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116 REFERENCES the System Work. Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science. Blank, R. K. 1989. Educational Effects of Magnet High Schools. Paper presented at the Conference on Choice and Control in American Education, University of Wisconsin-Madison, May 17-19, 1989. Madison, Wis.: National Center on Effective Secondary Schools. Blumberg, F., M. Epstein, W. MacDonald, and I. Mullis. 1986. A Pilot Study of Higher- Order Thinking Skills Assessment Techniques in Science and Mathematics. Final Report, Parts I and II. National Assessment of Educational Progress. Princeton, N.J.: Educational Testing Service. Blystone, R. V. 1989. Biology learning based on illustrations, pp. 155-164. In W. G. Rosen, Ed. High-School Biology Today and Tomorrow. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Brandwein, P. F. and A. H. Passow, Eds. 1989. Gifted Young in Science: Potential Through Performance. Washington, D.C.: National Science Teachers Association. BSCS (Biological Sciences Curriculum Study). 1989. Science for middle school students. BSCS. The Natural Selection. 1958-1989. September: 5. Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development. 1989. Turning Points: Preparing American Youth for the 21st Century. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Corporation of New York. Carnegie Task Force on Teaching as a Profession. 1986. A Nation Prepared: Teachers for the 21st Century. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Forum on Education and the Economy. Carnevale, A. P., L. J. Gainer, and A. S. Meltzer. 1988. Workplace Basics: The Skills Employers Want. Alexandria, Va.: American Society for Training and Development. Champagne, A. B., and I. M. Baden. 1988. Science teaching: Making the system work, pp. 1-39. In A. B. Champagne and I. M. Baden, Eds. Science Teaching: Making the System Work. Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science. Cho, H.-H., J. B. Kahle, and F. H. Nordland. 1985. An investigation of high school biology textbooks as sources of misconceptions and difficulties in genetics and some suggestions for teaching genetics. Science Education 69~5~:707-719. Chubb, J. E. 1988. Why the current wave of education reform will fail. Public Interest 90(Winter): 28-49. Clark, G. M., Ed. 1969. Life Sciences in the Middle School. Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Special Publication No. 7. Boulder, Colo: University of Colorado. College Board. 1987. Advanced Placement Course Description: Biology. New York: The College Entrance Examination Board. Committee on Policy for Racial Justice. 1989. Visions of a Better Way: A Black Appraisal of Public Schooling. Washington, D.C.: Joint Center for Political Studies Press. Conant, J. B. 1960. Recommendations for Education In the Junior Sign ~cnoo~ wars. Princeton, N.J.: Educational Testing Service. A Connecticut Department of Education. 1988a. BEST: Beginning Educator Support and Training Program. Hartford, Conn.: Connecticut Department of Education. Connecticut Department of Education. 1988b. Connecticut Continuum: Connecticut's Commitment to the Teaching Profession. Hartford, Conn.: Connecticut Department of Education. Connecticut Department of Education. 1988c. Cooperating Teacher Program. Hartford, Conn.: Connecticut Department of Education.

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118 REFERENCES Holmes Group. 1986. Tomorrow's Teachers: A Report of the Holmes Group. East Lansing, Mich.: College of Education, Michigan State University. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 1989. Modern Biology. New York, N.Y.: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Hooper, C. 1990. NSF's $251 million catalyst for change. Journal of NIH Research 2(April):28-29. Hummel, T. J., and S. M. Strom. 1987. The relationship between teaching experience and satisfaction with teacher preparation: A summary of three surveys. Journal of Teacher Education 38~5~:28-36. Hurd, P. D. 1989a. A life science core for early adolescents. Middle Schools Journal 20~5~:20-24. Hurd, P. D. 1989b. Problems and issues in science-curriculum reform and imple- mentation, pp. 291-297. In W. G. Rosen, Ed. High-School Biology Today and Tomorrow. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. IEA (International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement). 1988. Science Achievement in Seventeen Countries. A Preliminary Report. New York, N.Y.: Pergamon Press. Institute of Medicine. 1989. Research on Children and Adolescents with Mental, Behavioral and Developmental Disorders. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Jackson, P. W. 1983. The Reform of Science Education: A Cautionary Tale. Daedalus Spring: 143-166. Kahle, J. B. 1982. Can positive minority attitudes lead to achievement gains in science? Analysis of the 1977 National Assessment of Educational Progress, Attitudes Toward Science. Science Education 66(4~:539-546. Kahle, J. B. 1985. Retention of Girls in Science: Case Studies of Secondary Teachers. In J. B. Kahle, Ed., Women in Science: A Report From the Field. Philadelphia, Pa.: The Palmer Press. Kahle, J. B. 1987. Scores: A project for change? International Journal of Science Education 9~3~:325-333. Kahle, J. B., and M. K. Lakes. 1983. The myth of equality in science classrooms. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 20:131-140. Kennedy, D. 1990. Stanford in Its Second Century. Stanford University Campus Report, April 11, pp. 17-18. Klein, S. P., and J. Kosecoff. 1973. Issues and Procedures in the Development of Criterion Referenced Tests. TM Report 26. ERIC Clearinghouse on Tests, Measurement, and Evaluation, Educational Testing Service, Princeton, New Jersey. Lapointe, A. E., N. A. Mead, and G. W. Phillips. 1989. A World of Differences. An In- ternational Assessment of Mathematics and Science. Princeton, N.J.: Educational Testing Service. Leonard, W. H., G. R. Cavana, and L. F. Lowery. 1981. An experimental test of an extended discretion approach for high school laboratory investigations. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 18:497-507. Lerner, L. S., and W. J. Bennetta. 1988. The treatment of theory in textbooks. Science Teacher. April:37-41. Linn, M. C. 1986. Science. In R.F. Dillon, and R. J. Sternberg. Cognition and Instruction. New York, N.Y.: Academic Press. Linn, M. C., and J. S. Hyde. 1989. Gender, mathematics, and science. Educational Researcher 18~8~:17-27. MacDonald, W. B. 1989. The advanced-placement biology examination: Its rationale, development, structure, and results, pp. 71-78. In W. G. Rosen, Ed. High-School Biology Today and Tomorrow. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

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