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Contents INTRODUCTION . WHERE ARE WE NOW? THE MOTIVATION FOR CHANGE Education in Science for the Twenty-First Century, 5 Biology in Elementary School, 6 Biology in the Middle Grades, 7 The Rationale for Middle Schools, 7; Early Adolescence Today, 8; Science Curricula in Today's Middle Grades, 8; Teacher and Student Perspectives on Life-Science Courses, 9; Textbooks for Life-Science Courses, 9; Conclusions, 9 Biology in High School, 10 The Importance and Teaching of Fundamental Concepts, 10; Textbooks, 11; Teachers, 11 Conclusions, 12 CURRICULAR GOALS FOR THE NEAR FUTURE 13 Elementary School, 13 Time for Science, 13; Natural History as One Focus, 14; The Need to Explore, 15; Achievement Tests, 15; Science Education of Elementary-School Science Teachers, 16; Conclusions, 17; Recommendations, 17 Middle School, 18 Human Biology as a Focus, 18; Course Structure, 19; Conclusions, 20; Recommendations, 20 High School, 20 Examples of What Is Needed, 21 Conclusions and Recommendations X1 : The Scope of Change, 25

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. . X11 CONTENTS 4 IMPEDIMENTS TO IMPLEMENTING CURRICULAR CHANGE: TEXTS, TESTS, AND CLASSROOM PRACTICE 27 Textbooks, 27 The Present Situation, 27; Forces That Shape Textbooks, 30; How Can Things Change?, 32; Recommendations, 33 Laboratory Activity, 34 The Importance of Laboratory Activity, 34; Current Failures of Laboratory Instruction, 36; Conclusions, 37; Recommendations, 38 Tests and Testing, 40 Current Perceptions of Student Performance, 40; Standardized Tests, 41; Teacher-Made Tests, 43; The Educational Impact of Tests, 43; Conclusions, 45; Recommendations, 46 Other Factors That Hinder Effective Education, 49 Recommendations, 51 5 IMPEDIMENTS TO IMPLEMENTING CURRICULAR CHANGE: TRAINING AND SUPPORT OF TEACHERS Preservice Education: Teaching the Teachers, 53 Preservice Education of High-School Biology Teachers, 53; Preservice Education of Elementary-School, Middle-School, and Junior-High School Teachers, 54; The Process of Induction in the Education of Precollege Teachers, 55; Currents of Reform and Their Possible Impact, 55; Conclusions, 57; Recommendations, 57 Licensing and Certification of Teachers, 59 Licensing, 59; Certification, 62; Conclusions, 63; Recommendations, 63 Inservice Education: How Teachers Continue to Learn, 64 Background, 64; Reform Movements and Inservice Programs, 66; The Concept of Mentors, 67; Conclusions, 69; Recommendations, 69 6 RECRUITING SCIENTISTS, TEACHERS, TECHNICIANS, AND PHYSICIANS The Generality of Basic Educational Goals in Science, 72 An Important Role for Universities and University Scientists, 73 Recommendations, 75 The Need for a National Fellowship Program to Attract Outstanding Young People into Teaching, 76 Recommendations, 76 Sex, Demographics, and Recruitment, 77 Attracting Women and Minority-Group Members into Research Careers in Biology; 78; Attracting Women and Minority-Group Members into Teaching Careers in Biology, 79; Conclusions, 79; Recommendations, 79 . . .53 . 72 7 OTHER MODES AND CONTEXTS FOR TEACHING SCIENCE .... 81 Integrating Biology with Other Sciences, 81 Recommendations, 82 Advanced-Placement Biology, 83 The Present Advanced-Placement Program in Biology, 83; The Success of AP Biology, 84; Opinions of Teachers and Parents, 85; Conclusions, 86; Recommendations, 86

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CONTENTS A Capstone High-School Course in Science, 88 Rationale: Integrating Science and Society, 88; Organization and Content, 88; Benefits and Costs, 89; Recommendations, 89 The Roles of Special Science Schools and Centers, 90 Older, Specialized Public High Schools, 90; Magnet Schools, 91; Residential Schools for Science and Mathematics, 92; Centers for Science and Technology, 93; Recommendations, 93 8 ACHIEVING NATIONAL GOALS: DILEMMA AND RESOLUTION........................................ What Have We Learned from Three Decades of Attempted Educational Reform?, 94 lithe Need for National Leadership and Federal Funding, 96 A Role for the Scientific Community Through the National Academy of Sciences and the National Research Council, 98 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY REFERENCES . . . APPENDIXES . . . X111 ....94 102 .............. 115 123 COMMITTEE MEMBERS 145 INDEX ... 147

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