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SALINE AGRICULTURE Salt-Tolerant Plants for Developing Countries Report of a Panel of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development Office of International Affairs National Research Council National Academy Press Washington, DC 1990

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. The Board on Science and Technology for International Development (BOSTID) of the Office of International Affairs addresses a range of issues arising from the ways in which science and technology in developing countries can stimulate and complement the complex processes of social and economic development. It oversees a broad program of bilateral workshops with scientific organizations in developing countries and publishes special studies of technical processes and biological resources of potential importance to developing countries. This report has been prepared by a panel of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development, Office of International Affairs, National Research Council. Staff support was funded by the Office of the Science Advisor, Agency for International Development, under Grant No. DAN 5538-G-SS-1023-00. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 89-64265 ISBN 0-309-04189-9 S088 Printed in the United States of America

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Preface Populations in developing countries are growing so quickly that the land and water are unable to sustain them. In most developing countries, prime farmland and fresh water are already fully utilized. Although irrigation can be employed to bring land in arid areas into production, it often leads to salinization. In some countries, the amount of newly irrigated land is equalled by salinized irrigated land going out of production. Moreover, irrigation water is often drawn from river basins or aquifers shared by several countries, and friction . Over its use Is common. Salt-tolerant plants, therefore, may provide a sensible alterna- tive for many developing countries. In some cases, salinized farm- land can be used without costly remedial measures, and successful rehabilitation of degraded land is usually preferable, in terms of re- source conservation, to opening new land. Groundwater too saline for irrigating conventional crops can be used to grow salt-tolerant plants. Even the thousands of kilometers of coastal deserts in devel- oping countries may serve as new agricultural land, with the use of seawater for irrigation of salt-tolerant plants. These plants can be grown using land and water unsuitable for conventional crops and can provide food, fuel, fodder, fiber, resins, essential oils, and phar- maceutical feedstocks. This report will cover some of the experiences and opportunities in the agricultural use of saline land and water. The purpose of this - 111

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report is to create greater awareness of salt-tolerant plants their current and potential uses, and the special needs they may fill in developing countries on the part of developing country scientists, planners, and administrators, and their counterparts in technical ~ ~ assistance agencies. Introducing new crops is always risky. Each species has its own peculiarities of germination, growth, harvest, and processing. When unfamiliar plants are launched where land, water, and climate are hostile, difficulties are compounded. Salt-tolerant plants will require special care to help meet the needs of developing countries, but, given their promise, this attention seems increasingly justifiable. Preparation of this report was coordinated by the Board on Sci- ence and Technology for International Development in response to a request from the U. S. Agency for International Development. would like to acknowledge the contributions of the Panel, the many scientists who reviewed and revised the manuscript, and, in partic- ular, to thank James Aronson and Olive Malcolm for their generous assistance. Griffin Shay Staff Study Director 1V

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PANEL ON SALINE AGRICULTURE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 3. R. GOODIN, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, Chairman. EMANUEL EPSTEIN, University of California, Davis, California, USA CYRUS M. MCKELL, Weber State College, Ogden, Utah, USA JAMES W . O 'WEARY, Environmental Research Laboratory, Tucson, Arizona, USA Special Contributors RAFIQ AHMAD, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan JAMES ARONsoN, Ben Gurion University, Beer-Sheva, Israel AKISSA BAHRI, Centre de Recherches du Genie Rural, Ariana, Tunisia ROLF CARLSSON, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden JOHN :1:. GALLAGHER, University of Delaware, Lewes, Delaware USA H. N. LE Hol;JERou, CEPE/Louis Emberger, Montpellier, France E. R. R. TYENGAR, Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar, India C. V. MALCOLM, Western Australia Department of Agriculture, South Perth, Australia K. A. MALIK, Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, Faisalabad, Pakistan J. F. MORTON, Morton Collectanea, Coral Gables, Florida, USA DAVID N. SEN, University of Jodhpur, Jodhpur, India N. YENSEN, NyPa, Inc., Tucson, Arizona, USA M. A. ZAHRAN, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt National Research Council Staff GRIFFIN SHAY, Senior Program Officer, Staff Study Director NoEL VIETMEYER, Senior Program Officer F. R. RUSKIN, Editor ELIZABETH MouzoN, Administrative Secretary J OHN HURLEY, Director, Board on Science and Technology for International Development MICHAEL MCD. Dow, Associate Director, Studies v

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Contents INTRODUCTION OVERVIEW ............ 1 ........................................................ 11 Introduction, 17 Grains and OiTseeds, 18 Tubers and Foliage, 26 Leaf Protein, 28 Fruits, 32 Traditional Crops, 33 References and Selected Readings, 39 Research Contacts, 45 17 FUEL` 50 Introduction, 50 FueTwood Trees and Shrubs, 52 Liquid Fuels, 65 Gaseous Fuels, 67 References and Selected Readings, 67 Research Contacts, 72 FODDER Introduction, 74 ~ V11 74

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Grasses, 75 Shrubs, 81 lYees, 92 References and Selected Readings, 95 Research Contacts, 100 FIBER AND OTHER PRODUCTS ....... Introduction, 103 Essential OiTs, 103 Gums, OiTs, and Resins, 105 PuIp and Fiber, 109 Bioactive Derivatives, 116 Landscape and Ornamental Use, 120 References and Selected Readings, 122 Research Contacts, 127 - 103 INDEX. e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e 131 Board on Science and Technology for International Development (BOSTID) BOSTID Publications e ee v~n 34 35