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Contributors HENRIK AGER-HANSSEN is senior executive vice-president of the Norwegian state oil company, STATOIL. He is also chairman of the board of the Norwegian Institute for Energy Technology and vice-chairman of the board of Rogaland Petroleum Research Institute. He is a member of the Royal Swedish Engineering Academy, the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, and the Norwegian Technical Academy of Science, and a foreign associate of the National Academy of Engineering. He holds an M.S. degree in nuclear engineering. RICHARD E. BALZHISER is president and chief executive officer of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in Palo Alto, California. He is a member of the advisory boards of the Institute for Energy Analy- sis, the University of Michigan College of Engineering National Advisory Committee, the Academy Industry Program of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Innovative Control Technology Advisory Panel. Dr. Balzhiser received his B.S. and Ph.D. degrees in chemical engi- neering and his M.S. degree in nuclear engineering from the University of Michigan. WALLACE B. BEHNKE is vice-chairman of the Commonwealth Edi- son Company. Mr. Behnke selves on the boards of Commonwealth Edi- son and several affiliated corporations, including the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) and the IIT Research Institute, Duff & Phelps Selected ?79

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280 CONTRIBUTORS Utilities, the Materials Properties Council, and the National Planning As- sociation. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, the American Nuclear Society, is a past president and honorary member of the Western Society of Engineers, and serves on the University of Chicago Board of Governors for Argonne National Laboratory and the Visiting Committee of the Nuclear Engineering Department of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Mr. Behnke received B.S. and B.S.E.E. degrees from Northwestern University. PETER D. BLAIR is the manager of the Energy and Materials Pro- gram at the Office of Technology Assessment of the U.S. Congress. He is the author of many scientific reports, papers, and books, including Mulii- objective Regional Energy Planning, Geothermal Energy: Investment Deci- sions and Commercial Development (with T. Cassel and R. Edelstein), and Input-Ou~put Arzalys~s: Foundations and Extensions (with R. Miller). He has served as a technical adviser to the National Research Council Panel on Central Electric Power Production and was an assistant professor of regional science and public policy at the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Blair holds a B.S. degree in electrical engineering from Swarthmore College and an M.S. degree in energy management, an M.S.E degree in systems engineering, and a Ph.D. degree in energy management and policy from the University of Pennsylvania. JOHN F. BOOKOUT is president and chief executive officer of Shell Oil Company. He is past chairman of the American Petroleum Institute and of the National Petroleum Council and is current chairman of the board of advisers for the Texas A&M University Institute of Biosciences and Technology. He is a member of the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, the policy committee of the Business Roundtable, and the Conference Board. Mr. Bookout graduated from the University of Texas with B.S. and M.N degrees in geology. He also holds honoraIy degrees of doctor of science from Plane University and doctor of laws from Centenary College. JOHN H. GIBBONS is the director of the Office of Technology As- sessment of the U.S. Congress. He is a former director of the Energy, Environment, and Resources Center at the University of Tennessee and the first director of energy conservation for the Federal Energy Administration. He was chairman of the Demand/Conservation Panel for the National Re- search Council Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems and has served on the Energy Research Advisory Board of the U.S. Depart- ment of Energy. Dr. Gibbons received a B.S. degree in mathematics and chemistry from Randolph-Macon College and a Ph.D. degree in physics from Duke University. THOMAS E. GRAEDEL is a distinguished member of the technical

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CONTRIBlJTORS 281 staff of AT&T Bell Laboratories. His research interests are in solar physics, atmospheric chemistry and physics, measurement and chemical modeling of the earth's atmosphere, and corrosion of materials by atmospheric species. Because of his expertise in atmosphere-metal interactions, Dr. Graedel served as a consultant to the Statue of Liberbr Restoration Project. He is associate editor of Reviews of Geophysics, a member of the governing board of the American Institute of Physics, and a member of the National Re- search Council Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate. Dr. Graedel received a B.S. degree in chemical engineering from Washington State Uni- versity, an M.S. degree in physics from Kent State University, and both M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in astronomy from the University of Michigan. JOHN L. HELM is an assistant professor of applied physics at the Department of Applied Physics and Nuclear Engineering at Columbia University. From 1987 to 1989 he was a fellow of the National Academy of Engineering. His current research interests include radiation damage to fission and fusion reactor materials, radiation transport and shielding, and energy systems and technology. He has also conducted research in solar energy,, digital image processing, and coal gasification systems; he holds a patent for a novel method for coal gasification. Dr. Helm received a B.S. degree in chemical engineering and both M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in nuclear engineering from Columbia University. WILLIAM F. KIESCHNICK is involved as a board member in a va- riety of industries including energy, aerospace, financial services, and new technology ventures. He is a trustee of a number of scientific, arts, educa- tional, and humanitarian institutions. He was with the Atlantic Richfield Company (ARCO) from 1974 to 1985, moving through various assignments from production researcher to president and chief executive officer, the position from which he retired in 1985. Mr. Kieschnick received a B.S. degree in chemical engineering from Rice University and professional cer- tificates in meteorology from the University of California, Los Angeles, and oceanography from Scripps Institution of Oceanography. ROBERT MALPAS is managing director of the British Petroleum Company and chairman of BP Chemicals and BP Ventures. He has also served as president of Halcon Chemicals and held a varied of engineering and management posts, including chief executive and director of Imperial Chemical Industries. He is currently serving a term as president of the Society of Chemical Industry. Mr. Malpas received a first class degree in mechanical engineering from Durham University. WILLIAM T. McCORMICK, Jr., is chairman of the board and chief executive officer of CMS Energy Corporation and its principal subsidiary, Consumers Power Company. Additionally, he has held policy-level positions

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282 CONTRIBUTORS in the Office of Management and Budget and the Energy Policy Office at the White House and served as a vice-president of the American Gas Association. He is currently on the board of directors of the American Gas Association and is chairman of the Gas Supply Committee and the Edison Electric Institute. Dr. McCormick received a B.N degree in engineering physics from Cornell University and a Ph.D. degree in nuclear engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. WILLIAM D. RUCKELSHAUS is chairman and chief executive of- ficer of Browning-Ferris Industries. Mr. Ruckelshaus served as the first administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency from December 1970 to March 1973 and returned as its fifth administrator from May 1983 to January 1985. He is president of the Environmental Advisory Board of Control Resource Industries, Inc. Included among his board of trustee memberships are The Conservation Foundation/~e World Wildlife Fund, the Urban Institute, the National Wildflower Research Center, and the Scientist's Institute for Public Information. He is chairman of the board of advisers of Riedel Environmental Services and is also the U.S. repre- sentative to the United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development. Mr. Ruckelshaus received his B.N degree from Princeton University and obtained his law degree from Harvard University. PETER H. SAND is senior environmental affairs officer with the United Nations (UN) Economic Commission for Europe, Geneva. Dr. Sand formerly was assistant director general of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources and deputy director of the Environmental Management Service of the United Nations Environment Program. He has served as UN consultant on environmental legislation to the governments of Colombia, Indonesia, Lebanon, and Niger. He partici- pated in the drafting and negotiation of the 1976 Barcelona Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution, the 1979 Bonn Convention for the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals, and the 1985 Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer. STEPHEN H. SCHNEIDER is head of Interdisciplinary Climate Sys- tems Section at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. His current research interests include climatic change; food and climate, among other issues in environmental science and public policy; and climatic modeling of naleoclimates and of human imnnct.~ on rlim~tP for Pv~mnl~ rarhr~n ~ ~ -rid ^ -^ ^~ ~ ^~^ In ~~ Am . . clox~ce or greenhouse effect; and environmental consequences of nuclear war. Dr. Schneider is the author or coauthor of many scientific papers, proceedings, and books, including The Genesis Strategy: Climate and Global Survival, (with L. Mesirow), The Coevo~tion of Climate and Life (with R. Londer), and Global Warming: Are We Entering the Greenhouse Century.

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CONTRIBUTORS 283 He is a member of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Atmospheric Obscuration and a fellow of the American Association for the Advance- ment of Science. Dr. Schneider received a Ph.D. degree in mechanical engineering and plasma physics from Columbia University. THOMAS C. SHELLING is Lucius N. Littauer Professor of Polit- ical Economy in the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. Dr. Schelling has written extensively about conflicts between individual and collective behavior. He served in the Economic Cooperation Administration in Europe from 1948 to 1950 and in the Executive Office of the President of the United States from 1951 to 1953, and has been a consultant to the departments of State and Defense, the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, and the Central Intelligence Agency. He has twice served as chairman of the Research Advisory Board of the Committee for Economic Development and is a trustee of the Aerospace Corporation. Dr. Schelling is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine and is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Dr. Schelling received a B.N degree in eco- nomics from the University of California, Berkeley, and a Ph.D. degree In economics from Harvard University. JOHN W. SHILLER is Emissions Planning Associate with the Au- tomotive Emissions and Fuel Economy Office of the Environmental and Safety Engineering Staff of Ford Motor Company. His activities include the design and development of pollutant-specific air quality monitors as well as air quality modeling and the evaluation of the need for and perfor- mance of emission controls and more recently, the impact of alternative fuel strategies on atmospheric ozone concentrations and global warming. He is chairman of the Atmospheric Chemistry Panel of the Motor Vehicle Manu- facturers Association and has represented the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles at international forums on environmental issues. He received a B.S. degree in physics and an M.B.N degree from the University of Michigan and an M.S. degree in physics-from Wayne State University. CHAUNCEY STARR was founding president and vice-chairman of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). He is a former dean of the School of Engineering and Applied Science at the University of California, Los Angeles, following a 20-year industrial career. Dr. Starr's achievements include pioneering contributions to nuclear propulsion for rockets and ramjets, miniaturization of nuclear reactors for space, and development of nuclear-fission-powered electricity plants. He is a member and past vice-president of the National Academy of Engineering and a founder and past president of the American Nuclear Society. Dr. Starr received an

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284 CONTRIBUTORS electrical engineering degree and a Ph.D. degree in physics from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. ALVIN M. WEINBERG is a distinguished fellow of the Institute for Energy Analysis, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Dr. Weinberg was director of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory from 1955 to 1973; director of the Office of Energy Research and Development, Federal Energy Office, in 1974; and director of the Institute for Energy Analysis from 1975 to 1985. He is the author of The Physical Theory of Neutron Chain Reactors (with Eugene P. Wigner) and of Reflections on Big Science. Dr. Weinberg is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and the National Academy of Sciences. He has received numerous awards for his contributions to the design, development, and safety of nuclear reactors and the formulation of science policy. Dr. Weinberg received his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in physics at the University of Chicago.