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APPENDIX C Standards for Me Preparation And CerUficadon of Secondly School Teachers of Science I. Science Content Preparation The program for preparing second- a~y school teachers of science should require specialization in one of the sciences (ice. preparation equivalent to the bachelor's level) as well as sup- porting course work In other areas of science. The programs should require a minimum of 50 semester hours of counse work in one or more of the sciences and additional course work in related content areas such as mathematics, statistics, and comput- er applications to science teaching. The programs and courses should be designed to develop a breadth of scientIflc literacy that will provide the preservioc teacher with positive attitudes toward science and an accompanying motivation to be a lifelong learner in science; competent y In using the pn~cessm of science common to all scientific disciplines. including the skills of investigating scientific phenomena. tnterpreting the findings, and com- murUcating results; competency in a broad range of laboratory and field sldlls; huge of scientific concepts and principles and their applications in technology and society: an understanding of the relation- ship between science, technology. society and human values; and deciston-n~king end value-anatrsis skills for use in solving science-related problems in society. Overall, the programs should be de- signed for the unique needs of se- conda~y school science teachers. it. Science Teaching Preparation Science Teaching Methods and Curricula The program should prepare pres- ervice teachers in the methods and curricula of science. Method courses should model desired teaching be- havior in the secondary classroom. These experiences should develop a wide variety of skills. including those which help presetvice science teachers to teach science process=. attitudes. and content to learners with a wide range of abilities and socio-economic and ethnic backgrounds; become knowledgeable of a broad range of secondary school science curricula. instructional strategies and materials, as well as how to select those best suited for a given teaching and lemning situation: become proficient in constructing and using a broad varietr of science evaluation tools and strategies; and become knowledgeable about the leanling process, how people learn science, and how related research findings can be applied for more effec- tive science teaching. The program should include at least one separate course (~5 semester hours), and preferably more in science teaching methods and curricula Communization Bums and (slalom Managemcut Techniques The program should prepare pres- eIvice teachers to speak and write effectively and demonstrate effective NATIONAL SCIENCE TEACHERS ASSOCIATION. 1742 CONNECTICUT AVENUE. N.W., WASHINGTON, D.C. 2 128

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APPENDIX C use of classroom management tech- niques when teaching laboratory activities, leading Sacs discussions, conducting field trips, and canylng out daily classroom Instruction in science Preparation in Research SkilL The program should prepare pre- sewice teachers to conduct or apply, understand and interpret science edu- cation research and to communicate information about such ah to others (erg., students, teachers and parental Safety In Sclencc Tea~1llng The program should require expe- riences that develop the ability to identify, establish, and maintain the highest level of safety In classrooms, stockrooms. laboratories, and other areas used for science Instruction. Outer Educational E - essences Coumes in other educational areas, including general curricula and methods, educational psychology. foundations and the special needs of exceptional students. should be a part of the program in order to comple- ment the science education comply Dents described above m. Classroom E=penence Field E~ence Field experiences in secondary school science classrooms are essen- tial for the thorough preparation of preservice teachers of science. The field experience of preservice teachers should begin early with an emphasis on observation. participation, and tutoring, and should progress from small to large group instruction. The Student Teaching E~eriencc The student teaching experience should be full-time for a minimum of 129 10 weeks The Warn should require student teaching at more than one educational level (such as~un?or high school experience combined with that of working in the high school) or in more than one area of science li.e., biology and chemistry) If certification is sought in more than one area The program should give prospective teachers experience with a full range of in-school activities and respon- sibilities. Day-to-day supervision of the stu- dent teacher should be done by an experienced, master science teacher(s). University supeIvision should be pro- vlded by a person having significant secondary school science teaching experience. Responsibility for working with student teachers should be given only to highly quallfled, committed Individuals. and close and continuing cooperation between school and uni- versity is imperative. IV. Supportive Preparadon In Mattes, stamps, ~d Computer Use The program should require com- petencies in mathematics as specified for each discipline; scientific and educational use and interpretation of statistics; and computer applications to science teaching. emphasizing computer tools such as: (a) computation. (b) inter- facing with lab experiences and equipment. (c) processing informa- tion, (d) testing and creating models, and (e) describing processes. proce- dures. and algorithms. NATIONAL SCIENCE TEACHERS ASSOCIATION. 1742 CONNECTICUT AVENUE, N.W.. WASHINGTON, D.C. 20009

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30 APPENDIX C Standards for Each Secondary Discipline Biology I. Rile popgun in biology shoed ret quire broad study and experiences with living organisms. These studies should include use of experimental methods of Inquiry in the laboratory and field and applications of biology to technology and society. ~ The program would require a mini- mum of 32 semester hours of study in biology to include at least the equiva- lent of time semester hours in huh of the following: zoology, botany, physiol- oty, genetim ecology, mia~otology, cell biology/biochemistry, and evolution; Interrelationships among these areas should be emphasized throughout. III. The program should require a minimum of 16 semester hours of study in chemistry. physics. and earth science emphasizing their relation- ships to biology. IV. The program should require the study of mathematics. at least to the pre calculus level. V. Lee program of study for preser- vice biology teacher; should provide opportunities for studying the tnter- action of biology and technology and the ethical and human implications of such developments as genetic screening and engineering, cdoning. and human organ t~nsplantatior~ V{. Bile program should require ex- p~ences In designing developers and evaluating laboratory and field tn- structional activities, and in using special skills and techniques with equipment. facilities. and specimens that support and enhance curricula and Instruction In biology. NATIONAL SCIENCE TEACHERS ASSOCIATION, 1742 CONNECTICUT AVENUE N.W.. WASHINGTON D.C. 20009