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22 Guidelines for Integrating Alternative Jet Fuel into the Airport Setting a substantial portion may be spent locally. If the facility is owned by a corporation headquar- tered elsewhere, the profits leave the local area. In addition, some suggest that some other local expenditures are likely to be greater for a locally owned facility; accounting, administrative, and marketing functions are more likely to be performed locally for a locally owned plant, whereas much of this activity might be centralized off-site for a corporately owned facility. 4. Specific model/analysis assumptions: Some differences in impact estimates can result from dif- ferences in assumptions incorporated in the impact model and analysis procedure. For exam- ple, some analyses incorporate a small premium for locally supplied corn, whereas others do not. 5. Differences in study areas: A final factor affecting impact estimates is the nature of the study area. A site area that incorporates a substantial trade center and has a somewhat diversified, self-sufficient economy will have larger secondary impacts, other things equal, than a sparsely populated rural site. How can the regional economic effects of alternative jet fuel projects be estimated? The rationale and methods for estimating the economic impact of alternative jet fuel projects are similar to those for assessing impacts of other processing initiatives. The models most often used to measure these types of impacts are inputoutput, IMPLAN (impact analysis for plan- ning), and RIMS (Regional InputOutput Modeling System). For more information, please refer to ACRP Synthesis 7: Airport Economic Impact Methods and Models (Karlsson et al. 2008). 2.6 Possible Economic Implications of Regulation What are the possible economic implications of regulation on alternative jet fuels? There are potential economic implications for alternative jet fuel projects that may result from existing and future regulation. It is difficult to determine what the net benefits or disadvantages may be given that many of these rules and regulations are fairly new and lacking details. It is important, however, to be aware of them and to understand that they may have an impact on how the alternative jet fuel industry develops. Listed in the following are some of the more significant regulations with the potential to have economic implications for alternative jet fuel projects. 2.6.1 National Ambient Air Quality Standards Airport activity is subject to compliance with all federal regulations, including Environmen- tal Protection Agency (EPA) regulations under the Clean Air Act (CAA) (FAA 1997a). The EPA establishes National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for a series of criteria pollutants, including NOx, SO2, and PM, which can be present in or result from the exhaust of jet engine emissions. (Such emissions together account for a very small percentage of jet engine emissions.) Geographic areas in which concentrations of these pollutants are determined to be in excess of the NAAQS are designated as non-attainment areas (NAAs) and are subject to formulating a State Implementation Plan (SIP) to bring the area back into compliance (FAA 1997a). SIPs can affect airports in two important ways. First, an airport in an NAA may be subject to regulation targeted at bringing the area back into compliance with NAAQS. Federal aviation statutes preclude state regulators from imposing emissions requirements on aircraft, but they can affect other non-aircraft sources at the airport, such as on-road vehicles (including cars, taxis, and shuttles), construction equipment, power plants, and other stationary sources. It is not clear if emissions from ground support equipment (GSE) can be regulated by states. Sec- ond, if an airport is in an NAA and has plans for a development project, the airport has to show that the project will be in conformity and will not cause or contribute a further violation of an SIP before it can receive federal approval. It is important to note that construction-related