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Glossary Term Definition Alternative jet fuels Combustible liquid fuels made from nonpetroleum sources that have the same performance characteristics in aircraft as today's commercial and military jet fuels. ASTM International Formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials, this organization is a globally recognized leader in the development and delivery of international voluntary consensus standards. More information at ASTM D1655 Standard specification for aviation turbine fuels according to ASTM International. ASTM D7566 Standard specification for aviation turbine fuel containing synthesized hydrocarbons according to ASTM Interna- tional. This was the first specification for alternative jet fuels approved by ASTM. Air Transport Association (ATA) The oldest and largest airline trade association in the United States. More information at Bio-SPK Synthetic paraffinic kerosene produced from bio-derived feedstocks. Biomass Any material produced by living or recently living organ- isms such as wood, leaves, seeds, and algae. Catalytic to jet (CTJ) Process that uses nonbiological agents that produce alcohols that can then be processed into alternative jet fuel. Commercial Aviation A coalition of airlines, aircraft and engine manufacturers, Alternative Fuels Initiative energy producers, researchers, international participants, and U.S. government agencies working to enhance energy security and environmental sustainability for aviation through alternative jet fuels. More information at European Union Emissions A cap-and-trade program to limit the total amount of Trading System certain greenhouse gases that can be emitted by different sources, including aircraft. More information at 114

OCR for page 113
Glossary 115 Term Definition Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process A series of chemical reactions used to transform a carbon- rich feedstock, such as coal, natural gas, or biomass, into a hydrocarbon fuel such as jet fuel. Fermentation to jet (FTJ) Process that uses biological organisms that turn feedstocks directly into finished products such as alternative jet fuel. Greenhouse gases Gases in the atmosphere that absorb heat in the atmo- sphere. The primary greenhouse gases are water vapor, CO2, methane (CH4), NOx, and ozone (O3). Hydroprocessed esters and Alternative fuel made from plant oils or animal fats through fatty acids (HEFA) a series of chemical reactions, including hydroprocessing. Life-cycle analysis (LCA) An analysis technique for assessing environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life. Life-cycle analysis as it applies to aviation fuel consists of estimating the amounts of various substances produced (or consumed) during the complete process of obtaining and using the fuel. Life-cycle carbon footprint Estimated carbon released in the life cycle (i.e., extraction of raw materials, processing, combustion, disposal) of a given material such as jet fuel. Pyrolysis oil to jet (PTJ) Process that converts cellulosic feedstocks into a bio-crude that can be used to produce alternative jet fuel. Renewable Fuel Standards Standards created under the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and expanded under the Energy Independent and Security Act of 2007. These standards establish renewable fuel volume mandates in the United States. More information at Renewable Identification A central component of the RFS program representing units Number of renewable fuel that can be used for credits, trading, and demonstrate compliance with renewable fuel mandates.