EXPOSURE SCIENCE

in the 21st Century

                                                                                   
A VISION AND A STRATEGY

Committee on Human and Environmental
Exposure Science in the 21st Century

Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



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Committee on Human and Environmental Exposure Science in the 21st Century Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Division on Earth and Life Studies

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This project was supported by Contract EP-C-09-003 between the National Academy of Sciences and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The project was also supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences through this contract. Any opin- ions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-26468-6 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-26468-5 Library of Congress Control Number: 2012949228 Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334- 3313; http://www.nap.edu/. Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the re- sponsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the Na- tional Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE SCIENCE IN THE 21ST CENTURY Members KIRK R. SMITH (Chair), University of California, Berkeley, CA PAUL J. LIOY (Vice Chair), University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ TINA BAHADORI, American Chemistry Council, Washington, DC (resigned March 2012) TIMOTHY BUCKLEY, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (resigned May 2012) RICHARD T. DI GIULIO, Duke University, Durham, NC J. PAUL GILMAN, Covanta Energy Corporation, Fairfield, NJ MICHAEL JERRETT, University of California, Berkeley, CA DEAN JONES, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (resigned June 2012) PETROS KOUTRAKIS, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA THOMAS E. MCKONE, University of California, Berkeley, CA JAMES T. ORIS, Miami University, Oxford, OH AMANDA D. RODEWALD, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH SUSAN L. SANTOS, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ RICHARD SHARP, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH GINA SOLOMON, California Environmental Protection Agency, Sacramento, CA JUSTIN G. TEEGUARDEN, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA DUNCAN C. THOMAS, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA THOMAS G. THUNDAT, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada SACOBY M. WILSON, University of Maryland, College Park, MD Staff EILEEN N. ABT, Project Director KEEGAN SAWYER, Program Officer (through September 2011) KERI SCHAFFER, Research Associate NORMAN GROSSBLATT, Senior Editor MIRSADA KARALIC-LONCAREVIC, Manager, Technical Information Center RADIAH ROSE, Manager, Editorial Projects ORIN LUKE, Senior Program Assistant (through June 2011) TAMARA DAWSON, Program Associate Sponsor U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES v

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BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY Members ROGENE F. HENDERSON (Chair), Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM PRAVEEN AMAR, Clean Air Task Force, Boston, MA MICHAEL J. BRADLEY, M.J. Bradley & Associates, Concord, MA JONATHAN Z. CANNON, University of Virginia, Charlottesville GAIL CHARNLEY, HealthRisk Strategies, Washington, DC FRANK W. DAVIS, University of California, Santa Barbara RICHARD A. DENISON, Environmental Defense Fund, Washington, DC CHARLES T. DRISCOLL, JR., Syracuse University, New York H. CHRISTOPHER FREY, North Carolina State University, Raleigh RICHARD M. GOLD, Holland & Knight, LLP, Washington, DC LYNN R. GOLDMAN, George Washington University, Washington, DC LINDA E. GREER, Natural Resources Defense Council, Washington, DC WILLIAM E. HALPERIN, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark PHILIP K. HOPKE, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY HOWARD HU, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor SAMUEL KACEW, University of Ottawa, Ontario ROGER E. KASPERSON, Clark University, Worcester, MA THOMAS E. MCKONE, University of California, Berkeley TERRY L. MEDLEY, E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, DE JANA MILFORD, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder FRANK O'DONNELL, Clean Air Watch, Washington, DC RICHARD L. POIROT, Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation, Waterbury KATHRYN G. SESSIONS, Health and Environmental Funders Network, Bethesda, MD JOYCE S. TSUJI, Exponent Environmental Group, Bellevue, WA Senior Staff JAMES J. REISA, Director DAVID J. POLICANSKY, Scholar RAYMOND A. WASSEL, Senior Program Officer for Environmental Studies ELLEN K. MANTUS, Senior Program Officer for Risk Analysis SUSAN N.J. MARTEL, Senior Program Officer for Toxicology EILEEN N. ABT, Senior Program Officer MIRSADA KARALIC-LONCAREVIC, Manager, Technical Information Center RADIAH ROSE, Manager, Editorial Projects vi

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OTHER REPORTS OF THE BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY Science for Environmental Protection: The Road Ahead (2012) A Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials (2012) Macondo WellDeepwater Horizon Blowout: Lessons for Improving Offshore Drilling Safety (2012) Feasibility of Using Mycoherbicides for Controlling Illicit Drug Crops (2011) Improving Health in the United States: The Role of Health Impact Assessment (2011) A Risk-Characterization Framework for Decision-Making at the Food and Drug Administration (2011) Review of the Environmental Protection Agency's Draft IRIS Assessment of Formaldehyde (2011) Toxicity-Pathway-Based Risk Assessment: Preparing for Paradigm Change (2010) The Use of Title 42 Authority at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2010) Review of the Environmental Protection Agency's Draft IRIS Assessment of Tetrachloroethylene (2010) Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use (2009) Contaminated Water Supplies at Camp Lejeune--Assessing Potential Health Effects (2009) Review of the Federal Strategy for Nanotechnology-Related Environmental, Health, and Safety Research (2009) Science and Decisions: Advancing Risk Assessment (2009) Phthalates and Cumulative Risk Assessment: The Tasks Ahead (2008) Estimating Mortality Risk Reduction and Economic Benefits from Controlling Ozone Air Pollution (2008) Respiratory Diseases Research at NIOSH (2008) Evaluating Research Efficiency in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2008) Hydrology, Ecology, and Fishes of the Klamath River Basin (2008) Applications of Toxicogenomic Technologies to Predictive Toxicology and Risk Assessment (2007) Models in Environmental Regulatory Decision Making (2007) Toxicity Testing in the Twenty-first Century: A Vision and a Strategy (2007) Sediment Dredging at Superfund Megasites: Assessing the Effectiveness (2007) Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects (2007) Scientific Review of the Proposed Risk Assessment Bulletin from the Office of Management and Budget (2007) Assessing the Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene: Key Scientific Issues (2006) New Source Review for Stationary Sources of Air Pollution (2006) Human Biomonitoring for Environmental Chemicals (2006) Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment (2006) vii

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Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards (2006) State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions (2006) Superfund and Mining Megasites--Lessons from the Coeur d'Alene River Basin (2005) Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion (2005) Air Quality Management in the United States (2004) Endangered and Threatened Species of the Platte River (2004) Atlantic Salmon in Maine (2004) Endangered and Threatened Fishes in the Klamath River Basin (2004) Cumulative Environmental Effects of Alaska North Slope Oil and Gas Development (2003) Estimating the Public Health Benefits of Proposed Air Pollution Regulations (2002) Biosolids Applied to Land: Advancing Standards and Practices (2002) The Airliner Cabin Environment and Health of Passengers and Crew (2002) Arsenic in Drinking Water: 2001 Update (2001) Evaluating Vehicle Emissions Inspection and Maintenance Programs (2001) Compensating for Wetland Losses Under the Clean Water Act (2001) A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments (2001) Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals (twelve volumes, 2000-2012) Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury (2000) Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2000) Scientific Frontiers in Developmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment (2000) Ecological Indicators for the Nation (2000) Waste Incineration and Public Health (2000) Hormonally Active Agents in the Environment (1999) Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter (four volumes, 1998-2004) The National Research Council's Committee on Toxicology: The First 50 Years (1997) Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet (1996) Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest (1996) Science and the Endangered Species Act (1995) Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries (1995) Biologic Markers (five volumes, 1989-1995) Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment (1994) Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993) Dolphins and the Tuna Industry (1992) Science and the National Parks (1992) Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants (1991) Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution (1991) Decline of the Sea Turtles (1990) Copies of these reports may be ordered from the National Academies Press (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 www.nap.edu viii

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Preface Over the last decade, advances in tools and technologies--sensor systems, analytic methods, molecular technologies, computational tools, and bioinformat- ics--have provided opportunities for improving the collection of exposure- science information leading to the potential for better human health and ecosys- tem protection. Recognizing the need for a prospective examination of exposure science, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences asked the National Research Council to perform an independent study to develop a long-range vision and a strategy for imple- menting the vision over the next 20 years. In this report, the Committee on Human and Environmental Exposure Sci- ence in the 21st Century presents a conceptual framework for exposure science and a vision for advancing exposure science in the 21st century. The committee describes scientific and technologic advances needed to support the vision and concludes with a discussion of the elements needed to realize it, including re- search and tool development, transagency coordination, education, and engage- ment of a broader stakeholder community. This report has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures ap- proved by the National Research Council Report Review Committee. The pur- pose of the independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manu- script remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following for their review of this report: Philip Landrigan, Mount Si- nai School of Medicine; Jonathan Levy, Boston University School of Public Health; Rachel Morello-Frosch, University of California, Berkeley; Michael Newman, College of William & Mary; John Nuckols, JRN & Associates Envi- ronmental Health Sciences; Sean Philpott, Union Graduate College; Stephen Rappaport, University of California, Berkeley; Lawrence Reiter, U.S. Environ- mental Protection Agency (retired); Joyce Tsuji, Exponent; Mark Utell, Univer- ix

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x Preface sity of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry; Craig Williamson, Miam University; Edward Zellers, University of Michigan. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of the report was overseen by the review coordinator, Joseph V. Rodricks, ENVIRON, and the review monitor, Michael F. Goodchild, Univer- sity of California, Santa Barbara. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of the report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of the report rests entirely with the committee and the institution. The committee gratefully acknowledges the following for making presen- tations to the committee: Steven Bradbury, Helen Dawson, Sumit Gangwal, Elaine Cohen Hubal, Bryan Hubbell, Edward Ohanian, Lawrence Reiter (re- tired), Rita Schoeny, and Linda Sheldon, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Harry Cullings, Radiation Effects Research Foundation; Michael Del- larco, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Otto Hn- ninen and Matti Jantunen, Finland National Institute of Health and Welfare; Aubrey Miller, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Chris Por- tier, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; and Craig Postlewaite, U.S. Department of Defense. The committee is also grateful for the assistance of National Research Council staff in preparing this report. Staff members who contributed to the effort are Eileen Abt, project director; James Reisa, director, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology; Keegan Sawyer, program officer; Keri Schaffer, research associate; Norman Grossblatt, senior editor; Mirsada Karalic-Loncarevic, man- ager, Technical Information Center; Radiah Rose, manager, editorial projects; Orin Luke, senior program assistant; and Tamara Dawson, program associate. We especially thank the members of the committee for their efforts throughout the development of this report. Kirk R. Smith, Chair Paul J. Lioy, Vice Chair Committee on Human and Environmental Exposure Science in the 21st Century

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Contents SUMMARY ...............................................................................................................3 1 INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................................19 Background, 19 Defining the Scope of Exposure Science, 22 The Past Millennia, 24 Opportunities and Challenges: The New Millennium, 28 Roadmap, 31 References, 35 2 A VISION FOR EXPOSURE SCIENCE IN THE 21st CENTURY............42 References, 48 3 APPLICATIONS OF EXPOSURE SCIENCE .............................................50 Introduction, 50 Epidemiology, 50 Toxicology, 57 Environmental Regulation, 60 Environmental Planning, 67 Disaster Management, 75 Conclusions, 76 References, 79 4 DEMANDS FOR EXPOSURE SCIENCE.....................................................90 Introduction, 90 Health and Environmental Science Demands, 92 Market Demands, 97 Societal Demands, 99 Policy and Regulatory Demands, 100 Building Capacity to Meet Demands, 101 References, 101 xi

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xii Contents 5 SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGIC ADVANCES ..................................106 Introduction, 106 Tracking Sources, Concentrations, and Receptors with Geographic Information Technologies, 108 Ubiquitous Sensing For Individual and Ecologic Exposure Assessment, 117 Biomonitoring for Assessing Internal Exposures, 128 Models, Knowledge, and Decisions, 134 References, 140 6 PROMOTING AND SUSTAINING PUBLIC TRUST IN EXPOSURE SCIENCE ...........................................................................154 Protecting Research Volunteers, 155 Promoting Public Trust, 157 Community Engagement and Stakeholder Participation, 157 Use of Community-Based Participatory Research, 158 Challenges Ahead, 161 Guiding Values: The Right to Learn, 163 Conclusions, 165 References, 166 7 REALIZING THE VISION ..........................................................................169 Introduction, 169 The Exposure Data Landscape, 171 Immediate Challenges: Chemical Evaluation and Risk Assessment, 174 Implementing the Vision, 176 Research Needs, 176 Transagency Coordination, 179 Enabling Resources, 179 Conclusions, 181 References, 182 APPENDIXES A BIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION ON THE COMMITTEE ON HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE SCIENCE IN THE 21st CENTURY ....................................................................................184 B STATEMENT OF TASK ..............................................................................191 C CONCEPTS AND TERMINOLOGY IN EXPOSURE SCIENCE ...........193 BOXES, FIGURES, AND TABLES BOXES 1-1 Definition and Scope of Exposure Science, 20

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Contents xiii 1-2 Illustrations Demonstrating How the Degradation of the Ecosystems Due to Human Activities Increases Exposures to Chemical and Biologic Stressors, 33 3-1 Case Study of Exposure Assessment for the National Children's Study, 53 3-2 Case Study of the Hanford Environmental Dose-Reconstruction Project, 54 3-3 An Environment-Wide Association Study, 56 3-4 Value of Improved Exposure Estimates for Epidemiologic Studies, 57 3-5 Case Study of Perchlorate in Drinking Water, 63 3-6 Case Study of Chemicals in Breast Milk: Policy Action Based on Exposure Data, 66 3-7 Health Impact Assessment of Mobile Sources in San Francisco, 68 3-8 Exposure to Multiple Stressors in a Large Lake Ecosystem, 72 3-9 Emergency Management After the Attack on the World Trade Center, 77 5-1 Evaluating the Reliability of Aerosol Optical Depth Against Ground Observations, 110 5-2 Evaluation of MODIS 1 km Product, 110 5-3 Embedded Sensing of Traffic in Rome, 119 5-4 Ubiquitous Sensing of Physical Activity and Location, 119 5-5 Participatory Sensing, 121 5-6 Potential Application of omics and Exposure Data in Personalized Medicine, 130 5-7 Global-Scale and Regional-Scale Models Used to Assess Human and Ecologic Exposure Potential in Terms of Long-Range Transport Potential and Persistence, 136 6-1 Case Study of Exposure Justice and Community Engagement: ReGenesis in Spartanburg, SC, 159 FIGURES S-1 Conceptual framework showing the core elements of exposure science as related to humans and ecosystems, 6 S-2 Selected scientific and technologic advances for measuring and monitoring considered in relation to the conceptual framework shown in Figure S-1, 8 1-1 The classic environmental-health continuum, 21 1-2 Core elements of exposure science, 24 1-3 An illustration of how exposures can be measured or modeled at different levels of integration in space and time, from source to dose, and among different human, biologic, and geographic systems, 25 1-4 Connections between ecosystem services and human-well being, 32 3-1 General schema of exposure assessment in environmental epidemiology, 51 3-2 Exposure to Multiple Stressors in Lake Tahoe, 74 4-1 The four major demands for exposure science, 92 5-1 Selected scientific and technologic advances considered in relation to the conceptual framework, 109 5-2 Aerosol optical depth derived from MODIS data for the New England region, 111

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xiv Contents 5-3 Example of a binary buffer overlay showing people likely to experience traffic-related air-pollution exposure, 115 5-4 Map of a flood plain in the Netherlands showing secondary risk of poisoning by cadmium in Little Owls developed using a combination of measured cadmium concentrations, food web modeling, knowledge of foraging in different habitats, and probabilistic risk assessment, 116 5-5 Output from a CalFit telephone showing the location and activity level of volunteers in kilocalories per 10-second period in a pilot study in Barcelona, Spain, 120 C-1 Another view of the source-to-outcome continuum for exposure science, 194 C-2 Core elements of exposure science, 195 TABLES 5-1 Available Methods and Their Utility for Ecologic Exposure Assessment, 133