Click for next page ( 3


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 2
H-2 CHAPTER 1 Introduction This handbook is designed to help airports, fuel suppliers, Emissions from fuel combustion are an airport's primary and other interested parties evaluate the costs and benefits of contribution to air pollution. These emissions are expected to using an alternative jet fuel at an airport. The alternative fuels increase, following the growth in fuel use as airports expand considered are an ultralow sulfur (ULS) jet fuel and synthetic capacity to meet increasing demand for air travel, unless steps paraffinic kerosenes (SPKs). SPKs include Fischer-Tropsch are taken to reduce them. Airports require new strategies for fuels and hydroprocessed renewable jet fuel created from feed- mitigating these impacts on their communities, and one such stocks such as algae and palm oils. The handbook is a guide to strategy is to use alternative fuels in place of conventional fuels. using the Alternative Fuels Investigation Tool (AFIT) and Global climate change is now widely viewed as a signifi- interpreting the results. More detailed information about using cant, serious environmental threat, and aviation sources have alternative fuels at an airport can be found in the technical limited opportunities for reducing their GHG emissions. report for ACRP Project 02-07, under the same cover as this Alternative fuels represent one potential strategy for airports handbook and available on the TRB website (www.trb.org) by to address their GHG emissions compared to other industries searching "ACRP Report 46." The report provides additional and reduce their carbon footprints. detail on alternative fuels transport and use, emission impacts, Using alternative jet fuel in place of conventional jet fuel (Jet equipment modification considerations, and the use of AFIT. A) offers a variety of environmental and operational benefits. AFIT has been developed to estimate costs associated with the A "drop-in" alternative jet fuel--that is, one that could be introduction of an alternative fuel and associated emissions accommodated at an airport with little or no modification-- reductions. AFIT does not provide a costbenefit metric. would allow an airport to readily make such a change. Drop- Deciding whether to introduce an alternative fuel to a specific in, low-sulfur alternatives to Jet A can also be used to fuel diesel airport is a complex decision and is beyond the scope of this powered equipment. This offers the possibility that GSE as well research and the AFIT software tool. It must also be noted that as aircraft could use the same fuel, simplifying fuel distribution AFIT, in its present configuration, is only for analyzing alter- and reducing the amount of fuel handling equipment. native jet and ground support equipment (GSE) fuels and is Alternative jet fuel may soon be available to airports. ULS jet not intended for a total fuels analysis including natural gas, fuel and SPK are the leading candidates for near-term use. The compressed air, biodiesel, or electric power. purpose of this handbook and the accompanying AFIT tool is to assist airport managers in deciding whether to use alterna- tive fuels by quantifying the costs and benefits of using them. 1.1 Why Should an Airport Consider Using an Alternative Jet Fuel? 1.2 What Are the Benefits of Using Fuel prices and price volatility, local air quality, and green- an Alternative Jet Fuel? house gas (GHG) emissions are among the issues airports face as a result of the fuel consumed by airports and airlines. The cost Alternative jet fuels have the potential to of fuel is a significant budget item for airports and especially air- lines, and wide swings in the price of fuel complicate financial 1. Stabilize or lower total fuel costs, and operational planning. Alternative fuels are now recognized 2. Increase the planning flexibility airports need to reduce as one option for expanding total fuel supply, reducing reliance emissions, on a single resource, and potentially stabilizing fuel prices. 3. Diversify supply options, and

OCR for page 2
H-3 4. Reduce the amount of equipment needed to distribute SPK fuel also reduces PM and SOx emissions and potentially fuel on the airport. improves fuel economy due to its higher energy content per unit weight. While ULS jet fuel comes from conventional Also, since SPK fuels can be produced from a wide variety petroleum, SPK fuels can come from a variety of sources. When of non-petroleum feedstocks (e.g., coal, natural gas, biomass, considering GHG emission impacts, the feedstock and fuel renewable oils, and waste products), they may be produced at production process must be considered. a cost advantage compared to Jet A. SPK fuel also reduces particulate matter (PM) and sulfur oxide (SOx) emissions. 1.4 What Are the Costs of Using Using alternative jet fuel can also reduce pollutant emissions an Alternative Jet Fuel? that impair air quality as well as those considered GHG emis- sions. Reduced emissions can potentially reduce any known Alternative jet fuels, just as Jet A, must be transported from health impacts of airport operations on employees and adja- a fuel production facility to an airport via multiple transporta- cent communities. However, when considering GHG emission tion links. A likely sequence includes transportation from a impacts, the feedstock and fuel production process must be production plant to a storage facility, where the fuel is accumu- considered to account for life-cycle emissions. lated until sufficient quantities are ready to be shipped a con- A significant share of GSE operating at most airports uses siderable distance via barge, marine tanker, or pipeline. The diesel fuel. Since jet fuel is similar to diesel, GSE can also use fuel would likely be received at another tank farm from which alternative jet fuel. Fueling GSE with ULS or SPK jet fuel it would be sent to the airport via truck or rail. would achieve many of these benefits and reduce emissions Somewhere along the way it is necessary to blend SPK alter- and fuel handling costs. native fuel with conventional jet fuel to produce a blended fuel acceptable to airlines, ASTM, and airports. This could occur at the fuel production facility, one of the storage facilities, or the 1.3 Are There Regulatory airport. Once on the airport, the fuel can be distributed using Considerations Involved? existing tanks, pumps, and hydrants or trucks. ULS jet fuel or blended alternative fuel with sufficiently low sulfur content can The American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) also be used in GSE and other diesel equipment. This would determines the requirements that jet fuel must meet for phys- allow the airport to remove existing diesel storage and handling ical properties, chemical content, contaminant limits, and equipment, reducing maintenance and fuel handling costs. overall performance requirements. ASTM 1655D is the current Costs related to transportation links, equipment modification fuel specification and enumerates all of the jet fuel require- requirement costs, and fuel costs are captured in AFIT to deter- ments. ASTM is currently assessing whether SPK fuels should mine the cost of using an alternative jet fuel at an airport. be certified for commercial aircraft use. It is anticipated that At present, diesel fuel that is used in GSE is taxed by state ASTM will certify SPK fuels in up to a 50% blend with conven- and local authorities. Any alternative fuel that is used to replace tional fuels in 2011. The Commercial Aviation Alternative diesel would also be subject to this tax. This change is not Fuels Initiative (CAAFI) has a goal of obtaining ASTM certifi- captured in the AFIT tool since there should be zero cost cation for a 100% SPK fuel by 2013. SPK fuels are considered difference. to be drop-in replacement fuels since they could be handled, distributed, and used at airports with a minimum of modifica- tion to existing equipment. Only drop-in fuels are considered 1.5 Who Should Use the Handbook? in this handbook. This handbook describes the use of AFIT, an automated Sulfur in fuel results in emissions of both SOx and PM, and computational methodology for conducting a costbenefit removing sulfur from fuels reduces fuel combustion emis- analysis. The analysis is intended to help airports and others sions. For this reason, the U.S. Environmental Protection consider whether to use an alternative jet fuel. It is most useful Agency (U.S. EPA) sets maximum limits on the sulfur content as a screening tool to help the user identify cost considerations of fuels. The EPA has already reduced the allowable sulfur and develop an initial estimate of environmental benefits. content of diesel fuel for on-road vehicles and has regulations The handbook guides the AFIT user in evaluating the costs in place to phase in restrictions on the sulfur content of diesel of acquiring, transporting, distributing, and using an alterna- for off-road vehicles, including GSE. Removing sulfur from Jet tive jet fuel as well as evaluating environmental benefits. It was A to produce a ULS jet fuel will significantly reduce PM and designed with airports in mind but would be useful for anyone SOx emissions from aircraft as well as GSE using that fuel. interested in alternative fuel use at airports. For example, an Note that conventional Jet A does not have stringent sulfur alternative jet fuel producer can use AFIT to develop a market- limits and cannot be used in GSE since the fuel would exceed ing approach for working with an airport. A fuel service com- the allowable sulfur content for off-road vehicles. pany could use it to better understand the process and costs

OCR for page 2
H-4 involved in acquiring and transporting an alternative jet fuel If emissions analysis will be conducted, access to the latest from a production site to an airport. An environmental analyst EDMS study will be needed. EDMS details appear below. could use it to evaluate the degree to which emissions could be mitigated through the use of alternative jet fuel. 1.8 What Is EDMS? 1.6 What Is Required EDMS is a combined emissions and dispersion model for for Using AFIT? assessing air quality at civilian airports and military air bases. The model was developed by the Federal Aviation Adminis- AFIT is a 32-bit Windows native application that runs on tration (FAA) in cooperation with the United States Air Force Microsoft Windows 2000, XP, Vista, or 7. (USAF). The model is used to produce an inventory of emis- AFIT uses relatively simple, readily available data to quan- sions generated by sources on and around the airport or air tify alternative fuel transportation and equipment modifica- base and to calculate pollutant concentrations in these envi- tion costs. Fuel costs are determined using inputs related to ronments. More information regarding the current version of fuel use quantity, transportation sequence, and handling EDMS (5.1.2) (including the User Manual and ordering infor- requirements. To determine environmental benefits, AFIT mation) can be found in FAA's EDMS website (http://www. requires a baseline emissions inventory from FAA's Emissions faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/aep/models/ and Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS) as an input. edms_model). AFIT produces a report enumerating the costs and potential savings that can come from using alternative jet fuel and sum- marizes changes to an airport's emissions inventory. Additional 1.9 What Is an EDMS Study? details on using AFIT are presented in the following sections An EDMS study is an airport emissions inventory com- of the handbook. puted from user inputs by the EDMS software. An EDMS study can contain multiple scenarios and multiple airports 1.7 What Data Will Be Needed and can span multiple years. For each scenario-airport-year to Use AFIT? combination, the user can define operations for aircraft, GSE, roadway vehicles, parking facilities, stationary sources, and The user will need to be familiar with the airport's current training fires. fuel usage, either annually or monthly, for both diesel and Jet A. The user will also need to be familiar with price per gallon paid for each. AFIT has default fuel price settings based on 1.10 Does AFIT Contain EDMS typical prices paid throughout the United States and aver- and Why Is EDMS Needed? aged. Appendix B in this handbook also lists several sources AFIT does not contain EDMS. for fuel information. The user also has to determine whether AFIT analyzes aircraft and GSE information from an exist- the study is for alternative fuels to be run through existing equipment or whether the alternative fuel is part of a signifi- ing EDMS study to estimate a baseline emissions inventory. cant expansion to the airport where new construction will be The baseline inventory is adjusted by AFIT and is not required. The user also must select the type of alternative fuel intended to match the EDMS inventory. to be considered in the study and should be familiar with It then computes the airport emissions as though an alter- types of fuel available and costs at the producer. native fuel was used at the airport. AFIT is designed to eval- Familiarity with the current costs of fuel delivery will also be uate the costs and benefits of using an alternative jet fuel at helpful. Storage, flowage, throughput, and other fuel handling a single airport. per-gallon costs of existing fuels and those expected for the Therefore, only one scenario-airport-year EDMS set of alternative fuel are also helpful. AFIT supplies default costs, but inputs can be analyzed at a time by AFIT. they are averaged from airports across the United States. Knowledge of the current GSE fleet and suppliers of parts and 1.11 Can an Old EDMS Study Be service will be needed to estimate change-out costs. Access to Used as an AFIT input? past construction estimates and project documents or current contact with construction companies and fuel supply vendors Any study created using EDMS version 5.0 or later can be will improve the accuracy of estimates. As the alternative fuel used regardless of the year modeled. If the EDMS study con- replaces diesel fuels, removal and decommission costs of the tains multiple scenarios, airports, or years, AFIT will import diesel system will also need to be estimated. emissions from the first scenario-airport-year combination.