Support workplace • CG: Environmental and Policy Approaches to Increase Physical policies and programs Activity: Point-of-Decision Prompts to Encourage Use of Stairs. that increase physical http://www.thecommunityguide.org/pa/environmental-policy/ activity. podp.html • CG: Behavioral and Social Approaches to Increase Physical Activity: Social Support Interventions in Community Settings. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/pa/behavioral-social/ community.html Assess physical activity • CG: Behavioral and Social Approaches to Increase Physical Ac- levels and provide tivity: Individually-Adapted Health Behavior Change Programs. education, counseling, http://www.thecommunityguide.org/pa/behavioral-social/ and referrals. individuallyadapted.html • HP: Increase the proportion of physician office visits that include counseling or education related to physical activity. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=33 • Cochrane: Interventions for promoting physical activity. http://www2.cochrane.org/reviews/en/ab003180.html INJURY AND VIOLENCE-FREE LIVING Implement and • CG: Use of Child Safety Seats: Community-Wide Information strengthen policies and and Enhanced Enforcement Campaigns. programs to enhance http://www.thecommunityguide.org/mvoi/childsafetyseats/ transportation safety. community.html • CG: Use of Child Safety Seats: Distribution and Education Programs. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/mvoi/childsafetyseats/ distribution.html • CG: Use of Child Safety Seats: Incentive and Education Programs. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/mvoi/childsafetyseats/ incentives.html • CG: Use of Safety Belts: Primary (vs. Secondary) Enforcement Laws. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/mvoi/safetybelts/enforce mentlaws.html • CG: Use of Safety Belts: Enhanced Enforcement Programs. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/mvoi/safetybelts/enforce mentprograms.html • CG: Reducing Alcohol-Impaired Driving: Maintaining Current Minimum Legal Drinking Age (MLDA) Laws. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/mvoi/AID/lowerbaclaws.html • CG: Reducing Alcohol-Impaired Driving: Sobriety Checkpoints. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/mvoi/AID/sobrietyckpts.html • CG: Reducing Alcohol-Impaired Driving: Mass Media ­Campaigns. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/mvoi/AID/massmedia.html

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APPENDIX A 367 Recommendation Supporting Evidence-Based Interventions • CG: Reducing Alcohol-Impaired Driving: Multicomponent Interventions with Community Mobilization. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/mvoi/AID/multicomponent. html • CG: Reducing Alcohol-Impaired Driving: Ignition Interlocks. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/mvoi/AID/ignitioninter locks.html • CG: Reducing Alcohol-Impaired Driving: School-Based Instruc- tional Programs. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/mvoi/AID/school-based.html • HP: Increase use of safety belts. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=24 • HP: Increase age-appropriate vehicle restraint system use in children. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=24 • HP: Increase the proportion of motorcycle operators and p ­ assengers using helmets. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=24 Support community • CG: Environmental and Policy Approaches to Increase Physical and streetscape design Activity: Street-Scale Urban Design Land Use Policies. that promotes safety http://www.thecommunityguide.org/pa/environmental-policy/ and prevents injuries. streetscale.html • CG: Environmental and Policy Approaches to Increase Physical Activity: Community-Scale Urban Design Land Use Policies. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/pa/environmental-policy/ communitypolicies.html • Cochrane: Interventions for increasing pedestrian and cyclist visibility for the prevention of death and injuries. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/ CD003438/frame.html Promote and • HP: Prevent an increase in the rate of fall-related deaths. strengthen policies and http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ programs to prevent objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=24 falls, especially among • HP: Reduce the rate of emergency department visits due to falls older adults. among older adults. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=31 • Cochrane: Population-based interventions for the prevention of fall-related injuries in older people. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/ CD004441/frame.html continued

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368 U.S. HEALTH IN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE Recommendation Supporting Evidence-Based Interventions INJURY AND VIOLENCE-FREE LIVING  Continued Promote and enhance • IOM: Develop and Implement Risk-Based Conformity Assess- policies and programs ment Processes for Non-Respirator PPT. to increase safety and http://www.iom.edu/Reports/2010/Certifying-Personal- prevent injury in the Protective-Technologies-Improving-Worker-Safety.aspx workplace. • IOM: Enhance Research, Standards Development, and Com- munication. http://www.iom.edu/Reports/2010/Certifying-Personal- Protective-Technologies-Improving-Worker-Safety.aspx • IOM: Establish a PPT and Occupational Safety and Health Surveillance System. http://www.iom.edu/Reports/2010/Certifying-Personal- Protective-Technologies-Improving-Worker-Safety.aspx Strengthen policies and • CG: Early Childhood Home Visitation to Prevent Child Mal- programs to prevent treatment. violence. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/violence/home/home visitation.html • CG: Youth Violence Prevention: School-Based Programs to Reduce Violence. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/violence/schoolbased programs.html • CG: Therapeutic Foster Care to Reduce Violence for Chroni- cally Delinquent Juveniles. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/violence/therapeutic fostercare/index.html Provide individuals • HP: Increase the proportion of adolescents who are connected and families with the to a parent or other positive adult caregiver. knowledge, skills, and http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ tools to make safe objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=2 choices that prevent • HP: Reduce bullying among adolescents. violence and injuries. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=24 • HP: Reduce children’s exposure to violence. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=24 • Cochrane: School-based secondary prevention programs for preventing violence. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/ CD004606/frame.html • Cochrane: Safety education of pedestrians for injury prevention. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/ CD001531/frame.html

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APPENDIX A 369 Recommendation Supporting Evidence-Based Interventions REPRODUCTIVE AND SEXUAL HEALTH Increase utilization • USPSTF: Recommends that all women planning or capable of of preconception and pregnancy take a daily supplement containing 0.4 to 0.8 mg prenatal care. (400 to 800 mg) of folic acid. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf09/folicacid/ folicacidrs.htm • USPSTF: Recommends that clinicians screen all pregnant women for syphilis infection. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspssyphpg. htm • HP: Increase the proportion of pregnant women who receive early and adequate prenatal care. http://healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/objectives list.aspx?topicid=26 • HP: Increase abstinence from alcohol, cigarettes, and illicit drugs among pregnant women. http://healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/objectives list.aspx?topicid=26 • HP: Increase the proportion of women of childbearing potential with intake of at least 400 mg of folic acid from fortified foods or dietary supplements. http://healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/objectives list.aspx?topicid=26 • HP: Reduce the proportion of women of childbearing potential who have low red blood cell folate concentrations. http://healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/objectives list.aspx?topicid=26 • HP: Increase the proportion of women delivering a live birth who received preconception care services and practiced key recommended preconception health behaviors. http://healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/objectives list.aspx?topicid=26 • CG: Prevention of Birth Defects: Community-Wide Campaigns to Promote the Use of Folic Acid Supplements. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/birthdefects/community.html • CG: Interventions to fortify food products with folic acid. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/birthdefects/index.html • Cochrane: Smoking cessation interventions in pregnancy reduce the proportion of women who continue to smoke in late preg- nancy, and reduce low birthweight and preterm birth. Smoking cessation interventions in pregnancy need to be implemented in all maternity care settings. Given the difficulty many pregnant women addicted to tobacco have quitting during pregnancy, population-based measures to reduce smoking and social i ­nequalities should be supported. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/ CD001055/frame.html continued

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370 U.S. HEALTH IN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE Recommendation Supporting Evidence-Based Interventions REPRODUCTIVE AND SEXUAL HEALTH Continued Support reproductive • CG: Prevention of HIV/AIDS, Other STIs and Pregnancy: Inter- and sexual health ventions to Reduce Sexual Risk Behaviors or Increase Protective services and support Behaviors to Prevent Acquisition of HIV in Men Who Have Sex services for pregnant with Men (MSM). and parenting women. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/hiv/msm.html • USPSTF: Recommends high-intensity behavioral counseling to prevent STIs for all sexually active adolescents and for adults at increased risk for STIs. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspsstds.htm • HP: Increase the proportion of sexually active persons who received reproductive health services. http://healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/objectives list.aspx?topicid=13 • HP: Increase the proportion of sexually active persons aged 15 to 19 who use condoms to both effectively prevent pregnancy and provide barrier protection against disease. http://healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/objectives list.aspx?topicid=13 • HP: Increase the proportion of sexually active persons aged 15 to 19 who use condoms and hormonal or intrauterine con- traception to both effectively prevent pregnancy and provide barrier protection against disease. http://healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/objectives list.aspx?topicid=13 • HP: Increase the proportion of females in need of publicly sup- ported contraceptive services and supplies who receive those services and supplies. http://healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/objectives list.aspx?topicid=13 • HP: Increase the proportion of sexually active persons who use condoms. http://healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/objectives list.aspx?topicid=22

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APPENDIX A 371 Recommendation Supporting Evidence-Based Interventions Provide effective • CG: Prevention of HIV/AIDS, Other STIs and Pregnancy: sexual health Group-Based Comprehensive Risk Reduction Interventions for education, especially Adolescents. for adolescents. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/hiv/riskreduction.html • CG: Youth Development Behavioral Interventions Coordinated with Community Service to Reduce Sexual Risk Behaviors in Adolescents. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/hiv/youthdev-community. html • HP: Increase the proportion of adolescents who received formal instruction on reproductive health topics before they were 18 years old. http://healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/objectives list.aspx?topicid=13 • HP: Increase the proportion of adolescents who talked to a parent or guardian about reproductive health topics before they were 18 years old. http://healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/objectives list.aspx?topicid=13 • HP: Increase the proportion of substance abuse treatment facili- ties that offer HIV/AIDS education, counseling, and support. http://healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/objectives list.aspx?topicid=22 Enhance early • CG: Interventions to Identify HIV-Positive People Through detection of HIV, viral Partner Counseling and Referral Services. hepatitis and other http://www.thecommunityguide.org/hiv/partnercounseling.html STIs, and improve • USPSTF: Recommends screening for hepatitis B virus (HBV) linkage to care. infection in pregnant women at their first prenatal visit. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspshepbpg. htm • USPSTF: Strongly recommends that clinicians screen persons at increased risk for syphilis infection. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspssyph. htm • HP: Increase the proportion of sexually active females age 24 and under enrolled in Medicaid plans who are screened for genital Chlamydia infections during the measurement year. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=37 • HP: Increase the proportion of sexually active females age 24 and under enrolled in commercial health insurance plans who are screened for genital Chlamydia infections during the mea- surement year. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=37 continued

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372 U.S. HEALTH IN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE Recommendation Supporting Evidence-Based Interventions REPRODUCTIVE AND SEXUAL HEALTH Continued • HP: Increase the proportion of people living with HIV who know their serostatus. http://healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/objectives list.aspx?topicid=22 • HP: Increase the proportion of adolescents and adults who have been tested for HIV in the past 12 months. http://healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/objectives list.aspx?topicid=22 • HP: Increase the proportion of adults with tuberculosis (TB) who have been tested for HIV. http://healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/objectives list.aspx?topicid=22 • IOM: Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C. http://www.iom.edu/Reports/2010/Hepatitis-and-Liver-Cancer- A-National-Strategy-for-Prevention-and-Control-of-Hepatitis-B- and-C.aspx MENTAL AND EMOTIONAL WELL-BEING Promote positive • CG: Early Childhood Development Programs: Comprehensive, early childhood Center-Based Programs for Children of Low-Income Families. development, including http://www.thecommunityguide.org/social/centerbasedprograms. positive parenting and html violence-free homes. • CG: Violence Prevention Focused on Children and Youth: Early Childhood Home Visitation. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/violence/home/index.html • CG: Violence Prevention Focused on Children and Youth: Reducing Psychological Harm from Traumatic Events. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/violence/traumaticevents/ index.html • CG: Violence Prevention Focused on Children and Youth: Therapeutic Foster Care. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/violence/therapeuticfoster care/index.html • HP: Increase the proportion of parents who use positive parent- ing and communicate with their doctors or other health care professionals about positive parenting. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=10 • HP: Increase the proportion of children with disabilities, birth through age 2, who receive early intervention services in home or community-based settings. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=9

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APPENDIX A 373 Recommendation Supporting Evidence-Based Interventions Facilitate social • CG: School-Based Programs to Reduce Violence. connectedness http://www.thecommunityguide.org/violence/schoolbased and community programs.html engagement across the • HP: Increase the proportion of children and youth with dis- life span. abilities who spend at least 80 percent of their time in regular education programs. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=9 • HP: Increase the number of community-based organizations (including local health departments, tribal health services, nongovernmental organizations, and state agencies) providing population-based primary prevention services in the following areas: injury, violence, mental illness, tobacco use, substance abuse, unintended pregnancy, chronic disease programs, nutri- tion, and physical activity. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=11 Provide individuals • CG: Adolescent Health: Person-to-Person Interventions to Im- and families with the prove Caregivers’ Parenting Skills. support necessary http://www.thecommunityguide.org/adolescenthealth/Person to maintain positive ToPerson.html mental well-being. • HP: Increase the proportion of students in grades 9-12 who get sufficient sleep. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=38 • HP: Increase the proportion of adults who get sufficient sleep. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=38 • HP: Increase the proportion of elementary, middle, and senior high schools that have health education goals or objectives that address the knowledge and skills articulated in the National Health Education Standards (high school, middle, elementary). http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=11 • HP: Increase the proportion of college and university students who receive information from their institution on each of the priority health risk behavior areas (all priority areas; unin- tentional injury; violence; suicide; tobacco use and addiction; alcohol and other drug use; unintended pregnancy, HIV/AIDS, and STD infection; unhealthy dietary patterns; and inadequate physical activity). http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=11 continued

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374 U.S. HEALTH IN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE Recommendation Supporting Evidence-Based Interventions MENTAL AND EMOTIONAL WELL-BEING Continued • IOM: States and communities should develop networked systems to apply resources to the promotion of mental health and pre- vention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders among their young people. These systems should involve individuals, families, schools, justice systems, health care systems, and rel- evant community-based programs. Such approaches should build on available evidence-based programs and involve local evalua- tors to assess the implementation process of individual programs or policies and to measure community-wide outcomes. http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=12480&page=6 Promote early • CG: Collaborative Care for the Management of Depressive identification of Disorders. mental health needs http://www.thecommunityguide.org/mentalhealth/collab-care. and access to quality html services. • CG: Interventions to Reduce Depression Among Older Adults: Clinic-Based Depression Care Management. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/mentalhealth/depression- clinic.html • CG: Interventions to Reduce Depression Among Older Adults: Home-Based Depression Care Management. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/mentalhealth/depression- home.html • USPSTF: Recommends screening of adolescents (ages 12-18) for MDD when systems are in place to ensure accurate diagnosis, psychotherapy (e.g., cognitive-behavioral, interpersonal), and follow-up. In 2002, the USPSTF concluded that there was insuf- ficient evidence to recommend for or against routine screening of children or adolescents for MDD (I recommendation). http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf09/ depression/chdeprrs.htm • HP: Increase depression screening by primary care providers. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=28 • HP: Increase the proportion of homeless adults with mental health problems who receive mental health services. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/ objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=28 • Cochrane: Prompts to encourage appointment attendance for people with serious mental illness. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/ CD002085/frame.html SOURCE: Adapted from Appendix 5, National Prevention Council (2011).