Cover Image

PAPERBACK
$18.00



View/Hide Left Panel
Click for next page ( 75


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 74
: :: ~ AN ~ ~' ~t I p~ -A the =~4 pro~n ~ a~t It ~ here that p=~ ~ -m arr~ ~d

OCR for page 74
75 where the planting of trees and shrubs may be most helpful. The use of salt-tolerant species in pasture unprovement may allow the use of brackish water for irrigation. In this section, salt-tolerant grasses, shrubs, and trees with po- tential for fodder use are described. GRASSES EaBar Grass Kaliar grass (Leplochloa fusca) is a highly salt-tolerant perennial forage that grows wed even in waterlogged conditions. Its deep roots help open hardened soils and harbor nitrogen-fixing bacteria. It recovers well from grazing and can also be cut for hay. Pastures can be established from seed, but the use of rooted slips or stem cuttings yields better results. KalIar grass Is widespread in tropical and southern Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia. Although largely indifferent to rainfall levels, it does require almost constant moisture for its roots. It grows best in waterlogged soils, lake or river margins, and on seasonally flooded flats. In Pakistan, March is the favored time for planting. A reasonable stand of grass develops in a month, with maximum yields during July and August, the monsoon season. Five cuttings can be obtained during the year with a total yield of about 40 tons of green fodder. Even during the winter months (November through February) when the growth of grass is retarded, a single cutting can yield 3 tons per hectare. Even this low yield is valuable in salt-affected areas where winter fodder is scarce. The grass appears palatable to sheep, goats, buffalo, and cattle. The qualities that allow kalIar grass to grow well under adverse conditions also contribute to its ability to compete well in rice fields and in irrigation canals as a weed. Silt Grass Silt grass (Paspalum vaginat;um) occurs naturally on muddy sea- coasts, in tidal marshes, and brackish sandy areas of tropical and subtropical regions. Either erect or prostrate, it has tough, creeping roots and forms dense mats. Once well established, it serves as a useful pasture grass, especially in bog and seepage areas that stay wet with salty water. Although quite suitable for grazing, it dries

OCR for page 74

OCR for page 74
77 Silt grass is especially useful for revegetating seepage areas that stay wet with salty water. (C.V. Malcolm) of Russian-thistIe is in the 15-20 percent range and the amino acid composition of this protein is quite similar to that of alfalfa. In a study in New Mexico (USA), biomass yields of 10 tons per hectare were demonstrated. Although salinity tolerance at germination is low, seedlings toler- ate brackish water wed, and this exposure seems to unprove salinity tolerance in the later vegetative and reproductive stages. Moderate salinity levels resulted in improved yields. Table 11 shows some of these data. Salsola may also find use as an energy crop. The energy content of field-dried Salsola ~ comparable to lignite. It has been successfully compressed into pellets for use as boiler fuel. Saltgrasees Distichtis spicata ~ used as forage for cattle near Mexico City. Grown on 20,000 hectares of salt flats, this may represent the worId's largest area devoted to an introduced halophyte. There are distinct seashore ant} inland ecotypes; the seashore ecotype has been grown with water twice as salty as seawater.

OCR for page 74
78 TABLE 11 Yield arid Moisture Content of Salsola iberica at Five Salinity Levels. (Saline irrigation was initiated six days after planting; harvest was 64 days after planting.) brig adon Fresh Dry Moisture Salinity (dS/m) Weighttg) Weighting) Content(%) 1.3 921.4 179.6 80.7 10.5 1,217.0 279.8 77.1 18.2 972.8 222.4 77.2 26.7 625.6 131.4 79.0 33.2 386.6 75.0 80.7 SOURCE: Fowler et al., 1985. Another variety of Distichlis developed by NyPa, Inc. has growth rates and nutrient characteristics similar to those of alfalfa. Yields of 20 tons per hectare (dry matter) have been reported using irrigation water containing 1-2 percent salts. A perennial that can tolerate both waterlogging and long periods of drought, it appears suitable for use in many hot arid areas where saline water is available for - Irrigation. Ch:~nne] Millet Channel millet (Echinochioa turnerana) is an uncultivated, wild Australian plant. Its most significant feature is that in its native habitat it requires only a single watering to develop from germination to harvest. It is always found In silty clay that cracks deeply when dry and is subjected to sporadic flooding. Sites may remain dry for years, but when flooding occurs growth is abundant. The seed will not germinate after light rains; deep flooding is required. Channel millet grows almost exclusively in the so-called 'channel country" of Queensland in inland Australia, where it is recognized as a productive, palatable, and nutritious fodder grass. The grain is consumed by cattle, horses, and sheep. In addition, the leaves, culms, and seedheads are eaten by livestock and the whole plant makes excellent hay. Little is known about the agronomy of channel millet; few at- tempts have been made to domesticate it and there is little docu- mented information on its botany, germination, growth, environmen- tal requirements, and yield. I,aboratory salinity testing indicated

OCR for page 74
79 that a Percent reduction in grain yield occurs at 24 dS/m. Some species of Echinochioa are ruinous weeds in rice fields. The weedi- ness of channel motet Is unknown, but quarantine measures should be used in its testing to prevent inadvertent release. E. crus-galli Is reported to be a good fodder for cattle, with its grain fed in tune of scarcity. E. frumentacea is grown as a quick- maturing (six weeks) food crop in India. Both are grown in Egypt on lands too saline for other crops. Cor~grasses Members of the Spartina genus are tough, long-leaved grasses found in tidal marshes in North America, Europe, and Africa. These grasses have hollow stems (calms) and rhizomes. The hollow stems allow air transport from the leaves to the roots during tidal inunda- tion to maintain aerobic conditions in the root zone. Most Spartina species propagate vegetatively by means of spreading underground rhizomes, which grow new roots and buds. Seeds are a less important means of propagation for most species. These grasses survive salt water and saline soils by excreting salt through special glands in their leaves. Spartina alterniflora (smooth cor~grass) is a tall (1-3 m), robust species that grows closest to the water line. It transplants well and can be seeded under some conditions. S. folioso (California cor~grass) is shorter (1 m) and produces less seed. It grows along the western coast of North America from California to Mexico. S. patens (salt meadow cor~grass) grows densely in marshes in the area of mean high water. S. patens has historically been used for grazing or cut for hay. s. atterniflora tidal salt marshes are important nursery grounds and sources of nutrients for aquatic organisms. These marshes also provide food and habitat for wildlife, reduce shoreline erosion, and assimilate excess nutrients from pollutants such as sewage and agri- cultural drainage. Because of this, studies have been made of estate lishment methods and long term stability of man-made marshes. In North Carolina (USA), it was shown that, after four growing seasons, there was no difference in growth between a transplanted S. allerni- flora marsh and an adjacent natural marsh. Biomass production of the two marshes was similar during the remainder of the ten-year study.

OCR for page 74
4~2 perce~:~ e < Orgy =~= =~ . . . ha~S even ~ ,s,~t Iev.~ ~ 4~t 2, perCent' S::~t -

OCR for page 74
81 Tall Wheat Grass Tall wheat grass (Elytrigia [Agropyron~ elongata') is native to southern Russia and Asia Minor where it grows in seashore marshes. It was introduced in Australia more than 50 years ago, where it has since been used for revegetating salted areas. A perennial, it is well adapted to poorly drained saline ~oils. Although it grows moderately wed on saline areas that are permanently wet, best growth occurs where the soil dries out in the summer. Tall wheat grass can be established from seed. It germinates well but is slow to establish. Once a crown of stems develops near ground level, it can withstand moderate grazing. Other Species Sporobolus airoides (see p. 20 ), S. heivolus, and S. maderas- patanus are all grown on sandy and saline soils in India as fodder for horses and cattle. In Pakistan, irrigation of S. arabicus with 17 dS/m water gave yields of 3.9 kg per m2 per year. In recent tests, S. stappanus demonstrated salt tolerance comparable to kalIar grass. Puccinellia distans (North Africa) and P. ciliate (Australia) are fodder grasses highly tolerant to salinity. Puccinellia has been widely used on saline areas in Australia. The plant is an outstanding pioneer species on bare salted land. Seedlings grow slowly and establishment is most successful on bare areas where there is no competition from other plants and where there is protection from grazing. Crude protein contents of 4 percent and digestibilities of about 50 percent are common. Hedysarum carnosum is a biennial fodder legume that occurs in eastern Algeria and Tunisia on saline clay soils. Native stands in southern Tunisia may yield 2,00() 3,000 kg dry matter per hectare per year. Data on H. carnosum and other salt-tolerant Mediterranean basin forage grasses are shown in Table 12. SHRUBS Although shrubs such as the saltbush (Atriplex) and bluebush (Maireana) occur widely on saline soils, their salt tolerance at germi- nation Is poor. Atriplex species have relatively narrow temperature ranges under which germination will occur. As the external salt con- centration increases, the temperature range for germination narrows. When saltbush and bluebush species are sown on saline soils under

OCR for page 74
pa Sues '~{C\. I $ ~ ~ seedlings. bungs $c#era~s)~u~ps ally leas% ~ ~Ilu~1es ~C. V. Malcolm ant a. J. alley. 1~1. We gales Dime Sewer fir plait est~lls\~^t on Cult site. ~^ ~ ^~ 3:1~*109.

OCR for page 74
83 TABLE 12 Fodder Grasses Growing on Salt-Affected Land in the Mediterranean Basin. Salt Frost Tolerances Species Rainfalls Tolerance2 EC dS/m Non-Legumes (Perennial) Festuca elatior 400 G 20 (subspecies arundinacea) Elytrigia elongatum 300 G 20 Agropyrops~s lolium 300 G 20 Pucciniella distans 200 G 20 Sporobolus tourneuxii 50 F 20 S. helvolus 50 F 20 Legumes (Annual & Biannual) Medicago ciliaris 400 F 10 M. intertexta 400 F 10 M. h~spada 200 F 10 Hedysarr~n carnosum 150 F 30 Melilotus indica 300 F 10 M. alba 300 G 10 (Perennial) Trifoliurn fragiferum 400 G 15 Lotus creticus 150 P 10 L. corniculatus 400 G 10 Teragonolobus siliquosus 400 G 15 1. Minimum rainfall requirement in rnm/yr. 2. Frost tolerance; G = good, F = fair, P = poor. 3. Maximum salt tolerance = electrical conductivity of soil saturation extract at 25C. SOURCE: Adapted from Le Houerou, 1986. . Deposits seed and muIch in the niche at approximately 2 m intervals and sprays the muIch and seed with a black coating to raise the soi] temperature. The seedbed shape, ridge height, and plant spacing can be ad- justed for different soi] and climatic conditions. In arid areas, the niche is made lower and wider to capture more water; ~n high rain- fall areas, it is made narrower and higher to reduce the danger of waterIogging. Although newly planted fields can usuaDy be protected from stock animals, the seedlings are attractive to insects, rodents, and other small animals that are more difficult to exclude. Atriplex Saltbushes grow throughout the worId. They tolerate salinity in soi! and water, and many are perennial shrubs that remain green

OCR for page 74
at: =11. T~ filled Alum Sewer (t~p) is Clump fir est~l~g straps on splat sewer acme tag Amps (~$~ ~ =llec$ Cater tc $Se plug saga Ems ~ glue ~ the ce~t~1 bang deposes ages Id Mulch 1~ tag glues ala spray tire ~1~h Ma saga fists ~ blow Tug to Else the sell tc~e~ture. (C.V. ~1~1~)

OCR for page 74
92 TREES Trees can be used as forage in several ways. Tees with low branches can be grazed directly. Management of these stands can involve seasonal control of stocking rates to avoid periods when the plants are susceptible to grazing damage. Trees with branches out of the reach of livestock can provide fallen leaves and pods for fodder. Such taller trees can also be lopped for fodder. Trees of any size can be protected in their stands and fodder cut and carried to the livestock. Acacia Acacia* species are widely used in arid and saline environments as supplementary sources of fodder. Although dry matter digestibil- ity of Acacia leaves has not been determined for a large number of species, available data indicate it is relatively low. This is proba- bly associated with the high lignin content of the cell wall and the presence of tannins, both of which inhibit digestibility. Acacia pods provide food for livestock in large areas of the semiarid zone of Africa. Since most of the Acacia branches are above the reach of the livestock, overgrazing is not a problem. A. Cyclops and A. bivenosa tolerate salt spray and salinity. They grow on coastal dunes as small trees or bushy shrubs. Pods and leaves of both are consumed by goats. Although salt tolerance is likely in many Acacia species found in coastal areas, it is unmeasured or ~ ,~ unconfirmed for most. A. ampliceps grows in saline soils in northwestern Australia and appears to be a useful fodder species. Other Australian Acacias with potential for use as fodder include A. holosericea, A. saZigna, A. salicina, and A. victoriae.** L`eucaena Leucaena leucocephala*** is a tree legume widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries. It is both salt and drought re- sistant. Leaves, pods, and seeds are browsed by cattle, sheep, and *See also Mangium and Other Fa~t-Gro wing Acacias for the Humid Tropics. To order, see p. 135. **Personal communication, Lex Thomson, CSIRO, Australia ***See also Leucacna: Pro miring Forage and Alec Crop for the Tropics. To order, see p. 135.

OCR for page 74
Me ~ Id Is ~!~!~!~i~i~!~t~} Bash same ma ~_~S~ t\~St~ t~e~-rld.~ ~!~ Act ~^ ~= ~ At galas {I 4~)~ ~ ~:~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I ~ !~!!~S!~ ~:~ it: ~ ~!~ EMS ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Ida age AIMS ~ =~e. :rust mat mat 0.5 m aim c_ ~^ ~ me ~d. mat gem go the Cb~ g~em~ Vega ~ I've tag Lea (P I. ~ _ ~: tab tag

OCR for page 74
^e ~ tag seats - e~ste~ P~ Eel ~~ ~f ~o~: C~. (l~t~to ^~1) A_ ~ c~ 'a Age trek read mat ~. ^ a. . . . .~ . ^ . ague a leeUl~g ~ .ue Slowly ~ tam 01 Quip h~ 3~561 percent digestibEi~ Id Me an exceDe~ Wed far

OCR for page 74
95 About 1.5 sheep per hectare can subsist on the tamarugo forest range and produce about 3-5 kg of woo} per fleece. Supplemental feeding with alfalfa raises meat yields. In addition, the dense and durable tamarugo wood finds many uses. The heartwood is extremely resistant to weathering and has desirable timber qualities. It is used for heavy construction, railway ties, poles, furniture, tool handles, and, because of its hardness, for parquet floors. It also makes superior firewood and can be used to produce a high quality charcoal as well. REFERENCES AND SELECTED READINGS General Ahmad, R. 1987. Saline Agriculture at Coastal Sandy Belt. University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan. Barrett-Lennard, E. G., C. V. Malcolm. W. R. Stern and S. M. Wilkins (eds.~. 1986. Forage and Fuel Prod?`ctior~fiom Salt Affected wasteland Elsevier, Oxford, UK. Greenwood, E. A. N. 1986. Water use by trees and shrubs for lowering saline groundwater. Rcclamation and Rcuegetation Research 5:423-434. Le Houerou, H. N. 1986. Salt tolerant plants of economic value in the Mediter- ranean basin. Rcclamation and Rcocgetation Research 5:319-341. Le Houerou, H. N. 1985. Forage and fuel plants in the arid zone of North Africa, the Near and Middle East. Pp. 117-141 in: G. E. Wickens, J. R. Goodin and D. V. Field (eds.) Plants for Arid Land`. George Allen & Unwin, London, UK. Le Houerou, H. N. 1979. Resources and potential of the native flora for fodder and sown pasture production in the arid and semi-arid zones of North Africa. Pp. 384-401 in: J. R. Goodin and D. K. Northington (eds.) Arid Land Plant Resourcce. Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, US. Looijen, R. C. and J. P. Bakker. 1987. Utilization of different salt-marsh plant communities by cattle and geese. Pp. 52-64 in: A. H. L. Huiskes, C. W. P. M. Blom and J. Rozema teds.) Vegetation Between Land and Sea. W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands. Mahmood, K., K. A. Malik, K. H. Sheikh and M. A. K. Lodhi. 1989. Allelopathy in saline agricultural land: vegetation successional changer and patch dynamics. Journal of Chemical Ecology 15~2~:565-579. McKell, C. M. 1986. Propagation and establishment of plants on arid saline land. Rcclamation and Rcocyetation Research 5:363-375. Rautenstrauch, K. R., P. R. Krausman, F. M. Whiting and W. H. Brown. 1988. Nutritional quality of Desert Mule Deer forage in King Valley, Arizona. Dc~crt Plants 8~4) :172-174. Sen, D. N., R. B. Jhamb and D. C. Bhandari. 1985. Utilization of saline areas of Western Rajasthan through suitable plant introduction. GEOBIOS 1985:348-360. Zedler, J. B. 1984. Sat M=sh Restoration California Sea Grant Program, Uni- versity of California, La Jolla, California 92093, US.

OCR for page 74
Gram I! !!!~- !4 aft ~!!~Z!~!~!~!:~I^~!!~is~. s S~S:.: :S:::~S: :~:~:S:~ ::S:S:~:::~:S~S:: S::::S .~:S: ~ ~ ~ ~ S.:::SS:: S: ,. SO ~ ~i,~!~!~!~19803~!~ ~!i~ . s ~ leg Is ~rss!~ult~e!~ssss~~ ~s~s~ss~> sP=ht~. (~61; MOB ,'' si1~, ~.'S~SA6a61l~6s~s~*s~s~ !~19#~2 :~s~~ ~ aid I i~!^!~!,~ I! ~!~!~ {!~!~1~95~l99~. 6~a~$. C. By-, 2. ^1~$ At. Sagas Ss~^~!~!~S=t~!~:!!B-~S!~q4~ 1~ ~!~ ~~ - C. #~ Jc~. 1~981- T~ e~ ~ ~I1~# on the ,^ i~ cowl ~= (~= go. ~ ~- 4:176181. I.. l~O~.~S!~t~s~ Jo. G~.~s Or! ma ~G~,!~S~~$ 1~9~;s ~C~} Jew Balm !~S!~=6 a! Beta: s up ~!~!~sch~$~ Spew ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~r+~ ~J.s~Lis;~s~Ss j~.~:~!i8~.~.~ :~ sea ~1~985!~ ~ I! !s~s~s~ ~ fat s ~ Is arm ~^ ~~ ~kso Mar Bumps ~e~ ~ Cage ~ ~1~ ALAS, - ~ -- -, S~) S ~ ~ ! Fs add All,! Sates. 1~2, Saw far sag alert, ~ plot . ~ . Cb^el Met ~^ ~ ~ ~ Saw a. C.+ sag- ~ ~; ^< R. a. ~S;~de~. 198!1 ~1~ Mel at. /~ ^~ ~:8~.. SO tamp ~ 6~$ B. >< .. 19~57. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I~:l24:l2~. CSI~, ^~ . ~is>. I. Rag_ throw, ~ a.: a. ~ Seneca ~d W. Taboo, Jr. 1~6. angled $t =~ Emit ~ $r~spl~nts of the s~-~h ~1)~^,

OCR for page 74
97 Rhodes Grass Malkin, E. and Y. Waisel. 1986. Mass selection for salt resistance in Rhodes grass (Chlon~ Guyana). Phy~ologica Plantarum 66:443-446. Tariq, A. R. and H. M. A. Tayab. 1984. Cultivation of Chloru gayana cv: Pioneer on saline water under hyper-arid climate. The Puritan Journal of Forestry 34~7~:151-154. Tan Wheatgrass Roundy, B. A. 1985. Emergence and establishment of basin wildrye and tall wheatgrass in relation to moisture and salinity. Journal of Range Management 38(2):126-131. Shannon, M. C. 1978. Testing salt tolerance among tall wheatgrass lines. Agronomy Journal 70:719-722. Hedy~arum carnosum Le Houerou, H. N. 1986. Salt tolerant plants of economic value in the Mediter- ranean basin. Reclamation and Rcuegetation Research 5:319-341. Puccinellia Negus, T. R. 1982. Puccinellia its grazing value and management. Farmnotc 34/82. Western Australia Department of Agriculture, South Perth, Aus- tralia. Negus, T. R. 1980. Spray-seed for puccinellia establishment. Fannnotc 17/80. Western Australia Department of Agriculture, South Perth, Australia. Sporobolus Ahmad, R. 1987. Saline Agriculture at Coastal Sandy Belt. University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan. Chadha, Y. R. (ed.~. 1976. Sporobolue. 17~c Wealth of India x 24-25. CSIR, New Delhi, India. Wood, J. N. and D. F. Gaff. 1989. Salinity studies with drought-resistant species of Spombolus. Occologia 78:559-564. S1unlbs General Malcolm, C. V. and T. C. Swaan. 1989. Screcr~ir~g Shrubs for Establishmcnt and Su?.uval on Sak-affccted Soils in Southwestern Australia. Technical Bulletin 81. Western Australia Department of Agriculture, South Perth, Australia. Malcolm, C. V. 1986. Saltland management-revegetation. Farmnotc 44/86. West- ern Australia Department of Agriculture, South Perth, Australia. Malcolm, C. V. 1983. Seeding shrub pastures on saltland. Farmnotc 43/83. Western Australia Department of Agriculture, South Perth, Australia.

OCR for page 74
0~' ~> C. Act. ~KeD ala o.~ ~ am. 1~98~2. ~ ~ ^~ ~6 mat ~ ~ui~ ~ ~sE-~s~_~gg op~ hasty Wages 4,rl~g~ h11 .E~6 I+ Tam- am ~ ~ So 35~f61~:~13753~ Isis sea . sssS ~ ss~ S s sag ~ so as s as as S ~ as s s . s ~ ads Bass S as ssS sea a: so . s x s sSs~ s scat as ~$ J. ^, D. Steam a~ ~ Debt. 1985. ~ =S S~ ~- u ~ 12~0 ha. u^~: =_r ~!~ ~ ~s~e^, C. F. ~t^!~$ B. Hi. ~_~ ma ~ C. ~(~s-} ~^ Is my; ~ 1~6~ ~ aim ~s~bet ~6 S~s-~=e~ ~^~'~^+s~a~sSB~ss~- ~B^~:'~l~Tl i ~ Am at isle it ~~ . If_ 4~E tea ~ the Wry ~ ask ~ id ~^ -s ~9~1~1. Is ~ ~^~$~ . ~. ~V, ~ ~1~985~P-ct;~.~s:s~lT~ :. aim: ~ ~ ~ Dep^~s ~/ -~ ~-tb~ss ~tulip. ~ ~ ~ ~ _^ ma. t~ ~5 ~ ^~ 7!1:82~8~2S. ^^b~$ ~ E. 19~. SO emu ~ Oar Ada scale plots { ~ tea. ~_- 11:1~1~. Zing Ha. A. 1~. ^~ pelts ~ ~ ~ ala ~ ~ ^ -B #~ ~ ~ SO ~ ~ ~ ~# 4~1~:~5~68. . ~ ~.. > C. V. ~d O. J. ^~esc~. 1982. SS~pEl~ far ~ To. 4/82. few ^~l~ I of ~, South ^~> t~l~.

OCR for page 74
99 Trees Acacia Goodchild, A. V. and N. P. McMeniman. 1987. Nutritive value of Acacia foliage and pods for animal feeding. Pp. 101-106 in: J. W. Turnbull (ed.) Australian Acacias in Developing Countric~. ACIAR Proceedings No.16, Canberra, Australia. Turnbull, J. W. 1986. Acacia an~liccpe. Multipurpose Awiralian Aces and Shrubs (Pp. 96-97~. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra, Australia. Leucaena Ahmad, R. 1987. Saline Agriculturc at Coastal Saruly Belt. University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan. Kitamura, Y. 1988. Leucaena for forage production in the Ryukyu Islands. Japan Agriculture Rcacawh Qum~crly 22~1~:40-48. Pros opis Almanza, S. G. and E. G. Maya. 1986. The use of mesquite (Prosopis spp.) in the highlands of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Forcat Ecology and Management 16:49-56. Corporacion de Fomento de la Produccion. 1983. Actividades Fore~tales y Ganaderas en la Pampa del Tamarugal (1963-1982~. Tomo I: Aspectos Forestales y Ganaderas. Tomo II: Aspectos Ganaderos. Tomo III: Aspectos Economicos y Evaluacion Social. Harden, M. L. and R. Zolfaghari. 1988. Nutritive composition of green and ripe pods of honey mesquite (Pro~opu glandulosa, Fabaceae). Econonuc Botany 42:522-532. Lyon, C. K., M. R. Gumbmann and R. Becker. 1988. Value of mesquite leaves as forage. Journal of the Scicnec of Food and Agriculturc 44~2~:111-117. Marangoni, A. and I. Alli. 1988. Composition and properties of seeds and pods of the tree legume Prosopi~ juliflora. Journal of the Scicnec of Food and Agriculture 44(2):99-110. Stienen, H. 1985. Prompt tamarugo in the Chilean Atacama - ecophysiological and reforestation aspects. Pp. 103-116 in: G. E. Wickens, J. R. Goodin and D. V. Field (eds.) Plank for And Lands. George Allen & Unwin, London, UK. Vercoe, T. K. 1987. Fodder potential of selected Australian tree species. Pp. 95-100: in J. W. Turnbull (ed.) Australian Acacias in Dcveloping Countrice. ACIAR Proceedings No. 16, Canberra, Australia. Zelada, L. and P. Joustra. 1983. Ganderia en La Pampa del Tamarugal. Panel VI Seminario Desarrollo de Zonas Deserticos de Chile. CORFO, Gerencia de Desarrollo AA 83/45. Santiago, Chile.

OCR for page 74
Os- J~s F~ 0~^ ^~ ~ A~; =~$ ~ 85719~: us J. ~ Berm Depart ~ Pair boas Dh~e=1~ of C=~i~> PO Id ~!~sss~!~s~I4~!~i~!9~o~!~s~ !~:~(~)~;~$her~S~ as a ~!ssss~ ~ ails !! ~$ ~ CBPE/~s~!~=eti~!~! BP ~500~l $ I ~0~$ all ~!~ ~:~pe-~!~s~!~s~!~s~ aims as is! Sacs C. a. ~11> ~oo~1 of ~ri1 Scares, Mar S~t=4~s!~6l~g$~0~., us .s a. ~ a. : So .s~s SSSS:: I. .~.: Is ~ ~ ~ swish is. ~! ~: ~sari. !SS::~S aim: ~ 6~ Oral . .~ sS ~ s ~ ss .~ S ~ sss I PO ~!~!B=S!~ Lab ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . . ~ ^ B ~ ~ ~ ! ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ! ~ ~ ~ t # ~ ~ * e ~ ! ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ r ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ! I C ~ ~ I 9 ~ ~ ~ ~ i ! ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I ~ ~ i ~ S ! l ~ # ! # e ~ ~ ~ , S S ! ! ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ P ~ G. ~ Jonas Cager for <1d~ me Stags, ^~e~i~ Co]- ~ ^~B ~1~', B~!r$ ~1~, ~!7 2~$ I. ^s, ~ ant arm 0!. 9,~!~!~0l~, angst ~ ~sts~D~~e~ ~ ^^blture$ South ~) 615; If s ~ as ~ F. ^~, ~ ~l~t~e~> -~- ~ ^ as ~ be. ~ ^~1~ ~ ~!1, ~1! 0~!~> FL J.~ L. lea ~DSp~=t~ ~# Camp ~lIS~S6~l=~s~ ~w ~ State Chew sl^~sC~S arm S. At' ~$ In ~.; 727 ~h ~1~h amen Saga ^2 ~85~5s~! Bug!. Cat. SERUM+ USES SO ~e~ L^oz^^ 4500 C1~^ Dow Cord Gr_ D. L. 0~$ Blur ~11il~ ^~: S^~' ~ 7~ By. J. L. Colliers ^11~ of ~ Studl=' Oi^=l~ of Bell Bush DE 1~S587 US. E. D. ~: ^~h C~1~s State amid Em TIC 2S95, us.

OCR for page 74
101 Rhodes Grass Y. Waisel, Department of Botany, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel. TaD Wheatgra~s J. Dvorak, Department of Agronomy and Range Science, University of Califor- nia, Davis, CA 95616, US. B. A. Roundy, School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, US. Hedy~arum carnosum H. N. Le Houerou, CEPE/Louis Emberger, BP 5051, Montpellier-Cedex 34033, France. PuccineHia C. V. Malcolm, Western Australia Department of Agriculture, South Perth 6151, Australia. Shrubs Triples R. K. Abdul-Halim, Department of Land Reclamation, Center for Agriculture and Water Resources, Council for Scientific Research, PO Box 2416, Baghdad, Iraq. A. E1 Hamrouni, Institut des Regions Arides, 4119 Medenine, Tunisia. H. N. Le Houerou, CEPE/Louis Emberger, BP 5051, Montpellier-Cedex 34033, France. C. V. Malcolm, Western Australia Department of Agriculture, South Perth 6151, Australia. C. M. McKell, School of Natural Sciences, Weber State College, Ogden, UT 84408, US. J. F. O'Leary, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719, US. M. K. Sankary, Range and Arid Zone Ecology Research Unit, University of Aleppo, PO Box 6656, Aleppo, Syria. D. N. Ueckert, Texas A&M University Research and Extension Center, San Angelo, TX 76901, US. Maireana P. R. George, Western Australia Department of Agriculture, South Perth 6151, Australia. B. Kok, Department of Agriculture, Carnarvon, W. A. 6701, Australia. Kochia M. A. Zahran, Department of Botany, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

OCR for page 74
102 Q~s~V.~^~e~ _t=^ss~s~s~-th~s~E 615~1' Itch ~ ~,,~,,s ~ . , ~ ~ tocC$~ ^, V. OS~!lla$ D~^ of ^~1 ~, Ill of 99~1~, St, apt ~ ~S9~S~s7~iCS=' Pp saw 4Q~$ Q.-, ~ ~, Cambers ~ 26~; ~t~i~ as ~ sass ~ E ~ ISIS :S BERM a: S SE ' ASH S: ' ~ SS sS HE'S: as :: J. I, ~1< ~ Or ~e~ ~1~ ~ ,~CPO ~ lSYl, powers, ACT ~2~1~> Rile. T. K. ^_$ CS~I=; PO ~ 4~> Q~ ~ ~e;~C~ ACT : :: A::: ~ 4~$ spot of ~ ^~ ~ ~r~l$ K~1 32$ age. ~a:= c_ ~ Sandier ~~E ~t~> Jb~1, Utter Page 9~= ~ de ~61~= ~1$ 4.^ 6713> C~11, ^~;~. OIL P~=t$ ~ ~ 0~> ~ ~1, B1~, us. ~. Item ~^~1~ ~ PA ~$~u~ de ~s$1~ s~u= ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ j lo grail; _~= S54, t~11~1i ~5$ Settle, CElie. JO fig-, ~1~ ~o ~ 64 as WE }, at C[~1~- ~r Aster, Cager far _~ ~e4~ Ad ~, ~t~