Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page 10
H-10 CHAPTER 3 Evaluating the Results of an Alternative Jet Fuel CostBenefit Analysis 3.1 Emissions 3.2 Costs AFIT reports out two categories of pollutants on the "Emis- Specific costs associated with the introduction of an alter- sions" tab--criteria pollutants and life-cycle greenhouse gases. native fuel depend on individual airport considerations. AFIT The emission changes are compared to Jet A in the aircraft and was developed to accommodate most possibilities. AFIT is ULS diesel in the GSE. designed to collect standard fuel-related costs such as Carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), SOx, and PM with a diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM2.5) are · The fuel--the purchase of the product itself, likely from criteria pollutants.1 These pollutants are broken out by the production facility; source (aircraft or GSE) and fuel (current or alternative) in · Transportation to the airport--via pipeline, rail, barge, the "Emissions" tab. The emissions reflected in the "Current truck; Fuel" table have been adjusted from the EDMS run used as an · Storage--in nearby facilities such as a fuel terminal and on input file for this analysis. The emissions in the "Alternative the airport property; Fuel" table reflect the computed emissions from the specific · Fuel handling--blending, filtering and other fees; and fuel blend entered in the "Setup" tab. If the alternative fuel is · On- and off-airport costs--reflecting inside- and outside- not used in GSE or aircraft, the emissions will be unchanged airport perimeter differences. from the baseline (current fuel) emissions. The emission val- ues shown for alternative fuels include the change in fuel use Annual and monthly consumption amounts for both Jet A that results from an alternative fuel. and diesel fuels are also relevant since fuel suppliers modify The GHG emissions from aircraft and GSE are reported in fee structures depending on volume and infrastructure cost two separate categories--combustion CO2 and life-cycle CO2e scale with volume-related measures (e.g., a 2-million-gallon (LC CO2e). Combustion CO2 changes by fuel type based on the storage tank costs more to build and maintain than a 1-million- amount of fuel consumed and the relative carbon content of gallon tank). This also enables conversion of raw costs to cost the fuel. This is the amount of CO2 emitted due to combustion per gallon for comparison to Jet A and diesel. and is typically the value included in an airport's GHG inven- Upgrades to GSE seals, gaskets, filters, pumps, and so on and tory or carbon footprint. LC CO2e reflects the GHG emissions the labor to perform installation are collected. Some discre- (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane) created during tion should be used with respect to equipment upgrades since the production of the fuel as well as the combustion CO2. This some portion may occur during normal maintenance intervals. illustrates the total GHG impact from using a particular fuel. There is also the possibility that certain warrantees may be The changes in life-cycle emissions will, in general, dwarf any voided, and consideration for these costs must be made. Based changes in combustion emissions, and these changes are due on conversations with experts in the field, there appears to be to the details of fuel production, as is discussed briefly in a risk that if you put jet fuel into a diesel engine without first Appendix D. getting the manufacturer's approval, you then run the risk of voiding your warranty. Simply put, jet fuel certification cov- 1The AFIT tool was based on the best data that was available at the time of AFIT ers jet engines. It does not automatically cover diesel engines. publication. However, additional testing of the emissions from alternative fuel combustion was ongoing at that time, and additional work was being devoted to While there may not be an issue with the GSE engine warranty, estimating life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. this represents a potential cost that has not yet been completely
OCR for page 11
H-11 resolved. By definition, a "drop-in" fuel is fully compatible 3.3 Health Benefits from Improved with aircraft engine specifications, and it is assumed that no Air Quality aircraft-related costs are incurred. It is anticipated that GSE upgrade costs will be expensed in the year in which they are Atmospheric PM2.5, a criteria air pollutant that has been linked to respiratory illnesses and premature mortality, results incurred, for accounting purposes; however, a fundamental from primary PM emissions as well as emissions of NOx, SOx, determination must be made regarding capital costs or the and unburned hydrocarbons. These latter pollutants, which avoidance of them. AFIT is able to collect cost estimates in are referred to as secondary PM precursors, are transformed in cases where the fuel will be dispensed through existing equip- the atmosphere into aerosol PM, also referred to as secondary ment and infrastructure at the airport and in situations where PM. Secondary PM is significantly more prevalent on a mass substantial new infrastructure development will be under- basis than primary PM. Emissions from aircraft, GSE, and taken, such as with a new airport or a major expansion of the other equipment and vehicles around an airport contribute to current facility. The reason this is important is that an alterna- both primary and secondary atmospheric PM. The alternative tive fuel compatible with both aircraft and GSE would reduce fuels considered in AFIT have the potential to reduce PM2.5 costs since two fueling systems would be replaced by a single through a reduction in both primary PM and SOx, which yields system. AFIT is constructed to accommodate both circum- health benefits. The report includes an analysis of the impact stances and converts monthly capital financing charge esti- of using both ULS and SPK blends on the air quality in the mates into a per-gallon fuel cost estimate. region surrounding Atlanta Hartsfield International Airport. AFIT converts and sums all costs into a per-gallon estimate for comparison with existing Jet A and diesel usage. Monthly and annual cost data are provided to assist with tracking and 3.4 Making the Decision to Use accounting. The analyst can input various costs and quantities an Alternative Jet Fuel of equipment affected, and AFIT updates the cost-per-gallon The analysis conducted by AFIT is meant to inform the user estimates, which can be compared to existing fuel costs. about the potential economic costs and changes in emissions AFIT intentionally does not provide a cost and benefit cal- that could result from switching to an alternative fuel. The culation as that is the purview of the analyst. It is designed to results are best viewed as a screening assessment of whether an assist with categories of likely costs and also provides default airport should consider an alternative jet fuel for use in aircraft estimates should the user not have specific data pertinent to and/or diesel-engine GSE. If the emission reduction benefits the user's facility. These estimates were collected from a range identified by AFIT are significant enough for the airport to seri- of sources and represent an approximation for use only when ously consider using an alternative fuel, a more-detailed engi- airport-specific values are not available. neering study will be required to fully quantify all costs.