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Index A Abstinence, as a health education outcome, 38, 52, 63, 78 Academic researchers, 98, 198, 203 Accessibility of services. See Counseling and testing projects Accidental samples, 327, 328, 329 Adequacy of services. See Counseling and testing projects Administrative records, 17, 88-90, 91-92, 105-106, 111 Advertising, paid, 64 Aggregate analysis of effectiveness, 75 AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). See also Ethnographic studies; Natural history studies attitudes toward, 53, 80, 154, 158 demonstration projects, 91-92, 142, 167 epidemiology of, 166, 207, 213 incubation period of, 37 knowledge about, 41 45, 62, 65, 73, 154, 158 news coverage about, 76 prevalence rates, 80, 106n.4, 164, 165, 287n.67 research, 98, 149, 165, 198, 201, 213, 251, 268, 274, 290-291, 293 treatment, 80, 122, 338 AIDS hotline, 25, 62, 66-67, 68-69, 70-71, 74, 7~76, 78, 80 Alcohol 365 and reporting bias, 243-244, 263 compliance with treatment for alcoholism, 136 ALIVE, cohort of drug users, 167 Allegheny County, Pa, seroprevalence survey, 233, 235-236 American Social Heals Association, 66, 80 America Responds to AIDS, 50, 51, 59, 60, 61, 63, 72, 73, 74, 76, 78, 79, 335 Anal intercourse reporting bias, 242, 243, 244-245, 248, 282 Anonymity HIV testing, 111, 120, 146, 161 in surveys, 217, 232, 236, 296, 321-322 Antabuse and treatment compliance, 136 Antismoking, program evaluation of, 15, 323 Archival data, 74, 78, 153 Arrestees, as sampling frame, 329 Assumptions covariance analysis, 16~170 interrupted time series analysis, 14~147 matching studies, 163-164 modeling techniques, 175-179, 180 natural experiments, 161 nonrandomized studies, 126, 186-187 randomized experiments, 125 regression designs, 14~150, 152 survey measures, 244 245 Attrition, 23, 98, 120, 125, 129n.10, 131-132, 186

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366 ~ INDEX modeling, 135, 325-326 prevention, 135-136, 317, 318, 321-325 Autocorrelated error, 149 B Before-and-after evaluation designs, 93-94, 184 Behavioral change, 40, 45, 5~55, 166 and knowledge of serostatus, 115 counseling and testing projects, 102, 332 measurement of, 46, 93, 116-117, 209-210, 245 motivation, 125 theory, 28 Behavioral outcomes, 35, 37-38, 41 44 Behavioral surveys. See Drug use, surveys; Sexual behavior, surveys Bias, 47. See also Reporting bias; Selection bias Biological outcomes, 35, 37-41, 154-155, 211 Bisexual men, studies of, 163, 167, 287n.67, 327-328 Blacks AIDS cases among, 52 drug use among, 289n.68, 291, 292 and reports of sexual behaviors, 263 Bleach distribution, 89, 99, 148, 332 Blinded experiments, 26n.8, 143 Blocking, in a research design, 320 Blood banks, as HIV test sites, 103 Blood samples, 223-224, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 238 Breast cancer, observational and randomized studies of, 138-139 Broadcast Advertisers Reports, 66, 68, 70 C Califorriia, 287-288, 293 Department of Health Services survey, 218, 23~231 "Captive" populations, 292 Case studies, 18, 30, 126n.5. community-based organizations, 86-88, 91, 92, 318-319 counseling and testing projects, 110, 112-113, 114, 317, 318-319, 339-340 Causation, 124, 126, 127, 131, 171-172, 188 Censuses, 18, 90-91 Centers for Disease Control, 34, 98, 167, 198, 317, 319, 330, 335 CBO grants program, 46, 83, 84, 85, 87, 90, 99 Center for Prevention Services (CPS), 83~4, 85, 88, 90, 102, 106,318,335, 338 counseling and testing projects, 102-1Q4, 105, 106, 110, 204, 338-340 data collection, 17, 91-92, 96, 159, 211, 336, 341 hotline, 25, 62, 66-67, 68~9, 70-71, 74, 75-76, 78, 80 media campaign, 5~51, 52, 65, 66, 78, 79, 158-159 National AIDS Information and Education Program (NAEP), 50, 52, 54, 60-61, 79, 84, 158, 159, 318, 335 oversight, 121, 202-203, 205 surveys, 234, 326, 340 ~ Children, media campaign and, 52 Client barriers. See Counseling and testing projects Client completion. See Counseling and testing projects Client surveys, 106-109, 111, 113, 339, 341 Clofibrate and treatment compliance, 132-133, 135 Cognition, 267, 296, 337 Cognitive pretesting of behavioral surveys, 98 Cognitive research strategies, 284 286 Cohort studies. See Longitudinal studies Community acceptance of evaluation, 23, 14~142 Community-based organizations case studies, 17, 8~88, 89, 91, 92, 318~319 evaluation of, 27-28, 83-86, 143, 149, 162, 183, 197-198, 321 formative evaluation, 16 outcome evaluation, 37, 93-100

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INDEX ~ 367 process evaluation, 84, 86-93, 99n.11 program objectives, 34, 46 project review team, 200 205 randomized studies, 94-97, 98, 100, 200, 33~331, 332 recommendations, 91 Comparability design, 126, 188 matching, 161-168 natural expenments, 159-161 quasi-experunents, 111 159 Comparative tests, 116 Comparison groups, 126n.4, 187 matching designs, 162-163 modeling designs, 168, 173, 175-176 natural expenments, 159 regression designs, 152-153 time series designs, 146, 147-148, 149 Compensation, and treatment compliance, 98, 235, 236, 321, 322-323 Compensatory behavior, 131, 134 Competing hypotheses for change, 20, 76, 93, 115, 138, 146, 147, 150-152, 153, 158, 183, 184, 186, 188 Complementary prevention behaviors, 41, 42-43 Compliance, with treatment, 98, 131, 132-133, 135-136, 235, 236, 321, 322-323 Compromised expenments. See Randomized experiments Computer-assisted telephone interviewing, 227 Concept testing, 55-56 Condoms, 267-268, 286-287 distribution, 89, 99 media campaign and, 52-53, 55, 211 245 sales as outcome measure, 25, 62, 74, 78-79, 184 use as behavioral outcome, 42, 47, 141, 278 Confidence intervals, 125 Confidentiality, 98, 338 HIV testing, 104, 120, 146 in surveys, 217, 321-322, 341 Confounding variables, 125, 144, 153, 163, 16~169 Consistency in estimates, 181n.49 Construct validity, 247-248 Content validity, 247 Contracting for evaluation, 29, 197-199, 318 Control groups, 47, 93, 126n.4 alternative treatment, 116, 117-119, 331, 332 compensatory behavior, 131, 134 media campaign markets, 62, 64 natural experiments, 161 nonexperimental studies, 20 randomized experiments, 21, 22, 12~130, 131-132, 137 spillover effects, 133-134 Convenience sampling, 111, 317, 318, 32~330 Copy testing, 57-59, 63, 337 Coronary heart disease and treatment compliance, 132-133, 135 Cost-effectiveness analysis, 17-18, 64, 79 Costs advertising, 64, 65 CBO studies, 92-93 media campaign evaluation, 60, 65, 71, 80 randomized experiments, 31-32, 5~51, 138-139 Counseling and testing projects accessibility, 104 105, 109, 112, 338, 339~340 adequacy, 104 105, 109-110, 338 case studies, 110, 112-113, 114, 317, 31~319, 33~340 client barriers, 104-105, 109 client completion, 10~105, 109 data collection, 17, 90, 104, 105-106, 113, 120 evaluation of, 27-28, 43, 197, 200, 203, 204, 326, 331, 332 monitoring, 335, 34~341 observational evaluation, 110 outcome evaluation, 24, 37, 110122 process evaluation, 18, 103-114, 317

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368 ~ INDEX program objectives, 34, 83, 102, 338 recommendations, 104, 112, 118 referral services, 335, 338-340 sample studies, 327-330 side effects, 36 Counter-hypotheses. See Competing hypotheses for change Covariance analysis, 127, 161, 168-171, 187 Criminality and "risky" behavior, 243, 295 Criterion validity, 247 Cross-sectional data, 157-158, 179, 180, 259 Cross-site analysis, 96-97, 200, 201, 203, 205 Cultivating and tracking respondents, 32~325 D Data collection availability, 127-128 CBOs. See Community-based organizations Counseling and testing. See Counseling and testing projects covariance analysis, 170 dianes, 242, 322 drug use. See Drug use, surveys ethnographic. See Ethnographic studies interrupted time series analysis, 147-149 matching studies, 164-165, 166-168 media campaign. See Media campaign natural experiments, 161 quality, 46-48, 180n.48 q''nci experimental designs, 153-159 regression designs, 152 selection modeling, 176-180 sexual behavior. See Sexual behavior, surveys sharing, 204 205 surveys, 207-210, 216, 217-224, 278n.57 Delayed treatment, 22, 115, 141-142. See also Wait-list controls Demographic data, 106, 109, 135, 164 165, 173, 289, 326 Dianes, 242, 322. See also Data collection Differential reporting bias, 274-275 Differential validity, 47 Direct observation. See Case studies; Client surveys Disaggregated analysis of effectiveness, 75 Disulfimm and treatment compliance, 136 Dose-response relationship, 188 Double-blind tests, 26n.8. See also Blinded experiments Drug treatment centers, 37, 42, 43, 118, 329 Drug use, 98, 324, 326, 327 behavior, 126, 128, 148, 181, 213 CBO projects, 87, 89, 100, 332 cohort studies, 167-168, 268 counseling and testing services, 116n.10, 118, 119, 121n.12 ethnographic differences, 28~289, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295 measurement bias, 268-275 parmers, 249, 324 reporting bias, 243-244 self-reports, 209, 245n.25, 267-268, 276, 277, 278 seroconversion rates, 39 surveys, 263-275, 328-330 E Education, as an independent variable, 106n.4, 163, 245n.26 Effect size, 183-184, 32~321 Effectiveness evaluation, 61, 125, 155, 170, 185n.55 community-based organizations, 93-100 counseling and testing, 115, 116 media campaign, 64, 71-72, 75-77 sample sizes, 317, 318, 319-320 Efficacy evaluation, 53, 319~320 community-based organizations, 99 100 media campaign, 61-66, 71 Empirical evidence, 172, 181, 249~275, 281 Empirical studies drug use, 263-275 memory, 279 sexual behaviors, 240263 Epidemic dynamics, 35n.1

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INDEX I 369 Epidemiology, 1669 207, 213, 295 Error structure, 169, 179, 211-213, 240, 245n.27 Ethics, in conducting research, 22, 23, 24, 95, 102, 114, 115-116, 124n.1, 130n.11, 137, 141-142, 185, 331-332 Ethnicity, 106n.4, 154, 169-170, 287-288, 293 Ethnographic studies, 277, 279, 286-295, 296 Evaluation, 15, 140, 188-189, 331 collaborative contracting, 197-199 costs of. See Costs interpretation of results, 186-189, 201 management of, 27-32 measurement. See Measurement objectives, 317-318 oversight, 200-205 research design, 18-27, 127-128. See also Before-and-after evaluation designs; Community-based orgar~ions; Counseling and testing projects; Covariance analysis; Matching; Media campaign; Modeling; Nonexpenmental studies; Q I-experimental studies types of, 16-18 validity, 325-326 Experimental studies, 118-119, 280, 296 F Face validity, 247 Fallibility of measurement, 211-213 Families, media campaign and, 52 Family planning, as outcome measure, 42-43 Feasibility of research, 27-28 CBO studies, 96 randomized experiments, 24, 138-139, 143-144, 323 surveys, 214, 275 Federal agencies, 30-31, 324 Federal Judicial Center, threshold conditions for randomization, 23 Fertility rates, 39. See also Pregnancy rates Focus groups, 55-56, 279 Follow-up interviews, 120, 323, 324 Formative evaluation, 1~17, 18, 137 media campaign, 53-61, 337 Funding community-based organizations, 83~4, 85, 95, 96 counseling and testing services, 102, 115, 347-348 evaluation, 139 selection modeling, 182 G General Social Survey (GSS), 224-225, 22~227, 238-239, 260 Geographic variations, 28, 75, 76, 110, 154 Government Accounting Office, 65 H Hawthorne effect, 23, 143n.23 Head Start, program evaluation of, 169~170 Health education/risk reduction projects. See Community-based organizations "Heckman lambda" method, 174 Hepatitis B. infection rate as indicator of behavioral change, 274, 278 Heroin use. See Drug use, surveys Heterosexuals. See Sexual behavior, surveys High-risk populations, 111, 114 Highway fatalities, examples of tune series analyses, 146, 147 Hill's criteria for observational studies, 188 Hispanics AIDS cases among, 52 attitudes toward homosexuality, 287-288 Historical controls, 174, 179-180, 187, 293-294 HIV (Human Immunodeficiency walrus) prevalence, 87, 110, 15~155, 233, 234, 293, 319 s~oconversion, 37, 39~0, 43 serostatus, 36, 42, 116-117, 163, 238, 286-287 HIV antibody testing, 36, 42, 43 44, 102-103, 112, 122, 146, 154, 157-158, 160, 161, 185, 236, 332, 335, 340. See also Counseling and testing projects HIV counseling, 42, 95, 10~104, 115-116, 119, 332. See also Counseling and testing projects

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370 ~ INDEX HIV Counseling and Testing Report Form, 106, 107-108 "HIV Disease Intervention Skills Inventory," 104 HIV transmission, 27, 164, 213 behavioral change, 35, 119, 180, 200210 drug use, 263, 267, 295, 328 ethnographic research, 293 fetal, 78, 154 high-nsk groups, 103, 111, 114, 228, 229, 231-232, 249 knowledge about, 35, ~11 45, 52n.2, 53, 112, 157-158 media campaign and, 56, 79 risk behavior, 41-43, 47, 181, 214, 217, 239, 244, 246, 268, 279, 292, 295-296 risk factors, 166, 215-216, 226, 230, 235, 238 risk reduction, 34-35, 37, 122, 200, 204, 205 Household surveys, 67, 69, 73, 111-112, 113-114 and the homeless, 114 Homosexuality, 217, 283, 293 criminal sanctions, 243n.24 ethnicity and attitudes towards, 287-288 self-reporting, 244, 255, 256, 276 studies of homosexual men, 163, 167, 287n.67, 327-328 Homosexual men, 217, 283, 293 AIDS cases, 287n.67 counseling and testing services, 118, 140, 141, 184, 185 HIV testing, 43, 146 and masturbation, 282 Multicenter AIDS Cohort Studies, 163, 166 167, 327-328 San Francisco surveys, 228~229, 233, 328 seroconversion rates, 39 sexual behavior data, 47, 115, 116n.10, 254, 262, 287-288 Hudson, Rock, and public awareness of ADS, 65 I Idea generation, 54-55 Identifying vanables, 173-174, 175-177, 179 Illiteracy and self-administered questionnaires, 222, 276-277 Indoctrination into study, 136 Infant blindness, observational and randomized studies of, 130, 138 Inferences covariance analysis, 171 interrupted time series analysis, 149 matching studies, 165-166 modeling techniques, 18(}181 randomized expenments, 186 regression designs, 152-153 survey measures, 243-244 In-house expertise, 30, 318 Institutionalized populations, 114 Institutional review boards, 277 Intermediate (proximate) outcomes, 35 Interrupted time series analysis, 144, 145-149 Interviewers, 282, 284 Invalidation evidence, 249 K Kinsey, A. C., 210215 Kinsey/NORC survey, 218, 237 L language and cultural meaning, 57-59, 235-236, 276-277, 280, 296 survey terminology, 45, 282-283, 337 Legislation, as an interruption in a natural experiment, 80-81, 145-146, 160 Linear regression, 168 Literacy. See ~ language and cultural meaning Logistics of randomization, 142-144 Longitudinal (cohort) studies, 39, 127, 163, 16~168, 179, 233-234, 249, 25~260, 268, 322, 327 matching in, 162, 166 167 Los Angeles Times survey, 218, 230, 260 M Manpower ~ sing, program evaluation of, 176, 177 Mass mailing, 50, 51, 52, 76

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INDEX | 37 1 Mastectomy, observational and randomized studies of, 138-139 Masturbation reporting bias, 243-244, 263 self-reporting, 255, 256, 282 Matching, 20, 126, 127, 161-168, 320 Measurement. See also Methodology; Outcome measures bias, 241-243 drug use studies, 268-275 quality, 45, 46-48 timing, 45-46 Media campaign data collection, 66, 72-74, 77-79 efficacy trials, 6106, 71 evaluation of, 50-51, 149, 158-159, 184, 200, 203, 204 formative evaluation, 53~1, 337 outcome evaluation, 46, 71-81 process evaluation, 18, 66 71 program objectives, 34 recommendations, 54, 64, 74, 159 Medicaid, program evaluation of, 15~152, 153 Memory and response error, 44, 279, 284-286 Mental health, impact of AIDS-related stressors on, 36 Methadone, clinic closing as natural experiment, 146 Methodology AIDS surveys, 207-210, 275-276 community-based oration studies, 91-92, 97-98 counseling and testing evaluation, 110-113, 119-120 drug use empirical studies, 263-275 efficacy trials, 63-65 ethnographic studies, 286-295 fallibility of measurement, 211-213 formative evaluation, 59 measurement bias, 268-275 media campaign evaluation, 68 69, 75-79 nonresponse bias, 236-239 nonsampling issues, 239-249 process evaluation, 1~19 quality of measures, 45, 46-48 recommendations, 29-30, 295-296 recruitment and response rates, 213-236 self-reporting accuracy, 267-268 self-reporiing alternatives, 277-278 sexual behavior empirical studies, 249-263 sexual behavior survey measurement, 241-249 telephone surveys, 227-231 validity and reliability improvement, 276-286 Misassignment, in a randomized trial, 143 Model-based data analysis, 12~127, 168-182 Modeling, 149, 181-182, 231-232 assumptions, 17~179 attrition, 135, 325-326 controversy, 175 covariance analysis, 16~171 data needs, 179-180 inferences, 180-181 selection models, 173-174 structural equation models, 171-173 Monetary incentives, 98, 235, 236, 321, 322-323 Monogamy, as a health education outcome, 42, 44 Morbidity and mortality, 122, 132-133 Multicenter AIDS Cohort Studies (MACS), 163, 16~167, 322, 327 Multiple indicators, 76, 78, 147, 148, 179 Multiple Diane series analysis, 146, 147n.26, 149, 162 N National AIDS Information Clearinghouse, 335-338 National Cancer Institute, 80 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), 73, 157, 159, 22~226, 232, 257, 341 National Health Interview Survey (NIBS), 72-73, 76, 77-78, 79, 80, 111-112, 113-114, 157-159, 225-226, 34~341

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372 ~ INDEX National Institute on Alcohol and Alcohol Abuse, 142 National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, 166 National Institute on Drug Abuse, 87, 121n.12, 142, 167 National Institute of Justice, 97, 201 National Institute of Mental Health, 95, 121n.12, 167 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 257, 258 National Opinion Research Center (NORC), 224, 225, 257 National Research Council, 245n.27 Committee on National Statistics, 204 Committee for Research on Problems of Sex, 214 National Science Foundation, 182, 224 National Survey of Family Grown (NSFG), 224, 225-227, 257, 258n.37, 259 Natural experiments, 126, 146, 154, 159-161, 173-174, 179, 186, 348n.6 Natural history studies, 116n.10, 163, 166, 167 Needles cleaning, 41 42, 44, 89, 141n.19, 148, 263, 267, 268, 278 exchange programs, 42 sharing, 89, 115, 263, 267-268, 27~275, 277, 278, 292-293, 328 Negative side effects, assessment of, 36 Neonatal Screening Survey, 150157 Net bias, 255 New York, N.Y., 167, 277, 292-293, 329 Nielsen, A. C., Company, 66, 69 Nonexperimental studies, 19-21, 127n.6, 131, 185 assumptions, 186 before-and-after design, 93-94, 184 costs of, 138 selection bias, 144 selection modeling, 173, 176, 182 Nonequivalent dependent variables, 76, 78, 147. See also Multiple indicators Nonparticipant observation, 18 Nonrandomized studies, 94, 124, 182-185 assumptions, 126, 187 interpretation of results, 188 - 189 matching, 161-168 modeling of, 172 natural experiments, 159-161 quasi-experiments, 144-159, 168 Nonresponse bias, 236-239, 321-322, 326 Nonsampling issues, 239-249 Null hypothesis, 145n.24 Nutrition, program evaluation of, 149 o Objectives, 34-36. See also Outcome measures Observational studies, 19, 124, 128, 129n.10, 130, 131, 138, 185 assumptions, 169-170, 186 counseling and testing projects, 110 data collection, 26-27, 182 interpretation, 18~189 research designs, 126-127 Office of Management and Budget, 65, 159, 341 Ogilvy & Mather, 51, 60 Oral sex, 243, 283, 287-288 Outcome evaluation, 16, 17, 1026, 29, 37, 137, 189 community-based org~ni7~tions, 37, 93-100 costs of, 31-32 counseling and testing projects, 24, 37, 11~122 interpretation of results, 186 media campaign, 46, 71~1 research design, 19-26 selection bias in, 125, 132 Outcome measures, 145, 146, 168, 171 behavioral, 35, 38, 4104 biological, 35, 37-41, 154-155, 211 media campaign, 62-63 program evaluation, 45-48 program objectives, 34-36 psychological, 35, 38, 14 45 Outcome variables, 187, 321

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INDEX I 373 Outreach services, 89, 136, 330-331, 337-338 Oversight, 28, 29-30, 121, 20~205 p Participant screening, 324 Partner notification, 42~3, 103, 104 Public Health Service Act, 120 Public service announcements, 50, 51-52, 53-54, 57-58, 61, 64, 66-71, 72, 74, 75-76 Purposive samples, 327, 328, 329-330 Q Partner reports, 249-254 Quasi-experimental studies, 19, 2~21, 94, Personal interviews, 217, 222, 226, 227, 228, 126, 127n.6, 137, 144-1459 183, 184, 231, 238 18 Physical evidence, 278 Pilot studies, 229-230, 235-236, 280, 281-283, 296 P=,umocystis carinii pneumonia, 115 Polio, and experimental trials, 26 Polygraph validation, 25~255 Population size, 164, 165 Population surveys, 109-110, 114, 326, 340 Positioning statement, 57 Pregnancy rates, 38-39, 41-42, 44, 78, 154, 155 Pretesting, 281n.63, 283-284, 296 Primary prevention behaviors, 41~2, 43 Private sector testing sites, 340 Probability sampling, 111, 157, 214-216, 224, 228, 232, 234-235, 242, 317, 318, 326-330 Probes, 284 Process evaluation, 16, 17, 137-138 community-based organizations, 84, 8~93, 99n.11 counseling and testing projects, 18, 103-114, 317 media campaign, 18, 66 71 research design, 18-19 Project Review Team, 121, 200-205 Prospective nonrandomized matching, 162 Protective behaviors, 42, 44, 119 Proxy reporting, 324 Psychological counseling, 119 Psychological outcomes, 35, 38, 41 45 Psychometric validation, 246-249 Public education, 102 Public Health Service, 45, 159, 179, 189, 296 assumptions, 187 covaIiance analysis, 168 data sources, 153-159 interrupted time series, 145-149 media campaign, 59 regression designs, 149-153 R Race, 106n.4, 154, 169~170 Random-digit dialing, 227, 230 Random errors, 240, 241, 279 Randomized experiments, 21-26, 27, 124, 12~126, 12~129, 145n.24, 172, 189, 317, 330-331 appropriateness and feasibility of, 127, 137-144, 184, 323 attrition in, 125, 131-132 community-based organ~iions, 94-97, 98, 100, 200, 33~331, 332 compromised studies, 129~130, 131-136 costs of, 31-32, 50-51, 138-139 counseling and testing projects, 102, 11~115, 116, 117-120, 121, 204 interpretation of results, 18~189 matching in, 161 media campaign, 50-51, 6103, 64, 66, 71-74, 76-77, 79, 80 outcome evaluation, 19, 21-26, 336-337 replication of, 175-176, 182 response techniques, 28~281 sample studies, 33~332 specialists, 30 threshold conditions, 23 Recommendations community-based organizations, 91

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374 ~ INDEX counseling and testing services, 104, 112, 118 data collection' 159, 189 evaluation funding, 139, 142, 182 evaluation management, 27, 28, 29-30 formative evaluation, 22 media campaign, 54, 64, 74, 159 methodological research, 30, 136, 142, 182 outcome evaluation, 22, 27, 28 program objectives, 35, 36, 46 randomized experiments, 22, 136, 142 selection modeling, 182 Record keeping, 18, 113. See also Administrative records Referral services, 335, 338-340 Regional comparisons, 80, 292 Regression discontinuity/regression displacement, 14S, 149-153, 155-157, 158, 159-160 Regression toward the mean, 16~165 Relapse prevention, 119 Reliability, 44, 47, 111, 240, 262, 276 Replicability, 27-28, 96, 257-263, 275 Reporting bias, 45, 47, 111, 237, 243-245, 248, 255, 268-275 Research administration, 28-31 Research consent forms, 277 Research design, 18-27, 144, 320, 323 Resources and aspirations community-based org~ni?ahons, 92-93, 98-99 counseling and Besting evaluation, 113-114, 121-122 media campaign, 5061, 65-66, 7~71, 79-81 Response rates, 215, 216, 217-231, 235-236, 275, 322 Retrolental fibroplasia, observational and randomized studies of, 130, 138 Retrospective nonrandomized matching, 162-163 Return rates, 322 Reverse telephone directories, 229n.13 Risk prevention behaviors. See Complementary prevention behaviors; Primary prevention behaviors Rolling panel design, 68 "Running-in" period, 135-136 S Salk vaccine, and experimental trials, 26 Sampling issues controlling attrition, 321-326 convenience and probability sampling, 326-330 drug users, 328-330 error, 140 gay and bisexual men, 327-328 number of case studies, 318-319 sample sizes, 25-26, 128-129n.9, 317, 318, 319-321 San Francisco, Calif. ethnographic study, 292-293 Home Health Survey, 221, 233, 230235 Men's Health Study, 167, 220, 233-234, 328 telephone survey, 219, 228-229 Schools, 94 media campaign and, 52-53 Seattle, Wash. telephone survey, 219, 228, 22~230 Selection bias, 26, 75, 125, 129-130, 153 attrition, 131-132 comparability design, 144, 159 matching, 127, 161 modeling, 124, 126-127, 168, 169, 173-182, 187 regression designs, 149-150 in surveys, 215, 222-223, 23~239 Self-administered questionnaire (SAQ), 217, 222, 224-225, 228, 233, 235, 236, 238, 337 Self-reports, 296 alte~nauves, 277-278 drug use, 209, 234, 245n.25, 267-275, 276, 277, 278 sexual behavior, 37, 44, 24~249, 249~257, 276 Sensitivity analysis, 182n.50 Service delivery, 111, 118-119, 318-319, 338, 339

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INDEX ~ 375 Sexual behavior, 98, 115, 126, 128, 163, 217 drug use and, 267 safer practices, 78, 79, 140, 141, 294 socially discouraged, 237-238 teenage activity, 257-260, 262-263 Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (Kinsey, Pomeroy, and Martin), 214-215, 249-251, 254 Sexual behavior criminality affecting self-reports, 243 empirical studies, 249-263 ethnographic studies, 287-288, 291, 292, 290295 measurement and validation, 181, 241-249, 275, 276 nonresponse bias, 23~239 response rates, 217-227 seroprevalence, 231-236 surveys, 209, 213-217, 234, 241-249, 251, 254, 275-277, 279, 282, 284, 285 telephone surveys, 227-231 Sexually transmitted diseases, 37-39, 4~41, 74, 78-79, 160, 234, 246 Sexual orientation, 217, 282, 283n.65 Sexual parkers, 40, 42-43, 217, 224-225, 249, 260 261, 275, 292, 324 Shooting galleries, 42, 268, 286-287, 292-293, 295 Side effects, assessment of, 36 Significance test, 129, 320-321 Site services inventory, 105-106, 339 Skills demonstrations, 277, 278 Skills training, 24 Skip pattems, 281n.61 Smoking cessation, program evaluation of, 15, 323 Snowball samples, 328n.11 Socioeconomic status, as an independent variable, 106n.4, 169, 236 Speed limits, examples of time series analyses, 146, 147 Sperniicides, 42, 78-79 Spillover, 76-77, 131, 133-134 Stabilization funds, 323 Statistical methods, 126-127, 144, 184, 248, 320 assumptions, 175-177, 187 covanance analysis, 168-171 data needle, 179-180 inferences, 18~181 selection models, 173-174 structural equation models, 171-173 Story boards, 17, 57, 60, 63, 64 Stratification variables, 87-88, 14~141, 319 Structural equation modeling, 127, 171-173, 175, 179, 18~187 Surveys, 86, 9~91, 111, 114. See also Client surveys; Drug use, surveys; General Social Survey; Household surveys; Kinsey/NORC survey; Methodology; Population surveys; National Health Interview Survey (NHIS); National Longitudinal Survey of Youth; National Survey of Family Growth; San Francisco, surveys; Sexual behavior, surveys; Telephone surveys; Zelnilc and Kantner survey coding, 284 cognitive pretesting, 98 exploratory work, 278-286, 279 feasibility for measuring high-risk behaviors, 214 media campaign awareness, 56, 66, 6708, 77-78, 80 methodology, 207-210 process evaluation, 18, 19 quality of measures, 45, 4~48, 239 recruitment and response rates, 213-239 Switching replication design, 71-72, 148n.27 Systematic biases, 28S Systematic error, 47, 240 241, 279 T Teenagers, 55, 274n.54, 320325 media campaign and, 74 pregnancy, 78 sexually active, 257-260, 262-263 Telephone surveys, 223 media campaign evaluation, 68, 69, 70, 75 sexual behavior, 227-231

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376 ~ INDEX Television, 148, 159 advertising, 58 markets, 68, 69, 76-77, 79 Test marketing, media campaign, 62-63, 6~66 Timeliness, 45, 46, 137-138 Time series analysis, 72, 77, 158, 159-160, 184 interrupted, 144, 145-149 multiple, 146, 147n.26, 149-150, 162 Treatment alternative, 116, 117-119, 331, 332 compliance with, 131, 132-133, 135-136, 321 delayed, 22, 115, 141 effects, 133, 168 withholding, 22, 95, 102, 114-115, 141-142, 184, 317, 321, 330, 331-332 Treatment Outcome Prospective Study, 167 U Understanding AIDS, 52, 73 Unit of assignment, 25-26, 117-118, 134 United Kingdom Health Education Authority, 32n.11 Social and Community Planning Research, 281-283 United States AIDS in, 50 ethnographic research in, 291 prostitution in, 293 United States Congress, 90-91, 145-146 United States Conference of Mayors, 83, 84, 85, 95 Universities, 198, 203 Urinalysis, 255-256, 269-270, 274, 276 V Validation, self-reports, 37, 241-242, 245-257 Validity, 44, 46, 361 attrition and, 325-326 client surveys, 111 coefficients, 248 critenon, 247 differential, 47 drug use measures, 274 face, 247 improving, 276-286 randomized studies, 186 systematic errors, 24~241 W Wait-list controls, 71, 141. See also Delayed treatment Women, 39, 283n.65, 295 media campaign and, 52 pregnancy, 41~2, 154, 155 self-reporiing, 251, 255-256, 258-259, 275, 276 sexual behavior surveys, 225-226 and survey interviews, 282 y Youth Incentive Entitlement Pilot Projects, program evaluation of, 162n.38 z Zelnik and Kantner survey, 257, 259