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SECTION 4 Frequently Asked Questions 4.1 What Are Some of the Potential Community Concerns About Alternative Jet Fuel? Q: What is the "food-versus-fuel" debate and how does it relate to alternative jet fuel? A: The food-versus-fuel debate arises from questions related to the use of agricultural food com- modities for the production of alternative fuels. The debate stems from a spike in animal feed costs and food prices in 2008 and the rapid development and expansion of the corn ethanol industry. Currently, 30% of the domestic corn crop is used for ethanol production. Some peo- ple fear that the use of corn as a feedstock for alternative fuel production will lead to higher food prices and perhaps even compromise food supplies. Others argue that the rapid increase in food prices in 2008 was the result of high energy costs, not corn ethanol production. The issue has become politically charged. There is little consensus of the role of alternative fuel production on food production and prices. In order to avoid the controversy surrounding the food-versus-fuel debate, CAAFI and other stakeholders in the U.S. airline industry support the use of feedstocks that do not compro- mise food availability. Therefore, these entities are interested in feedstocks that are not used for human food production and that, according to some, would not have an impact on food prices or security. Examples of these feedstocks include agriculture residues (e.g., wheat straw, corn stover), dedicated energy crops (switchgrass), woody biomass, MSW, alternative oilseed feedstocks (e.g., algae, Jatropha), and nonfood oilseeds (e.g., mustard seed, Camelina). Q: What does the concept of the energy-water-food nexus mean and why is it important to alternative jet fuel? A: The energy-water-food nexus is a prominent issue among senior business, finance, policy, military, and NGO leaders and refers to the links between energy, water, and food. Because these issues are so closely intertwined, credible analysis of one part of the nexus requires eval- uating implications on the other parts. For example, evaluation of crops for energy requires consideration of concerns around food versus fuel and also agriculture's impact on increas- ingly scarce water resources, including in marginal land such as in arid environments that may not be fit for other types of agriculture. In addition, the evaluation of natural gas requires consideration of extraction techniques on water quality. Q: What does "land use" mean and why is it important to the future of alternative jet fuel? A: Land use is an important component of the energy-water-food nexus. The term "land use" in this context refers to unresolved concerns about whether increasing demand for agricul- tural products in one part of the world, for food or energy crops, drives conversion of forests into agricultural land in other parts of the world such as in Brazil, Indonesia, and Africa. This 44