New Jersey became the first statewide model jurisdiction and has closed three detention facilities, saving an estimated $16.5 million a year (Mendel, 2009). Florida, Maine, New York, and Pennsylvania are the most recent state partners (Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2012).
While the Annie E. Casey Foundation remains firmly committed to expanding and sustaining JDAI, it concedes that its commitment is, in the long run, insufficient either to maintain fidelity or achieve scale. Although OJJDP has provided $1 million in discretionary funds over two years to support the strategic expansion of JDAI,24 whether a long-term federal role will emerge remains uncertain. (See Chapter 10.)
John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation’s Models for Change
In the period 1996-2011, the MacArthur Foundation has expended more than $140 million to improve the treatment of youth who come to the attention of the juvenile justice system. This investment in juvenile justice grew out of the foundation’s interest in promoting adolescent development as a pillar of juvenile justice practice. It was informed by the MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Adolescent Development and Juvenile Justice (1996-2005), an interdisciplinary group of scholars, policy experts, and practitioners. The network’s research efforts focused on understanding the capabilities and limitations of adolescents, their risk for public safety, and their potential for change.25
Among the important findings of the network’s research was that a significant proportion of adolescents age 15 or younger are probably incompetent to stand trial, as judged by adult measures of competency; that there are significant age-related changes in a youth’s ability to consider the consequences of his or her actions and susceptibility to peer pressure; that unconscious racial stereotyping causes African American adolescents to be seen as more “adult-like” and thus more blameworthy; and that the huge variability among serious offenders makes it difficult to predict future offending based on the presenting offense (MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Adolescent Development and Juvenile Justice, 2006).
MacArthur launched Models for Change in 2004 and selected Illinois, Louisiana, Pennsylvania, and Washington to develop “more rational, fair, effective and developmentally sound” juvenile justice systems that could then serve as models of successful system-wide reform elsewhere (John D.
24 Presentation by Bart Lubow, director, juvenile justice strategy group, Annie E. Casey Foundation, to the committee, January 19, 2011.
25 Presentation by Laurie Garduque, director of juvenile justice, program on human and community development, John D. and Catherine A. MacArthur Foundation, to the committee, October 11, 2010.