Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page 115
References AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Science). 1988. Science Books and Films 23~4) (March/April). AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Science). 1989. Project 2061. Science for All Americans. Washington, D.C.: AAAS. Airasian, P. W. Institutional barriers to school change, pp. 252-265. In W. G. Rosen, Ed. High-School Biology Today and Tomorrow. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Aldridge, B. G. 1989. Fire up secondary school science. School Administrator 46~7~: 18-20. Alston, D. A. 1988. Recruiting Minority Classroom Teachers: A National Challenge. Washington, D.C.: National Governors' Associaton. Anderson, C. W. 1989. Assessing student understanding of biological concepts, pp. 55 70. In W. G. Rosen, Ed. High-School Biology Today and Tomorrow. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Anderson, O. R. 1989. The Teaching and Learning of Biology in the United States. Second IEA Science Study (IEA). New York, N.Y.: Teachers College, Columbia University. Arons, A. B. 1989. What science should we teach?, pp. 13-20. In Curriculum Development for the Year 2000. A BSCS Thirtieth Anniversary Symposium. Colorado Springs, Colo.: Biological Sciences Curriculum Study. Atkinson, R. C. 1989. Supply and demand for science and engineering PhDs: A national crisis in the making. Remarks to the Regents of the University of California, February 16, 1989. Bethel, L. J. 1984. Science teacher preparation and professional development, pp. 143-157. In D. Holdzkom and P. B. Lutz, Eds. Research Within Reach: Science Education. Washington, D.C.: National Science Teachers Association. Blank, R. K. 1988. The role of state policies in improving science education, pp. 61-96. In A. B. Champagne and I. M. Baden, Eds. Science Teaching: Making 115
OCR for page 116
116 REFERENCES the System Work. Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science. Blank, R. K. 1989. Educational Effects of Magnet High Schools. Paper presented at the Conference on Choice and Control in American Education, University of Wisconsin-Madison, May 17-19, 1989. Madison, Wis.: National Center on Effective Secondary Schools. Blumberg, F., M. Epstein, W. MacDonald, and I. Mullis. 1986. A Pilot Study of Higher- Order Thinking Skills Assessment Techniques in Science and Mathematics. Final Report, Parts I and II. National Assessment of Educational Progress. Princeton, N.J.: Educational Testing Service. Blystone, R. V. 1989. Biology learning based on illustrations, pp. 155-164. In W. G. Rosen, Ed. High-School Biology Today and Tomorrow. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Brandwein, P. F. and A. H. Passow, Eds. 1989. Gifted Young in Science: Potential Through Performance. Washington, D.C.: National Science Teachers Association. BSCS (Biological Sciences Curriculum Study). 1989. Science for middle school students. BSCS. The Natural Selection. 1958-1989. September: 5. Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development. 1989. Turning Points: Preparing American Youth for the 21st Century. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Corporation of New York. Carnegie Task Force on Teaching as a Profession. 1986. A Nation Prepared: Teachers for the 21st Century. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Forum on Education and the Economy. Carnevale, A. P., L. J. Gainer, and A. S. Meltzer. 1988. Workplace Basics: The Skills Employers Want. Alexandria, Va.: American Society for Training and Development. Champagne, A. B., and I. M. Baden. 1988. Science teaching: Making the system work, pp. 1-39. In A. B. Champagne and I. M. Baden, Eds. Science Teaching: Making the System Work. Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science. Cho, H.-H., J. B. Kahle, and F. H. Nordland. 1985. An investigation of high school biology textbooks as sources of misconceptions and difficulties in genetics and some suggestions for teaching genetics. Science Education 69~5~:707-719. Chubb, J. E. 1988. Why the current wave of education reform will fail. Public Interest 90(Winter): 28-49. Clark, G. M., Ed. 1969. Life Sciences in the Middle School. Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Special Publication No. 7. Boulder, Colo: University of Colorado. College Board. 1987. Advanced Placement Course Description: Biology. New York: The College Entrance Examination Board. Committee on Policy for Racial Justice. 1989. Visions of a Better Way: A Black Appraisal of Public Schooling. Washington, D.C.: Joint Center for Political Studies Press. Conant, J. B. 1960. Recommendations for Education In the Junior Sign ~cnoo~ wars. Princeton, N.J.: Educational Testing Service. A Connecticut Department of Education. 1988a. BEST: Beginning Educator Support and Training Program. Hartford, Conn.: Connecticut Department of Education. Connecticut Department of Education. 1988b. Connecticut Continuum: Connecticut's Commitment to the Teaching Profession. Hartford, Conn.: Connecticut Department of Education. Connecticut Department of Education. 1988c. Cooperating Teacher Program. Hartford, Conn.: Connecticut Department of Education.
OCR for page 117
REFERENCES 117 Cooperman, S., and L. Klagholz. 1985. New Jersey's alternative route to certification. Phi Delta Kappan 66~10~:691-695. Cronin, J. E., and A. J. Almquist. 1988. Fact, fancy, and myth on human evolution. Current Anthropology 29(3~:520-522. Crooks, T. J. 1988. The impact of classroom evaluation practices of students. Review of Educational Research 58~4~:438-481. Driver, R., D. Child, R. Gott, J. Head, S. Johnson, C. Worsley, and F. Wylie. 1964. Science in schools: Age 15. Report No. 2. Assessment of Performance Unit, University of Leeds. Publication available from: Association for Science Education, College Lane, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, England, AL 10 9AA. Education Commission of the States. 1985. Report of the Business Advisory Committee. Denver, Colo.: Education Commission of the States. Eichhorn, D. H. 1966. The Middle School. New York, N.Y.: Center for Applied Research in Education, Inc. Eisenhardt, W. B. 1976. A search for the predominant causal sequence in the in- terrelationship of interest in academic subjects and academic achievement. A cross-lagged panel correlation study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Duke University. Xerox University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Epstein, K. C. 1987. Many Ohio science teachers favor study of creationism. Plain Dealer (Cleveland, Ohio), September 3. Eylon, B.-S., and M. C. Linn. 1988. Learning and instruction: An examination of four research perspectives in science education. Review of Educational Research 58(3):251-301. Frank, P. 1957. Philosophy of Science: The Link Between Science and Philosophy. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall. Gallagher, J. 1986. A summary of research in science education 1985. Science Education 71 :271-455. GAO (U.S. General Accounting Office). 1984. New Directions for Federal Programs to Aid Mathematics and Science Teaching. (GAO/PEMD-84-5) Washington, D.C.: U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO (U.S. General Accounting Office). 1988. R&D Funding: The Department of Education in Perspective. (GAO/PEMD-88-18FS). Washington, D.C.: U.S. General Accounting Office. Giamatti, A. B. 1988. A Free and Ordered Space: The Real World of the University. New York, N.Y.: W. W. Norton and Co. Gould, S. J. 1988. The case of the creeping fox terrier clone. Natural History January: 16-24. Green, J. 1987. The Next Wave: A Synopsis of Recent Education Reform Reports. Denver, Colo.: Education Commission of the States. Green, K. C. 1989. A Profile of Undergraduates in the Sciences. Keynote presentation, meeting of the Sigma Xi National Advisory Group on Undergraduate Education in the Sciences, Mathematics and Engineering at the Wingspread Conference Center, Racine, Wis., on January 23, 1989. Guskey, T. R. 1986. Staff development and the process of teachers change. Education Research May:5-12 Guyton, E., and E. Farokhi. 1987. Relationships among academic performance, basic skills, subject matter knowledge, and teaching skills of teacher education graduates. Journal of Teacher Education 38~5):37-52. Haney, W. 1984. Testing reasoning and reasoning about testing. Review of Educational Research 54~4~:597-654. Hofstein, A., and V. N. Lunetta. 1982. The role of laboratory in science teaching: Neglected aspects of research. Review of Educational Research 52~2~: 201-217.
OCR for page 118
118 REFERENCES Holmes Group. 1986. Tomorrow's Teachers: A Report of the Holmes Group. East Lansing, Mich.: College of Education, Michigan State University. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 1989. Modern Biology. New York, N.Y.: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Hooper, C. 1990. NSF's $251 million catalyst for change. Journal of NIH Research 2(April):28-29. Hummel, T. J., and S. M. Strom. 1987. The relationship between teaching experience and satisfaction with teacher preparation: A summary of three surveys. Journal of Teacher Education 38~5~:28-36. Hurd, P. D. 1989a. A life science core for early adolescents. Middle Schools Journal 20~5~:20-24. Hurd, P. D. 1989b. Problems and issues in science-curriculum reform and imple- mentation, pp. 291-297. In W. G. Rosen, Ed. High-School Biology Today and Tomorrow. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. IEA (International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement). 1988. Science Achievement in Seventeen Countries. A Preliminary Report. New York, N.Y.: Pergamon Press. Institute of Medicine. 1989. Research on Children and Adolescents with Mental, Behavioral and Developmental Disorders. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Jackson, P. W. 1983. The Reform of Science Education: A Cautionary Tale. Daedalus Spring: 143-166. Kahle, J. B. 1982. Can positive minority attitudes lead to achievement gains in science? Analysis of the 1977 National Assessment of Educational Progress, Attitudes Toward Science. Science Education 66(4~:539-546. Kahle, J. B. 1985. Retention of Girls in Science: Case Studies of Secondary Teachers. In J. B. Kahle, Ed., Women in Science: A Report From the Field. Philadelphia, Pa.: The Palmer Press. Kahle, J. B. 1987. Scores: A project for change? International Journal of Science Education 9~3~:325-333. Kahle, J. B., and M. K. Lakes. 1983. The myth of equality in science classrooms. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 20:131-140. Kennedy, D. 1990. Stanford in Its Second Century. Stanford University Campus Report, April 11, pp. 17-18. Klein, S. P., and J. Kosecoff. 1973. Issues and Procedures in the Development of Criterion Referenced Tests. TM Report 26. ERIC Clearinghouse on Tests, Measurement, and Evaluation, Educational Testing Service, Princeton, New Jersey. Lapointe, A. E., N. A. Mead, and G. W. Phillips. 1989. A World of Differences. An In- ternational Assessment of Mathematics and Science. Princeton, N.J.: Educational Testing Service. Leonard, W. H., G. R. Cavana, and L. F. Lowery. 1981. An experimental test of an extended discretion approach for high school laboratory investigations. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 18:497-507. Lerner, L. S., and W. J. Bennetta. 1988. The treatment of theory in textbooks. Science Teacher. April:37-41. Linn, M. C. 1986. Science. In R.F. Dillon, and R. J. Sternberg. Cognition and Instruction. New York, N.Y.: Academic Press. Linn, M. C., and J. S. Hyde. 1989. Gender, mathematics, and science. Educational Researcher 18~8~:17-27. MacDonald, W. B. 1989. The advanced-placement biology examination: Its rationale, development, structure, and results, pp. 71-78. In W. G. Rosen, Ed. High-School Biology Today and Tomorrow. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
OCR for page 119
REFERENCES 119 Mayer, W. V. 1978. Biology Teachers' Handbook. 3rd ed. New York, N.Y.: John Wiley and Sons. Mayer, W.V. 1986. Biology Education in the United States During the Twentieth Century. The Quarterly Review of Biology 61~4~:481-507. Merriam, R. W. 1988. A function in trouble: Undergraduate science teaching in research universitites. Journal of College Science Teaching November: 102, 106. Miller, J. D. 1989. The development of interest in science, pp. 79-90. In W. G. Rosen, Ed. High-School Biology Today and Tomorrow. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Moyer, W. A. 1989. Developing a synthesis between seventh-grade life-science and tenth-grade biology, pp. 131-138. In W. G. Rosen, Ed. High-School Biology Today and Tomorrow. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Mullis, I. V. S. 1989. What high-school juniors know about biology: Perspectives from NAEP, the Nation's Report Card, pp. 91-98. In W. R. Rosen, Ed. High-School Biology Today and Tomorrow. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Mullis, I. V. S., and L. B. Jenkins. 1988. The 1986 Science Report Card: Elements of Risk and Recovery. National Assessment of Educational Progress, Educational Testing Service. Princeton, N.J.: Educational Testing Service. Murname, R. J., and S. A. Raizen. 1988. Improving Indicators of the Quality of Science and Mathematics Education in Grades K-12. Committee on Indicators of Precollege Science and Mathematics Education, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NABT (National Association of Biology Teachers). 1985. NABT Teaching Standards. News & Views. Reston, Va.: National Association of Biology Teachers. Nachmias, R., and M. C. Linn. 1987. Evaluations of science laboratory data: The role of computer-presented information. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 24(5):491-506. National Academy of Sciences. 1984. High schools and the Changing Workplace: The Employer's View. Report of the Panel on Secondary School Education for the Changing Workplace, Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Commission on Excellence in Education. 1983. A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. National Governors' Association Center for Policy Research. 1988. Getting Ready for the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. Washington, D.C.: National Governors' Association. National Governors' Association. 1990. National Education Goals. Adopted by the members of the National Governors' Association on February 25, 1990. (Unpublished manuscript) NCRTE (National Center for Research on Teacher Education). 1988. Teacher education and learning to teach: A research agenda. Journal of Teacher Education 39~6~:27- 32. New Jersey State Department of Education. 1989. The Provisional Teacher Program. Fifth Year Report. Trenton, N.J.: New Jersey State Department of Education. New York Times. New Jersey, in 5 years, solves teacher shortage. September 13, 1989. BlO. New York Times. Japan keeps up the big spending to maintain its industrial might. April 11, 1990. Al, D7. Novak, J. D. 1988. Learning science and the science of learning. Studies in Science Education 15:77-101.
OCR for page 120
120 REFERENCES NRC (National Research Council), Mathematical Sciences Education Board. 1989a. Everybody Counts: A Report to the Nation on the Future of Mathematics Education. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC (National Research Council). 1989b. A Common Destiny: Blacks and American Society. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NSF (National Science Foundation). 1988. Program Solicitation. Programs for Middle School Science Instruction. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation. NSRC (National Science Resources Center). 1988. Science for Children: Resources for Teachers. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NSTA (National Science Teachers Association). 1984. Standards for the Preparation and Certification of Teachers of Science, K-12. Washington, D.C.: National Science Teachers Association. OTA (U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment). 1988. Elementary & Sec- ondary Education for Science and Engineering (OTA-SET-41~. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Paul, D. B. 1987. The nine lives of discredited data: Old textbooks never die they just get paraphrased. Sciences May/June:26-30. Pauling, L. 1939. The Nature of the Chemical Bond and the Structure of Molecules and Crystals. Ithaca, N. Y.: Cornell University Press. Resnick, L. B. 1987. Education and Learning to Think. Report of the Committee on Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Resnick, D. P., and L. B. Resnick. 1985. Standards, curriculum, and performance: A historical and comparative perspective. Educational Researcher 14:5-21. Richter, B., and D. Wenzel. 1986, 1987. The Museum of Science and Industry Basic List of Children's Science Books 1986 and 1987. Chicago, Ill.: American Library Association. Robinson, J. T. 1979. A critical look at grading and evaluating practices, pp. 1- 31. In M. B. Rowe, Ed. What Research Says to the Science Teacher. Vol 2. Washington, D.C.: National Science Teachers Association. Robinson, J. T. 1989. Issues in objectives and evaluation, pp. 45-54. In W. G. Rosen, Ed. High-School Biology Today and Tomorrow. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Science Curriculum Framework and Criteria Committee. 1984. Science Framework Addendum for California Public Schools: Kindergarten and Grades One Through Twelve. Sacramento, Calif.: California State Department of Education. Smith, E. L., and C. W. Anderson. 1984. Plants as producers: A case study of elementary science teaching. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 21~7~:685- 698. Stake, R. E., and J. A. Easley. 1978. Case Studies in Science Education Vol. II. Design, Overview and General Findings. Center for Instructional Research and Curriculum Evaluation and Committee on Culture and Cognition, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Stiggins, R. J. 1987. Design and Development of Performance Assessments. NCME Instructional Module. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice. Washington, D.C.: National Council for Measurement in Education. Stiggins, R. J., D. A. Frisbie, and P. A. Griswold. Undated. Inside High School Grading Practices: Building a Research Agenda. Portland, Ore: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.
OCR for page 121
REFERENCES 121 Subcommittee on Instructional Materials and Publications, Committee on Educational Policies, Division of Biology and Agriculture, National Academy of Sciences- National Research Council. 1957. Criteria for preparation and selection of science textbooks. A.I.B.S. Bulletin November:26-28. Tamir, P., and F. Glassman. 1970. A practical examination for BSCS students. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 7~2~:197-212. Task Force on Women, Minorities and the Handicapped in Science and Technology. 1989. Changing America: The New Face of Science and Engineering. Washing- ton, D.C.: Task Force on Women, Minorities and the Handicapped in Science and Technology. Taylor, G. S. 1989. Different schools: Same barriers, pp. 278-288. In W. G. Rosen, Ed. High-School Biology Today and Tomorrow. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Tobin, K. G. 1989. Learning in science classrooms, pp. 25-38. In Curriculum Development for the Year 2000. A BSCS Thirtieth Anniversary Symposium. Colorado Springs, Colo.: Biological Sciences Curriculum Study. Tobin, K. G., and J. J. Gallagher. 1987. What happens in high school science classrooms? Journal of Curriculum Studies 19:549-560. Tyson-Bernstein, H. 1988. A Conspiracy of Good Intentions. Washington, D.C.: Council for Basic Education. U.S. Department of Education. 1989. Back-to-School Forecast. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. . Department of Labor, U.S. Department of Education, and U.S. Department of Commerce. 1988. Building a Quality Workforce. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor. Van Til, W., G. F. Vars, and J. H. Lounsbury. 1961. Modern Education for the Junior High School Years. Indianapolis, Ind.: Bobbs Merrill Co. Vetter, B. M. 1987. Women's Progress. Mosaic 18~1~:2-9. Vetter, B. M. 1989. Look who's coming to school. Changing demographics: Im- plications for science education, pp. 1-9. In Curriculum Development for the Year 2000. A BSCS Thirtieth Anniversary Symposium. Colorado Springs, Colo.: Biological Sciences Curriculum Study. Watson, J. D. 1965. Molecular Biology of the Gene. New York, N.Y.: W. A. Benjamin, Inc. Weiss, I. R. 1987. Report of the 1985-86 National Survey of Science and Mathematics Education. Research Triangle Park, N.C.: Research Triangle Institute. Weiss, I. R. 1989. Science and Mathematics Education Briefing Book. Chapel Hill, N.C.: Horizon Research, Inc. Welch, W. W., L. J. Harris, and R. E. Anderson. 1984. How many are enrolled in science? Science Teacher December: 14-19. West, L. H. T., and A. L. Pines, Eds. 1985. Cognitive Structure and Conceptual Change. New York, N.Y.: Academic Press. Westheimer, F. H. 1987. Are our universities rotten at the "core"? Science 236:1165- 1166. Whyte, J. S. 1965. Girls into Science and Technology. London, England: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Wilson, E. B. 1896. Cell in Development and Inheritance. New York, N.Y.: MacMillan Company.
OCR for page 122
Representative terms from entire chapter: