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1 Food INTRODUCTION Saline agriculture can provide food in several ways. Appropriate salt-tolerant plants currently growing in saline soil or water can be domesticated and their seeds, fruits, roots, or foliage used as food. When the foliage is too high in salt for direct consumption, the leaves can be processed to yield salt-free protein, which can be used to fortify traditional foods. In addition, conventional food crops can be bred or selected to tolerate mildly saline water. This section will examine some of the littIe-known seed-bearing plants that grow in saline environments and their special charac- teristics, the use of foliage from salt-tolerant plants to produce leaf protein, some salt-tolerant fruits, and the performance of some con- ventional food crops with saline water. Of conventional crops, the only ones with halophytic ancestors are sugar-, fodder-, and culinary beets (all Beta vulgaris) and the date palm (Phoenix daclylifera). These plants can be irrigated with brackish water without serious loss of yield. Of about 5,000 crops that are cultivated throughout the world, few can survive with water that contains more than about 0.5 percent salt, and most suffer serious losses of yield at about 0.1 percent salt. In searching for crops for saline agriculture, those that currently comprise the bulk of human 17

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18 food should be considered as models maize, wheat, rice, potatoes, and barley. If these major crops can be grown using saline resources, or if new, salt-tolerant crops that are acceptable substitutes can be developed, the worId's food supply will have a more diverse and vastly expanded base. Along with significant technical impediments to the widespread use of saline resources for food production, social barriers may exist as well. Food preparation is one of mankind's most culture-bound activities. Food selection, cooking method and participants, flavor, consistency, and serving time and place are often established by long tradition, and practitioners are resistant to change. New foods that require significant changes in any of these practices are unlikely to be readily accepted. GRAINS AND OII SEEDS Many seed-bearing halophytes have an interesting characteristic: although they may have significantly greater levels of salt in their stems, branches, and leaves than conventional plants, their seeds are relatively salt-free. Seeds of halophytes and salt-sensitive plants have about the same ash and salt content, as shown in Table 2. TABLE 2 Protein, Oil, and Ash Contents of Seeds from Salt-Sensitive and Salt-Tolerant Plants. Seed Percent of Dry Weight as Protein Oil Ash - Salt-Sensitive Safflower 14.3 30.4 2.5 Sesame 18.6 49.1 5.3 Soybean 40.0 18.8 4.8 Sunflower 17.5 36.0 3.6 Salt-Tolerant Atriplex canescens 5.4 1.0 6.5 Atriplex triangularis 16.4 9.4 3.5 Cakile edentula 28.6 52.2 5.2 Cakile maritime 21.5 47.1 5.0 Chenopodiurn quinoa 12.1 7.5 3.1 Crithmum maritimum 21.5 41.4 8.0 Kosteletzkya virginica 23.8 18.1 5.0 SOURCE: O'Leary, 1985.

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19 This has valuable consequences. Although the direct consump- tion of halophyte vegetative tissue by humans and animals can be limited by its salt content, the seeds of many halophytes present no such obstacle. This allows consideration of a wide variety of seed-producing halophytes as new sources of grains or vegetable oils. Some salt-tolerant grains and oilseeds have already been used or examined. Almost fifty species of seed-bearing seagrasses grow in nearshore areas of the worId's oceans. One of these, Zostera marina, grows fully submerged in seawater. EeIgrass (Zostera marina) grows wed in the Gulf of California in North America. In this region, seawater temperatures seldom fall below 12C and can reach 32C in summer. Sunlight is intense. At maturity in the spring, the reproductive stems bearing the seed break loose and are washed ashore. Harvest involves collecting these stems and separating the seeds. The seeds, ~3.5 mm long and weighing up to about 5.6 ma, contain about 50 percent starch, 13 percent protein, and 1 percent fat. The Seri Indians used this seed as one of their major foods. Although the potential for growing a food crop directly in seawa- ter is attractive, there are obstacles to broader cultivation of eeIgrass. Coastal deserts offer the best possibility, but tidal action is required; these grasses apparently cannot grow in stagnant water. In warm, dry climates the plants can tolerate only short exposure to the air. Palmer saltgrass (~D"tichlis palmer)) grows in tidal flats and marshy inlets in the Gulf of California, and thrives with tidal inun- dations of seawater. It ~ a perennial with tough rhizomes from which emerge densely crowded stems about 0.5 m tall. The spikelets, which bear the seed, readily shatter and are also dislodged by tidal action. Although this shattering is generally undesirable in a crop (because seed on the ground ~ difficult to gather), with Pahner saltgrass, the spikelets float and are washed ashore. These seeds were gathered by the Yuman Indians, ground into flour, and consumed as a gruel. It can also be used to make bread. Once established, Pahner saltgrass should not need replanting. Preliminary observations Antic ate that it is fast-growing and the standing crop is extremely dense. These dense stands along with the saline conditions should reduce competition from weeds. Field tests with hybrid cultivars of this crop yielded about 1,000 kg of grain per hectare when irrigated with water containing 1-3 percent salt. Optimum yields are projected to be obtained at about 2 percent

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20 TABLE 3 Nutritional Composition of D`stichl~s palmer) vs. Wheat and Barley. Percent of Crop Protein Fiber Fat Ash Carbohydrate D. palmer) 8.7 8.4 1.8 1.6 79.5 Wheat 13.7 2.6 1.9 1.9 79.9 Barley 13.0 6.0 1.9 3.4 75.7 SOURCE: Yensen, 1985. salinity. The nutritional characteristics of D. palmer) are summarized in Table 3. The grain from a D. palmer) variety developed by NyPa, Inc. has a well-balanced arn~no acid profile and three times the fiber of common wheat. Antinutritional physic acid is very low, and gluten, a potentially allergenic protein, is not present in detectable amounts. Alkali sacaton (Sporobolus airo']es) is a widespread perennial grass in the western United States and northern Mexico, often oc- curring on alkaline or semisaTine soils. Its 0.95-1.2 mm grain is edible and was probably a significant food resource for Hopi and Palute Indians of the North American Southwest. The grain is readily sep- arated, produced in large quantity, and should be suitable for har- vesting with a basket. Although S. helvolus and S. maderaspatanus also grow on saline soils, the use of their grain as food has not been reportecl. \ Pearl millet or bajra (Pennisetum typhoides), a popular food grain in Africa and India, has been grown on coastal dunes near Bhavnagar using seawater (EC = 26.~37.5 dS/m) for irrigation. When seedlings were established with fresh water and fertilizer ap- plied, multiple irrigations with seawater gave yields of 1.0-1.6 tons per hectare of grain and 3.3-6.5 tons per hectare of fodder. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is a staple of the Andean high- lands. An annual herb, quinoa grows 1-2.5 m tall at altitudes of 2,500-4,000 m. The plant matures in 5-6 months, producing white or pink seeds in large sorghum-like clusters. Although the seeds are small, they comprise 30 percent of the dry weight of the plant. Yields of 2,500 kg per hectare have been reported. Quinoa has a protein content that is higher, and an amino acid composition that is better balanced, than the major cereals. Although quinoa has bitter tasting constituents chiefly saponins in the seed's outer layer, these can

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23 TABLE 4 Acacia Seed Composition. Percentage of Energy Carbo Species DcJ) Protein Fat hydrate Water Ash A. aneura 2220 23.3 37.0 25.5 4.3 9.7 A. coruacea 1491 23.8 7.7 48.1 17.1 3.7 A. cowleana 1507 22.2 10.1 44.6 15.6 7.2 A. dictyophleba 1519 26.8 6.3 49.0 11.2 6.5 Wheat* 13.7 1.9 79.9 -- 1.9 *Water-free composition SOURCE: Peterson, 1978. Many Acacia seeds are rich in nutrients with higher energy, protein, and fat contents than wheat or rice. The high protein levels (~20 percent) suggest breadmaking potential, and the high fat contents (up to 37 percent) indicate potential as oilseeds. About 50 of the 800 species of Acacia found in Australia have been used as food by Australian aborigines. Twenty of these were staple foods. In most cases dry ripe seeds were ground to a coarse flour that was then mixed with water to give an unleavened dough, which was baked on hot stones or in the ashes of a fire. Table 4 provides some information on a few Acacia seeds. Seeds from salt-tolerant Tecticornia species were also used by Australian aborigines. The small (1.5-1.8 mm) seeds were ground to flour and used for making bread. T. australasica and T. verrucosa grow to about 40 cm in coastal mudflats above the normal tidal level. Germination of the seed appears to be dependent on seasonal rains leaching the salt from the upper soil layer. T. verrucosa also occurs inland on moderately saline flats. Indian almond (Terminatia catappa) is an erect tree reaching 15-25 m. It probably originated in Malaysia and was spread by its fruits carried on ocean currents. It is cultivated in much of India and Burma and has become common in east and west Africa, the Pacific Islands, and in coastal areas of tropical America. Its ellipsoidal fruit is 4-7 cm long and 2.5-3.8 cm wide, the edible kerned is 3-4 cm long and 3-5 mm thick, and, in many varieties, the fruit is sweet and palatable. The nut is used as an airr~ond substitute, and the wood is valued for construction and furniture use. The tree seems well adapted to sandy and rocky coasts. In Florida, it is known to withstand flooding, wind, and ocean spray, as well as saline soils.

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26 __^~ i, .. _~^~ _~ ~.~_^~_ ~ _ Meter irri~io~~ -dry -( yields ~ l? tags per beck bare couth keg ~ the Opted St. Id he C.~be~. Id c~_ed ~ ~t~bJ~e in Odin: Add Id _tb~m China ~ 1ocaer. ~{Fdr~ gem) is ho ups ~ a potherb

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Be: ~ Mao B~S ~) ~ ~ hp~~l~ also =~61\ Meted Was of Bow 2 togs Her mat Of claret ~ 18 tag per ~$~= of ~z $~ ~E aster i~lg~lon Gil. Cast Id ~ saws Id maps. lt ~ repaved to camp an lag per 1~00 vlt~n C ad a vita ^ patency ~ ?,5~ 1.~. per 1~ g. Me awes ~ ma ~ (~= =~^~j bee Been used Sedation gong cad ales ~ tile US o1 Dance beg Aura ~ a cave tab ~= ~ emit dyed ~ 21~3~ kg pa ~ stag- ~l~t~ ~ Or for Satan. a. ~^e~ IS ^ ~ ~ ~ . gouts area. . [. . en ~1 ~ ~ ~ succulent ~ berth Ibe ledges ad as of the play ` gnaw data ~ be

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39 the honey being used directly by the farmer or sold for added income. Although it would probably not be cost eEective to establish salt- tolerant plants solely for honey production, it could be a valuable adjunct while plants are maturing for other uses. The black mangrove (Avicennia germinans), for example, has an intense summer flow of nectar heavily gathered by honeybees. Fourteen other tropical and subtropical plants that are valuable honey sources are listed in Table 7. REFERENCES AND SELECTED READINGS General Downton, W. J. S. 1984. Salt tolerance of food crops: prospectives for improve- ments. CRC Critical Rcuiews ire Plant Sciences 1~3~:183-201. Epstein, E. and D. W. Rains. 1987. Advances in salt tolerance. Plant and Soil 99:17-29. Gallagher5 J. L. 1985. Halophytic crops for cultivation at seawater salinity. Plant and Soil 89:323-336. Gamborg, O. L., R. E. B. Ketchum and M. W. Nabors. 1986. Tissue culture and cell biotechnology for increased salt tolerance in crop plants. Pp. 81-92 in: R. Ahmad and A. San Pietro (eds.) Prospect for Biosalinc Research. University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan. Jain, S. C., R. K. Gupta, O. P. Sharma and V. K. Paradkar. 1985. Agronomic manipulation in saline sodic soils for economic biological yields. Current science 54~9~:422-425. Mans, E. V. 1986. Crop tolerance to saline soil and water. Pp. 205-219 in: R. Ahmad and A. San Pietro (eds.) Prospect for Bio~alinc Research. University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan. Misrahi, Y. and D. Pasternak. 1985. Effect of salinity on quality of various agricultural crops. Plant and Soil 89:301-307. O'Leary, J. W. 1985. Saltwater crops. CHEMTECH 15~9~:562-566. O'Leary, J. W. 1987. Halophytic food crops for arid lands. Pp. 1-4 in: Strategies for Classification and Management of Native Vcgetahon for Food Production in Arid Arca`. Report RM-150, Forest Service, USDA, Ft. Collins, Colorado 80526, US. Pasternak, D. 1987. Salt tolerance and crop production-a comprehensive approach. Annual Review of Phytopathology 25:271-291. Pasternak, D. and Y. De Malach. 1987. Saline water irrigation in the Negev Desert. in: Agriculture and Food Production in the Middle East. Proceedings of a Conference on Agriculture and Food Production in the Middle East, Athens, Greece. January 21-26,1987. Somers, G. F. 1982. Food and economic plants: general review. Pp. 127-148 in: A. San Pietro ted.) Bio~alincRcecarch Plenum Press, New York, New York, US.

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40 Grains and Oileeede Zostera marina de Cock, A. W. A. M. 1980. Flowering, pollination and fruiting in Zostcra marina. Aquatic Botany 9~3~:210-220. Felger, R. S. and C. P. Me Roy. 1975. Seagrasses as potential food plants. Pp. 62-69 in: C. F. Somers (ed.) Scedbearing Halophytcs as Food Plar - . College of Marine Studies, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, US. Thorhaug, A. 1986. Review of seagrass restoration efforts. Ambio 15~2~:110-117. Distichlis Yensen, N. P., S. B. Yensen and C. W. Weber. 1985. A review of D~tichl" spp. for production and nutritional values. Pp. 809-822 in: E. E. 17Vhitehead, C. F. Hutchinson, B. N. Timmermann, and R. G. Varady (eds.) Arid Lands Today and Tomorrow, Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, US. Yensen, N. P. 1988. Plants for salty soil. Arid Lands Newsletter 27:3-10. University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, US. Yensen, N. P. 1987. Development of a rare halophyte grain: prospects for reclamation of salt-ruined lands. Journal of the Washington Academy of Scicnece 77~4~:209-214. Sporobolus airoides Chadha, Y. R. (ed.~. 1976. Sporobolu`. The Wealth of India X:24-25. CSIR, New Delhi, India. Doebley, J. F. 1984. 'iSeeds" of wild grasses: a major food of Southwestern Indians. Economic Botany 38:52-64. Ezcurra, E., R. S. Felger, A. D. Russell and M. Equihua. 1988. Freshwater islands in a desert sand sea: the hydrology, flora, and phytogeography of the G ran Desierto oases of northwestern Mexico. Dc~crt Plank 9~2~:35-44,55-63. Heizer, R. F. and A. B. Elsasser. 1980. The Natural World of the California Indiana. University of California Press, Berkeley, California, US. Quinoa Atwell, W. A., B. M. Patrick, L. A. Johnson and R. W. Glass. 1983. Charac- terization of quinoa starch. Cereal Chemistry 60~1~:9-11. Risi, J. and N. W. Galwey. 1984. The Chenopodium grains of the Andes: Inca crops for modern agriculture. Advance in Applied Biology 10:145-216. Kosteletzkya virginica Gallagher, J. L. 1985. Halophytic crops for cultivation at seawater salinity. Plant and Soil 89:323-336. Islam, M. N., C. A. Wilson and T. R. Watkins. 1982. Nutritional analysis of seashore mallow seed, Kostdetzkya virginica. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 30~6~:1195-1198.

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41 Acacias Orr, T. M. and L. J. Hiddins. 1987. Contributions of Australian acacias to human nutrition. Pp. 112-115 in J. W. Turnbull ted.) Australian Acacias in Developing Countries. ACIAR Proceedings no. 16. Canberra, Australia. Brand, J. C., V. Cherikoff and A. S. Truswell. 1985. The nutritional composition of Australian Aboriginal bushfoods - 3, seeds and nuts. Food Technology in Australia 37:275-279. Peterson, N. 1978. The traditional patterns of subsistence to 1975. Pp. 22-35 in: B. S. Hetzel and H. J. E`rith teds.) 17`c Nutnhon of Aborigir~cs in Relation to the Ecosystem of Central Australia. CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia. Terminalia catappa Morton, J. F. 1985. Indian almond ~ Tcrminalia catappa), salt-tolerant, use- ful, tropical tree with minute worthy of improvement. Economic Botany 39:101-112. Argan Morton, J. F. and G. L. Voss. 1987. The argon tree (Argania ~iderozylon, Sapotaceae), a desert source of edible oil. Economic Botany 41:221-223. Salicornia Charnock, A. 1988. Plants with a taste for salt. New Scientist 120~1641~:41-45. Tubers and Foliage Batis maritime Glenn, E. P. and J. W. O'Leary. 1985. Productivity and irrigation requirements of halophytes grown with seawater in the Sonoran Desert. Journal of Arid Environmcnts 9tl):81-91. Sesuvium portulacastrum Chadha, Y. R. (ed.~. 1972. Sc~uvium. The Wealth of India 1X:304. CSIR, New Delhi, India. Portulaca oleracea Sen, D. N. and R. P. Bansal. 1979. Food plant resources of the Indian deserts. Pp. 357-370 in: J. R. Goodin and D. K. Northington teds.) Arid Plant Rceourecs. Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, US. Crithmum maritimum E`ranke, W. 1982. Vitamin C in sea fennel (Crithmum maritimum), an edible wild plant. Ecorzemic Botany 36:163-165.

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42 Okusanya, O. T. 1977. The effect of sea water and temperature on the germina- tion behavior of Crithmum maritimum. Physiologic Plantarum 41~4~:265-267. Atriplex triangularis Islam, M. N.,, R. R. Genuario and M. Pappas-Sirois. 1987. Nutritional and sensory evaluation of Atriplcz triangularu leaves. Food Chemistry 25:279-284. Khan, M. A. 1987. Salinity and density effects on demography of Atriplcz triangularu Willd. Pakistan Journal of Botany 19~2~:123-130. Riehl, T. E. and I. A. Ungar. 1983. Growth, water potential, and ion ac- cumulation in the inland halophyte Atripkz trian,uIaru under saline field conditions. Acta Occologica, Occologsa Plantarum 4:27-39. Mesembryanthemum crystallinum Sastri, B. N. (ed.~. 1962. Mcsembryanthemurn~ The Wcalth of India VI:349. CSIR, New Delhi, India. Suceda maritime Chadha, Y. R. (ed.~. 1976. Suacda. 17`c Wcalth of India X:70-71. CSIR, New Delhi, India. Leaf Protein Carleton, R. 1988. Leaf N?~tricr~ for Human Consumption. A Global Ovcr~new (Swedish). University of Lund, Lund, Sweden. Carlsson, R. 1980. Quantity and quality of leaf protein concentrates from Atriplcz horteneu, Chenopodium guinea and Amaranthue caudatw grown in southern Sweden. Acta Agriculturac Scandina?'ica 30~4~:418-426. Carlsson, R. 1975. Ccntro~permac Species and Other Species for Production of Leaf Protein. Ph.D. thesis. University of Lund, Lund, Sweden. Fellows, P. 1987. Village-scale leaf fractionation in Ghana. Topical Science 27:77- 84. Martin, C. 1987. Leaf extract boosts nutritional value. VITA News (July):11-12. Maddison, A. and G. Davys. 1987. Leaf protein - a simple technology to improve nutrition. Appropriate Technology 14~2~:10-11. Pirie, N. W. 1987. Leaf Protein and its By-product in Human arid Animal Nutrition. - Cambridge University Press, New Rochelle, New York, US. Singh, A. K. 1985. The yield of leaf protein from some weeds. Acla Botar~ca Indica 13(2):165-170. Valensuela, J. 1988. Protein for the young and needy. South 88:99. EVuit8 Salvadora Gupta, R. K. and S. K. Saxena. 1968. Resource survey of Salvadora olcoidcs and 5. peraica for non-edible oil in western Rajasthan. Topical Ecology 9:140-152.

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43 Ezmirly, S. T. and J. C. Cheng. 1979. Saudi Arabian medicinal plants: Salvadora peraica. Plants Mcdica 35~2~:191-192. Chadha, Y. R. (ed.~. 1972. Salvadora. WcaBh of India 1X:193-195. CSIR, New Delhi, India [yciums Felger, R. S. and M. B. Moser. 1984. Pcopic of the Defeat and Sea. Elthno botany of the Scri Indians. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona, US. Greenhouse, R. 1979. Tic Iron arid Calcium Cor~cnt of Some Ihd~honal Pima Foods and the Facets of Preparation Methods. (Thesis) Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, US. Santalum acuminatum Jones, G. P., D. J. Tucker, D. E. Rivett and M. Sedgley. 1985. The nutritional potential of the quandong (Santalum acumination) kernel. Journal of Plant Foods 6~4~:239-246. Possingham, J. 1986. Selection for a better quandong. Awirahan Horticulture 84~2~:55-59. Sedgley, M. 1982. Preliminary assessment of an orchard of quandong seedling trees. Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Scicnec 48:52-56. Traditional Crops Asparagus Nichols, M. A. 1986. Asparagus coming into its own as a high-value field crop. Agribu~nc" Worldwide 6~8~:15-18. Robb, A. 1984. Asparagus production using mother fern. Asparagus Research Newsletter (New Zealand) 2~1~:24. Rice Akbar, M. 1986. Breeding for salinity tolerance in rice. Pp. 37-55 in: R. Ahmad and A. San Pietro (eds.) Prospects for Bio~alinc Research. University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan. Dubey, R. S. and M. Rani. 1989. Influence of NaCl salinity on growth and metabolic status of protein and amino acids in rice seedlings. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Scicnec. 162~2~:97-106. Ponnamperuma, F. N. 1984. Role of cultivar tolerance in increasing rice pro- duction on saline lands. in: R. C. Staples & G. H. Toenniessen (eds.) Salt Toleranec in Plank. John Wiley, New York, New York, US. Wang, C.-K., S.-C. Woo and S.-W. Ko. 1986. Production of rice plantlets on NaCl-stressed medium and evaluation of their progenies. Botanical Bestirs Academia Sinica 27:11-23. Barley Anonymous. 1982. New variety yields 1.2 tonnes/ha when irrigated from the ocean. International Agricultural Dcoclopmcnt 2~3) :29.

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44 Iyengar, E. R. R., J. Chikara and P. M. Sutaria. 1984. Relative salinity tolerance of barley varieties under semi-arid climate. Ihneactioru of Indian Society of Desert Technology 9~1~:27-33. Norlyn, J. D. and E. Epstein. 1982. Barley production: irrigation with seawater on coastal soil. Pp. 525-529 in: A. San Pietro (ed.) Biosalir~c Research Plenum Press, New York, New York, US. Wheat Dvorak, J., K. Rose and S. Mendlinger. 1985. Transfer of salt tolerance from lytrigia Portia to wheat by the addition of an incomplete Florida genome. Crop Scicnec 25:306-309. Forster, B. 1988. Wheat can take on more than a pinch of salt. New Scic~t 120(1641):43. Gorham, J., E. McDonnell and R. G. Wyn Jones. 1984. Salt tolerance in the Triticeae: Lcymw eabulo~w. Journal of Ez~crimerdal Botany 35:1200-1209. Gulick, P. and J. Dvorak. 1987. Gene induction and repression by salt treatment in the roots of the salinity-sensitive Chinese Spring wheat and the salinity- tolerant Chinese Spring x 131ytrigia elongate amphiploid. Proceedings of the National Academy of Scicnece 84:99-103. Mans, E. V. and J. A. Pass. 1989. Salt sensitivity of wheat at various growth stages. Imgahon Scicnec 10:29-40. Rana, R. S. 1986. Genetic diversity for salt-~tress resistance of wheat in India. Rachu 5(1):32-37. Rana, R. S. 1986. Evaluation and utilization of traditionally grown cereal cultivars of salt affected areas of India. Indian Journal of Gcnctica 46:121- 135. Rawson, H. M., R. A. Richards and R. Munns. 1988. An examination of selection criteria for salt tolerance in wheat, barley and triticale genotypes. Australian Journal of Agricultural Rcacarch 39:759-792. Sajjad, M. S. 1986. Evaluation of wheat germplasm for salt tolerance. Rachis 5~1~:28-31. Maize Ahmad, R., S. Ismail and D. Khan. 1986. Use of highly saline water for irrigation at sandy soils. Pp. 389-413 in: R. Ahmad and A. San Pietro (eds.) Prospects for Bio~alinc Rcecarch University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan. Mans, E. V., G. J. Hoffman, G. D. Chaba, J. A. Poss and M. C. Shannon. 1983. Salt sensitivity of corn at various growth stages. Imgahon Scicnec 4:45-57. Pasternak, D., Y. De Malach and I. Borovic. 1985. Irrigation with brackish water under desert conditions. II. Physiological and yield response of maize (Zca mays) to continuous irrigation with brackish water and to alternat- ing brackish-fresh-brackish water irrigation. Agricultural water Management 10:47-60. Pessarakli, M., J. T. Huber and T. C. Tucker. 1989. Dry matter yields, nitrogen absorption, and water uptake by sweet corn under salt stress. Journal of Plant Nutrition 12~3~:279-290. Totawat, K. L. and A. K. Mehta. 1985. Salt tolerance of maize and sorghum genotypes. Annals of Arid Zone Rcacarch 24~3~:229-236.

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1 45 Tomato Misrahi, Y. 1982. Effect of salinity on tomato fruit ripening. Plard Physiology 69:966-970. Jones, R. A. 1987. Genetic advances in salt tolerance. Pp. 125-138 in: D. J. Nevins & R. A. Jones (eds.) Tomato Biotcch~logy. Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York, New York, US. Onion Miyamoto, S. 1989. Salt effects on germination, emergence, and seedling mor- tality of onion. Agrorwmy Journal 81~2~:202-207. Honey Crane, E. 1985. Bees and honey in the exploitation of arid land resources. Pp. 163-175 in: G. E. Wickens, J. R. Goodin and D. V. Field (eds.) Plants for Arid Lands. George Allen & Unwin, London, UK. Morton, J. F. 1964. Honeybee plants of South Florida. Procecdir~g~ of the Florida State Horticultural Society 77:415-436. RESEARCH CONTACTS General Rafiq Ahmad, Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi 32, Pakistan. James Aronson, 12 rue Vanneau, 34000 Montpellier, Etrance. Akissa Bahri, Centre de Recherches du Genie Rural, BP No. 10, Ariana 2080, Tunisia. John L. Gallagher, College of Marine Studies, University of Delaware, Lewes, DE 19958, US. Oluf L. Gamborg, Tissue Culture for Crops Project, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, CO 80523, US. E. R. R. Iyengar, Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar 364 002, India. T. N. Kho~hoo, Department of Environment, Bikaner House, Shahjahan Road, New Delhi 110 011, India. Gwyn Jones, Human Nutrition Section, Deakin University, Victoria 3217, Aus- tralia. S. Miyamoto, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, 1380 A&M Circle, E1 Paso, TX 79927, US. Yosef Misrahi, Boyko Institute for Research, Ben Gurion University, PO Box 1025, Beer-Sheva 84110, Israel. Gary P. Nabhan, Office of Arid Lands Studies, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719, US. Dov Pasternak, Institute for Desert Research, Ben Gurion University, Sede Boger 84990, Israel. James D. Rhoades, USDA Salinity Research Laboratory, Riverside, CA 92501, US.

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46 M. C. Shannon, USDA Salinity Research Laboratory, Riverside, CA 92501, US. G. E. Wickens, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AE, UK. Xie Cheng-Tao, Institute of Soil and Fertilizers, 30 Baishiqiao Road, Beijing 100081, People's Republic of China. Grams and Odeeede Zostera marina Richard S. Felger, Office of Arid Lands Studies, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719, US. Distichlis N. Yensen, NyPa, Inc., 727 North Ninth Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85705 US. Quinoa Rolf Carlsson, Institute of Plant Physiology, University of Lund, Box 7007, S-220 07 Lund, Sweden. Instituto Interamericano de Ciencias Agricolas OEA, Andean Zone, Box 478, Lima, Peru. John McCamant, Sierra Blanca Associates, 2560 South Jackson, Denver, CO 80210, US. Ministerio de Asuntos Campesinos y Agropecuarios, Biblioteca Nacional Agro- pecuria, La Paz, Bolivia. E. J. Weber, Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Division, IDRC Regional Office, Apartado Aereo 53016, Bogota, Colombia. Pennisetum typhoides E. R. R. Iyengar, Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar 364 002, India. Kosteletzkya virginica J. L. Gallagher, College of Marine Studies, University of Delaware, Lewes, DE 19958, US. M. N. Islam, Department of Food Science, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, US. Acacia Janette C. Brand, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. Tecticornia Paul G. Wilson, Western Australian Herbarium, PO Box 104, Como, WA 6152, Australia.

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47 Terminalia catappa Julia F. Morton, Director, Morton Collectanea, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124, US. Argan Julia F. Morton, Director, Morton Collectanea, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124, US. Salicornia James O'Leary, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719, US Carl Hodges, Environmental Research Laboratory, Tucson International Airport, Tucson, AZ 85706 Leaf Protem Walter Bray, 13-15 Frognal, London NW3 GAP, UK. Rolf Carlsson, Institute of Plant Physiology, University of Lund, Box 7007, S-220 07 Lund, Sweden. Peter Fellows, Oxford Polytechnic, Gipsy Lane, Oxford OX3 OPB, UK Shoaib Ismail, Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi 32, Pakistan. Carol Martin, Find Your Feet, 345 West 21st Street, Suite 3D, New York, NY 10011, US. A. K. Singh, S 4/50 D4, Taipur, Orderly Bazar, Varanasi, 221002, India. Fruits Quandong Margaret Sedgley, Waite Agricultural Research Institute, University of Adelaide, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia. Lycium Richard S. Felger, Office of Arid Lands Studies, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719, US. Coccoloba uvifera Cent ro Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenaz a, Turrialb a, Costa Rica. Institute of Tropical Forestry, PO Box AQ, Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico 00928, US. Instituto Forestal Latino-Americano, Apartado 36, Merida, Venezuela.

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48 Traditional Crops Asparagus Yoel De Malach, Ramat Negev Regional Experimental Station, Doar Na Halutsa 85515 Israel. M. A. Nichols, Department of Horticulture and Plant Health, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand. Rice I. U. Ahmed, Department of Soil Science, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 2, Bangladesh. M. Akbar, International Rice Research Institute, PO Box 933, Manila, Philip- p~nes. F. N. Ponnamperuma, International Rice Research Institute, PO Box 933, Manila, Philippines. R. S. Rana, Genetics Research Center, Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal 132001, India. C.-K. Wang, Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan. Barley E. Epstein, Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, US. R. T. Ramage, College of Agriculture, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, US. E. R. R. Iyengar, Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar 364 002, India. H. M. Rawson, Division of Plant Industry, CSIRO, PO Box 1600, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia Wheat E. Epstein, Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis 95616, CA, US. S. Jana, Department of Crop Science and Plant Ecology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon SN7 OWO, Canada. R. Munns, Division of Plant Industry, CSIRO, PO Box 1600, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia R. S. Rana, Genetics Research Center, Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal 132001, India. M. Siddique Sajjad, Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, PO Box 128, Faisalabad, Pakistan. J. P. Srivastava, Cereal Improvement Program, International Center for Agri- cultural Research in Dry Areas, Aleppo, Syria. R. G. Wyn Jones, Department of Biochemistry and Soil Science, University College of North Wales, Bangor LL57 2UW, Wales, UK. Maize D. Khan, Shoaib Ismail, Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi 32, Pakistan.

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49 Yoel De Malach, Ramat Negev Regional Experimental Station, Doar Na Halutza 85515 Israel. K. L. Totawat, Department of Soil Science, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur 313 001, India. Tomato Yoel De Malach, Ramat Negev Regional Experimental Station, Doar Na Halutza 85515 Israel. Richard A. Jones, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, US. Honey Eva Crane, International Bee Research Association, Hill House, Gerrards Cross, Bucks SL9 ONR, UK.