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rid Education in the Hydrologic Sciences Higher education in hydrology, especially at the graduate level, has long been the province of engineering departments in most uni- versities. Doctoral and master's degree programs administered by these departments have been directed toward the traditional con- cerns of water resources development, hazard mitigation, and water management as predicated on societal needs. The research focus in these departments has properly been the analysis and solution of problems related to engineering practice, on the premise that these problems contribute palpably to the technical knowledge base required for water resources allocation, the management of floods and droughts, and pollution control. Current societal needs, as expressed through legislative action or executive orders, are as important to the choice of research problems and their methods of solution as are the flow of scientific ideas and technological breakthroughs. This well-developed and successful line of inquiry differs mark- edly from that pursued in the pure sciences, such as chemistry. The difference, in fact, is exactly analogous to that between the disciplines of chemistry and chemical engineering. Chemistry is the science that deals with the composition, structure, and properties of substances and the reactions that they undergo. Chemical engineering deals with the design, development, and application of manufacturing processes in which materials undergo changes in their properties. The first discipline is a science, dealing with puzzle solving (i.e., motivated by a question), whereas the second is an application of science, dealing with problem solving (i.e., motivated by the solution). Hydrology 275

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276 OPPORTUNITIES IN THE HYDROLOGIC SCIENCES has a long and distinguished history of problem solving, but where is the antecedent science of puzzle solving? The education of hydrologic scientists offers challenges as great as those in engineering hydrology, but the spirit of the enterprise is different, just as it is between education in chemistry and in chemical engineering. In scientific hydrology, as in chemistry, research is done in the context of the three chief stages of development of any pure science: careful observation of phenomena (the natural history stage), quantification and conceptual modeling (the empirical stage), and quantitative prediction (the exact stage). The choice of research problem is occasioned by its level of development within the hierarchy of the science, by the availability of new methods with which to solve it, and by the desire to understand a hydrologic phenomenon more deeply. The solution of the problem advances the development of the science and expands the conceptual framework that gives it meaning. It is this kind of internally driven intellectual pursuit that motivates the pure scientist and that must be instilled by the educational process that forms her or his professional outlook. That is the challenge to hydrologic science, and it differs from the challenge to engineering. It is a challenge that must be met at the graduate and undergraduate education levels, in precollege education, and in educating and training an increasingly diverse student population. GRADUATE EDUCATION IN THE HYDROLOGIC SCIENCES As a result of this challenge, graduate education in the hydrologic sciences should be pursued independently of civil engineering. The problem is made clear by the disciplinary structure of earth system science as illustrated in Figure 5.1. The warp of this intellectual fabric consists of the three traditional geoscience threads: solid earth science, atmospheric science, and ocean science. The weft contains multidisciplinary threads among which hydrologic science is dominant by virtue of its central role in cycling energy and matter. Some uni- versities have recognized this by housing "water science" programs in departments such as geography or geology. However, few offer a coherent program that treats hydrology as a separate geoscience. It is a premise of this report that hydrology~xpanded in scope, importance, and potentialmust escape mere inclusion as an option under engi- neering, geology, or natural resources programs. Establishment of specialized Ph.D. and master's degree programs is, therefore, necessary to enhance the identity of hydrology as an established science. Graduates are needed who are considered first and foremost as hydrologists, not as civil engineers or geologists who know something about hy-

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EDUCATION IN THE HYDROLOGIC SCIENCES (Solid) Atmos. Earth Science Science 1 ' Ocean Science Hydrologic Science ~- Ecology Biogeochemistry | Mathematics | FIGURE 5.1 The disciplinary structure of earth system science. 277 drology. A solid program of course work with unified requirements would constitute an integral part of a graduate program and thereby ensure that degree candidates in the hydrologic sciences have a common background in fundamental, scientific hydrology. Besides these professional considerations, there are institutional constraints that lead to the conclusion that a hydrologic sciences pro- gram should not be "hosted" by a single department in another discipline. Consider, for example, the case in which hydrology is viewed as a subdiscipline within a geological sciences department. In the more traditional geology departments, students encounter se- rious difficulties in preparing for comprehensive examinations because of departmental policies that impose a geological focus on these ex- aminations. Geologists, like other disciplinary scientists, tend to be conservative when defining requirements pertaining to the main ele- ments of their subject. These narrow requirements are appropriate for students in, say, petrology, geochemistry, or petroleum geology, but they do not serve students well who specialize in the hydrologic sciences. The committee for a Ph.D. comprehensive examination is a departmental committee, usually with limited flexibility in crossing departmental boundaries; often this is also true of the research com- mittee. A similar problem can occur in civil engineering departments,

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278 OPPORTUNITIES IN THE HYDROLOGIC SCIENCES where graduate students who do not have an undergraduate degree in engineering may be required to complete a suite of core courses in the undergraduate engineering curriculum, irrespective of issues related to professional accreditation and to the detriment of a specialization in hydrologic science. There are three potential options for structuring a graduate hydrology program that is not a subdiscipline in a host geological sciences, ge- ography, or engineering department. One option is a separate department of hydrologic science. The other two options involve less formal, multidisciplinary programs, in one case autonomously degree-granting and in the other, degree-granting through participating departments. Each option offers advantages and disadvantages with respect to the needs of university administration, faculty, and students. The first option is perhaps the ideal one: establishing a graduate department. It is probably also the least realizable in most universi- ties, at least in the near future, given the usual resistance to the creation of new academic units with autonomous status and dedicated facilities. Nonetheless this approach best serves the goal of establishing hydrology as an integral geosciences discipline, with a distinct identity separate from engineering. This option also avoids certain pitfalls of multidisciplinary programs, which are described below. Very few universities, however, will have the commitment and resource base necessary for introducing a new department. In most cases, such an academic unit would probably be limited to a few core faculty members with adjunct professors from other departments. Creation of a sepa- rate department is a goal to strive for, however, at a few key univer- sities where current, well-established hydrology programs make this option viable. An additional resource base might be available with federal funding for a center of excellence in hydrology, or some comparable concept. In most universities, however, multidisciplinary programs are the more feasible and realistic approach. A multidisciplinary, interdepartmental program has some unique advantages over a separate department. Hydrologic science is, by its very nature, interdisciplinary (see Figure 5.1) and hence is well suited to such a format. The courses taught presently in hydrology at academic institutions show its diversity, since they are offered typically in a range of departments and programs (e.g., civil engineering, forestry, geology, geography, and soil science). Moreover, faculty members with strong interests in hydrology, although they may not teach more than one course in the area, are also found in a diverse array of disciplines (e.g., aquatic ecology, limnology, and meteorology). . . .. . . . . Adding to this interdepartmental flavor is the breadth expected of doctoral candidates who wish to do research in the hydrologic sciences.

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EDUCATION IN THE HYDROLOGIC SCIENCES 279 For example, if research focuses on global climate and hydrology, the perspective to be developed in a student is that of the geophysicist who elucidates the dynamical, thermal, and hydrologic interactions among the atmosphere, ocean, and land surface. This comprehensive effort involves theoretical analysis, numerical modeling, laboratory experiments, and the analysis of observation. For research on ground water hydrology, the required perspective is a quantitative focus on the analysis of ground water flow and mass transfer, with an under- standing of the fundamental role that geology plays in determining the nature of the subsurface environment. And for research on the chemistry of hydrologic processes, the perspective to be developed in the student is that of the applied chemist who is comfortable work- ing with field scientists (or with engineers) and who appreciates the relationship between pure chemical research and the behavior of open, natural water systems. These three examples illustrate the need for a broad range of educational inputs to graduate education in the hydrologic sciences. But the interdepartmental option has some disadvantages. One is that students often fail to achieve a disciplinary perspective or a feeling of attachment to a professional discipline. Moreover, many of the courses, when taken from a set of departmental rosters, are tailored to the needs of the departments and not to the field of hydrology. The hydrology graduate student may be inadvertently short-changed. From the faculty perspective, allegiance is split between the program and the home department, two units whose goals are not necessarily compatible. The multidisciplinary approach also creates an addi- tional layer of administration. Nevertheless, this is probably the most appropriate approach for many academic institutions. For a multidisciplinary, interdepartmental program, both degree- granting and non-degree-granting options must be considered. The degree-granting option is advantageous for the student. It minimizes the problems of satisfying department course and comprehensive ex- amination requirements that may not be closely relevant to hydrology studies. It also provides a higher probability of receiving financial resources (e.g., research and teaching assistantships) than when these are linked to member departments whose first priority in granting financial aid is to support their own students. This is, of course, also true for resources such as laboratory and office space, or equipment. Although the degree-granting option may be preferable from the students' perspective, it is not practical to envision the creation of a degree-granting academic unit in the hydrologic sciences on most campuses. Interdepartmental graduate programs that grant degrees are confederations that must compete with degree programs in the

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280 OPPORTUNITIES IN THE HYDROLOGIC SCIENCES member departments for resources, students, and faculty loyalties. Usually this competition will not turn out favorably for the multi- disciplinary program, since it has neither the professional strength nor the tradition of faculty support that has been garnered by the disciplinary programs. The onus of attempting to overcome these obstacles to survival is lessened if a graduate program in the hydro- logic sciences offers degrees only through member departments. The advantages of a multidisciplinary, non-degree-granting graduate program are in reducing conflict, both between the program and the participating departments and among the participating departments, over admission requirements, resource allocation, faculty time and effort, facilities, and extramural support. These issues would not generate controversy because they would be treated by each department individually, with concurrence required only in respect to the general design of the interdisciplinary graduate program to which all departments have contributed. The disadvantages of the program not granting a degree are in the loss of direct visibility as an academic unit, an increase in the bureaucracy attending academic planning, and a reduced opportunity for faculty interaction in research and teaching. These disadvantages must be weighed against the benefits from lessened conflicts before deciding how the hydrologic sciences program should be structured. STRUCTURING THE GRADUATE PROGRAM A solid program of course work with unified requirements would constitute an integral part of any graduate program in the hydrologic sciences and thereby ensure that degree candidates would have a common background in fundamental scientific hydrology. The course program would introduce students to a broad range of hydrologic processes and would form the basis for further specialization in sur- face water or ground water hydrology, global climatic processes, hy- drometeorology, hydrogeochemistry, or surficial processes. This formal core curriculum should be rounded off with multidisciplinary seminars addressing issues related to environmental quality and including scientists, engineers, economists, and water managers. Table 5.1 lists four general areas of course work that can serve as the basis for a core curriculum in the hydrologic sciences at the graduate level. Each topic entered under one of the four areas can be the subject of a single course or can be included with other topics in a single course the precise structuring of the curriculum will vary among programs. In most cases, a field course that integrates the contents of the classroom courses may be desirable in order to obtain

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EDUCATION IN THE HYDROLOGIC SCIENCES TABLE 5.1 A Set of Topics for Graduate Programs in the Hydrologic Sciences General Areas Individual Topics Fluid motions Hydrologic phenomena Hydrologic techniques Hydrologic policy Flow in porous media Geophysical fluid mechanics Open-channel flows Theoretical or dynamic meteorology Aquatic biology and ecology Aquatic chemistry Boundary-layer meteorology Climatology Fluvial geomorphology Geochemistry Ground water hydrology Hillslope hydrology Microbiology Soil physics Snow hydrology Surface water hydrology Computer simulation Data analysis methods Field research methods Optimization and decision analysis Remote sensing Software development Statistical inference Stochastic processes Natural resource economics Water law and institutions Water resource management Water quality management 281 a more direct appreciation of hydrologic processes than can be had from classroom materials, laboratory exercises, and weekend field trips. A field course could be designed to allow students to develop a better understanding of runoff generation processes, survey differ- ent hydrologic regimes, illustrate the water infrastructure of a state, or introduce and demonstrate methods of field data collection. The first step in establishing a graduate program in the hydrologic sciences should be the convening of interested faculty and administrators on a campus to form a working group that will develop an academic plan. This plan should consider such elements as:

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282 OPPORTUNITIES IN THE HYDROLOGIC SCIENCES :~ ~ ~ : : :: :~ ::~:: :~: :: :: :::: ~ I: :: : I: ::: ::~: :: ::~: :: :~:: : :: :: :: : :::: : :: ~ ::: :: : : ~ ::: : : t, ~ ~ ::: T ~ _::: :: : : ::: I: : : ::: ::: :: ::: ::: :: :: : : : : ::: : ~ ~ :::1 ~ ~ a::: :~ :~::: ~~ ~ : ~ ~ ~ ~ : ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ :~1~a~1~-15oQ1:\ i: ~ : : : ~ ~ : : : ~ : : ~ ~ :e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ v ~ ~ ~ ~ :: : ~ ~ :~ : : : a:, ~ : : _ ~ : : ~ :~ . :: ~ ~ ~ ~: : ~ ~ :: : :: :~ ~ yen: e~::~ tow was a:~prem~ler:: synt vesper m~ ,:yc rologi~c:~k~owle~e. ~~ Hits :1 rig: ~~books:~7-~annel ~~cs~::and:~:~ the ~ ~ - ndbook ::of~ App/iea'~: ~Hydroh~y ~ ~ ~: ~ ~~ :: :~ : ~ : I: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~ ;~remain c Awn :::the :fiel:d~: ~and: are: ~~s~il:l:::in:: print ::~more than: ::~a~: quarter: century ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ :~ ::: after they:~were:lirst:pubii:shed.~r th~at~period,~:the hydraulics book has sold::: Smut jan~40fOOO~copies~arid~:the~:~:ha~ndbook<~72~5 000:: copies.: ::~Perhaps~more~:~ : , , , ,, , ~ ,- . ~ ~ , . ~ . :, ~ , , :~ '. ~ ~~ t tan any ot Heir '~ ~ t 1e: mananooKorAppl~ h~mg~c etlnec ~ ~yc to togas: ~ ~ ~: ~: , ~ ~ :~a ~~bject,~:a~nd ~~::~has~stood~:~as ~a: basic :~hydrologic :::re~rence::~ for ~many:~:years.~ :::: : ~ : If: ~ ~~:::~ An: Te::~Chow~w:as::~ born:~a~rid~ raised in~C~hin::a.: : ARer::~be~i:ng~educ~ated~;:in ::: Sh~ar~g~h a i,: thee taught c i;vi::l: engi neer~i~g The ret do ri ng the :~war:~ :years:.~: :::H:i s :: ~ ~ :: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ , ~ If:: ~ ite~rary ~ ~:s hi l s And Deter i~:n~at:io~n~: t 0 :succ~eed~ :we:re: : ap~pa:re~nt evening at: that::: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ . ~ ~ . . ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~::~t~l~m:e,~ fang :~ By t he agent 24 :~ he's: sac Already: Published: his first :~boo~k~,~::~in:~ ~~::~ ~ :_1 mu- :~ ::: : :: ::: 1 ::~:: ::: 17 :~: ::: :: ::: :~ :: : ::: : :: : : :: :: : :: : :~ : ~ :~ :~: ~ :~ : :: :: ~ ~~un~lnese,~::~or,~:tne~tneory~ot~::~str~a~ctu:~res.:~ ~:H~e~:came: to there United States ionic :~ ~:1:947,: first tar air m:a~sm 's Degree:: at~::~Penn:sylvania: ~:Sta:te: U~n~ivers:ity: ~:and: : , ~ :~then:for:~docto~ra~l stud:;es~:att:h~e~Un~iversity:of l::ll~i:::r~oi~s.~ ::: ::::: :: ~ ::::::::::: :::::::: :: : i:: :::: ::~Tho~s~ began: What :was~ :to~bec:ome~ a ::::life-long association: with the: : . ~ . . ~ ~ ~:::l:Jn'~ve~rsity ~ ot ~:~:ll~lin~ois: ~ where He ~ser=ved ion th:e~:~::faculty:~: for:: rnore~than 30 ~ ~ . ~ .~ ~ ~ . ~ . ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ : ~ ~: years.: stabs: re~ma~r:can~le~::~tn~a~t~:a~:tnou~g~h::~ he did::n:ot~ spec~alize~::in~ water: i: i .: :, ~ ~ ~~ Etudes ~~oerore~c~om~l ng To tied ~1 note States:: ~ The wrote h:is~bl rst :~:lIand~mark: : ~ ::: :: :~: :~ ::::: ::~::: : :::: ::::: ::::: :~:: :~ :: :: ::::~:: :: I: ::: ::: :~ ::: : ::: ~ :: ~ :: :::: I: ~ :: ~~ L: I :: : :~_ : 1: ::: i: r :: . ~ it: . : . :. ~ : ~ OOOK~WIInI~n a Decades or ~a~rr:l~val:~ In :tn::ls::~count:ry. : : I :: : : I::: :~ ::~B~ides;:~ be~i:~r)g ~an: ;~tstandi:r)g:~ auto,: the ~~ was also : an :: i Innovative ~:researc~her, i: :~: pioneering~::~in~ :1~95~1~:~t:he ~~fr~qwency~ factor::~me~,~:~ now ~::~the:~lbasis:~::o f :extrerne ~~ :: ,. :. ~~ ~ tl~con~3utatlon.~:~ ~~ A: end r r~h~to:::~ost;er the concept of:~syste~ms~ rn~el:ing in;: ~:~ ~ 1 ::71 ~ 1 ~ - ~:1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~: :~ nyam~'ogy~ar~o coiner ~:~tne~:~::te~r~r~ "systems: engineerir~":~: to:: ~re~r:::~to the i: ::;:: ~i:~nteraction~between h~;oogy:ar~:~:other~::technical:,~social,:~:or:~econom:i:c::factors:.:~::~::::: ~ I: ~ ~ ~~ ~Bes::ides~mak:i~ng~:~academic: :contri~butions,:~:he~ wa:s::::::promine~nt ::~;n:~:profe~s- ::: ~: . ~ ~ , ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ , ~ ~ ~ ~ ~: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ :~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ : sonar or~niza:tions~::~and~ ~~:was:;~instru~rrenta~l King foun~di n~g~the ::::ln:te~rnation:a:l :: :Water~ ~R:esou~rces~::Associ~at~i~on,::~a~ worldwide: organization serving :: ~il~!;:~a~s-::: ~ ~:~ it: ~ pacts at: water res~ou~rces~act~Y~ity.~He~ was its :~first~pres:ident,:::~m:F 1972:: to ::: : ~ : to , ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 - 1 I Y' a. me was also preslue:nt~ of ::tne::: H:yorology Sectior~:~:of the Arneric:an : ~::::Geoph~ys~ical::~Unio:n~:~from:1974:::to~ 1976:. :: :~::: : ::: : ~ :~ ::; ~ A: : :~ ::~ :: i::: ~ ~~ ~~ ::~: if: I:: ::: ~ ~ :~ ~ I:: ~~ H is boors :reflect~;the~ J~og:ic~ :~m~i nd: :~that:::w:as ~~tthe ~:ha~:l~lmaik:::of~:~h~:is~: orga:n~i-~ ::; : :: : :: ::: ~ ~ :: ~ I: : : : :: : :: ~ ::~ ~ zation~:of ~know:t~edge. : ~ HE ~ had::: ant: almost unique: a~b~i~:l i:ty::: to~::~plumb ~:::~the~:~ i: : i: nep thS omit h eo:retica~l :research~:and also express the results in a: Arm: that ::1 , ~ . . i ~ . ~ , , , ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ : ~tne~average~:n~rol~ogl:st coul:~::~unuerstand::. :~His::::w:ife~:once~:~aslked~h~im~:: 17 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ , ~ ~ ~ :: Gnat :: ne:: ~:tnougnt was the ~ secret ::ot ~ ~ i s :~su:ccess:, :~: and he: responded ~~ that: ::~ ::: perhaps he:: wa:s:::more::~ patien:t :th~a:n~ ::oth~:ers~.:~ ~:::Certainly~ ~his:~:::;n:ex~h~austibI~e~l ::: :ade~ntion~to:deta;~l was::r m~a~:rka:ble:: i:::: :::: :::: :~:: i: :~:::: ~ :: :~ :~ ::: ~~:::~:::~ ~:~::: : ~~ ::~ ::~ And~:beyon:d: his~sc:holarl~y: capa:bi:lities:, ~\/e:n~:::Te Chow posses~sed:~a~:: rare::::: , . ~ reeling Stored people, ~ a: ~~ur~da~men~tal ~ :un~de~rstan~di~ng~ ~ and :: ~preciation~:lbr i:::: ~ :, . . . . ~~:~numa~n~ Dignity ~tnat~uncerlay~:a~l~ hate ~d~id.~Open-(:hanne~t:~::~Hydraul/cs :i A:: is :ded:icated to:::~"~H:wm~an:ity~a~nd::~hu:~:man :we~l~re.:~ H~e~:was::~able:~:to~a;cc=om-~:::::~ :~ ::pl~is~h: his ~pu:rpo;se~s~:~with:: the~:~:l~igh:test:~ of:~touches,: ~a~lw~ays~:::l~leav~ing::~others::~::~:~::~ I: with an alternative~:~path shoul:d~:th:ey :w:ish~:to choose ::it ::: ::: :~:: ::: :i if:::::: I::: :~:: :: I:: : ~ I: ~ ~ : : ~ : ~ :: ::::: :: ::: ~ :: :: ::: ::::: ::

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EDUCATION IN THE HYDROLOGIC SCIENCES 283 the institution's current effort to provide graduate education in hydrology, focusing on its strengths and weaknesses as a coherent program; graduate hydrology programs at comparable universities; the current and potential capability of the present faculty to address critical and emerging areas of hydrologic research such as are specified in this report; programmatic areas in the hydrologic sciences that are essential but not addressed currently; the potential for cooperation in research and teaching among the host departments; administration of the graduate program as a department, inter- departmental degree-granting program, or non-degree-granting pro- gram; faculty recruitment needs; facilities and space needs (laboratory and field); technical staff support needs; admission requirements for Ph.D. and M.S. programs; degree requirements; and student recruitment. Once an academic plan is established, procedures can be devel- oped to implement the plan. Typically, once a program has begun, a campaign to recruit students commences. Prospective students would apply for admission to an appropriate academic unit. After entering, the students would be assigned a major adviser with whom to consult about a specific academic program as soon as possible to secure ini- tial approval of the program. Graduate students would be expected to take courses in several disciplinary areas, but these courses would have to conform to the requirements of the hydrologic sciences pro- gram. Flexible academic curricula should be developed to enable graduates from the pure sciences and other fields to obtain graduate degrees in the hydrologic sciences without an excessive number of remedial courses. Because of the multidisciplinary nature of the hydrologic sciences, students from widely different backgrounds are likely to be attracted to the discipline. Some will come from the basic sciences because they find the analytical complexity of hydrologic problems exciting. Others will have a background in other environmental sciences, but without substantial preparation in mathematics. Still others will have worked as field-oriented scientists or on field projects. The graduate program must recognize this diversity. Outlined below is a list of components of an undergraduate-level preparation for study at the

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284 OPPORTUNITIES IN THE HYDROLOGIC SCIENCES graduate level, but it is recognized that some potentially excellent students will not have completed all of the following requirements: substantial background in one of the earth, life, or atmospheric sciences, e.g., biology, forestry, geography, geology, meteorology, and .. . SOll SClenCe; courses in the supporting pure sciences, e.g., physics and chemistry; mathematics through differential equations, linear algebra, statistics, and probability theory; experience with measurement of natural phenomena, preferably in field situations as well as in controlled laboratory settings; familiarity with computers, including programming in higher- level languages, mathematics and statistics software packages, graphics, and text processing; and experience in writing short research papers, based not only on familiarity with Published papers, but also requiring analysis of data. Extramural support for a new graduate program in the hydro- logic sciences is essential, in the form not only of research grants but also of research fellowships. Ideally, the National Science Foun- dation and other funding organizations could institute a program of predoctoral fellowships with an emphasis in hydrology. Such a program would attract students to the hydrologic sciences and train them spe- cifically; impart a degree of autonomy to the graduate program at the Ph.D. level; and represent money spent efficiently, without overhead costs but with a focused objective. Perhaps most important, it would help to build a national base of highly trained, multidisciplinary sci- entists in a critical area of significant potential impact on society. UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION IN THE HYDROLOGIC SCIENCES Few undergraduate programs exist in hydrology, and most profes- sionals gain entry to the field from engineering or from the geosciences. This point is illustrated in Figure 5.2, which shows the distribution of academic backgrounds of hydrologists employed by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey in 1986, when the division had 2,055 professional employees. Of these, 85 percent held the title of hydrologist. Figure 5.2 shows that about half of the Water Resources Division's professionals classified as hydrologists had majored in geology, civil engineering, and environmental (or sanitary) engineering. Not shown are trends in this background with time, but it is probable that the geology and civil engineering portion has decreased signifi- cantly during the last decade or two. The existence of an undergraduate population prepared for and

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286 OPPORTUNITIES IN THE HYDROLOGIC SCIENCES interested in graduate work in hydrologic science depends on what happens to potential hydrologists during their undergraduate studies. Indeed, the geosciences and civil engineering have suffered a precipitous decline in undergraduate enrollment in recent years. The number of majors declined by two-thirds from 1982 to 1987, while graduate de- grees remained fairly constant, with some increase in the late 1980s. The number of undergraduate degrees in civil engineering fell by 27 percent between 1983 and 1989. This sharp decline in undergraduate degrees in the traditional contributing disciplines is beginning to have an impact at the graduate level, thus affecting the overall health of the hydrologic sciences. Thus the hydrologic sciences face a potential recruitment problem created, at least in part, by new, rather general trends among young people that reduce the number aspiring to a scientific career. Such trends intensify the competition for students, and the hydrologic sciences must face this fact. The recruitment problem may become especially acute because of increasing demands and opportunities that will require an increase rather than a decrease in the number of hydrologic researchers. The task of enlarging the pool of undergraduate students in the hydrologic sciences may be hindered more by students' inadequate mathematics and science background than by lack of interest. As a case in point, a survey by the American Geological Institute showed that, of the 340,000 freshmen planning for degrees in the natural sci- ences and engineering in 1980, only 206,000 were degree recipients in these areas four years later. This attrition is at least partly explained by the increasing difficulties students face as they enroll in courses in these majors, the primary obstacle being the required capabilities in physical science and mathematics. This obstacle, in turn, results from a de-emphasis in these areas in precollege education and the failure of universities to establish mathematics and science entrance requirements. The students who could master such courses, were they exposed to them earlier, either lack the motivation to enroll voluntarily in science and mathematics or are convinced psychologically that such courses are beyond their abilities. The solutions to this problem lie in an enhanced science and mathematics curriculum at the precollege level, with encouragement for students who did not acquire this background to believe that college-level courses in mathematics, chemistry, and physics are within their abilities. New demands and opportunities will also create an ever-increasing call for data collectors, laboratory analysts, technicians, and field as- sistants. In particular, the need for spatially broad, detailed, and sophisticated data collection systems, already considerable, may greatly expand with intense national interest in water quality and climatic

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EDUCATION IN THE HYDROLOGIC SCIENCES 287 change. The personnel needed for such activities are hydrologists with degrees below the Ph.D. level. The quality of their preparation will determine the quality of data generated for both applied and scientific purposes. (It should be noted that undergraduate studies determine this preparation for B.S.-level and , to a large degree, for M.S.-level hydrologists.) This fact brings up another serious educational problem the lack of field and laboratory experience at the undergraduate level, a situation that has reached crisis proportions. The almost complete disappearance of laboratory education can be attributed to many factors, most of them related to funding. Laboratory courses demand both facilities and high faculty-to-student ratios, but many universities lack the resources to finance facilities and the teaching assistants, technicians, and machinists required to support them. The philosophical framework of science education also has changed, emphasizing intellectual instead of technical skills. Moreover, faculty members whose expertise and effort are centered on field or laboratory experimentation, instrumentation, and technical methods are perhaps at a disadvantage when considered for advancement because they usually publish fewer papers. Finally, the nearly universal demand for computer literacy has left students with little time for commitment to laboratory and field courses. This is a problem at all levels that has existed long enough to become self-perpetuating through the next generation of faculty. The conse- quences of this deficiency are both profound and disturbing. Students have become separated from the realities of the physical world they seek to master, studying only conceptual models in which the rich complexity of nature is replaced necessarily by the convenience of ad hoc simplification. In the absence of experimental validation, these models tend to take on an aura of reality in the minds of their users, which may lead to scientific error and stagnation. If a major rejuve- nation of the "observational" components of higher education were to occur, it would serve to improve the quality of professionals entering hydrologic science and also perhaps to attract larger numbers of ex- perientially motivated students to the field. In spite of the importance of the above needs, the role played by undergraduate studies in the hydrologic sciences often is underestimated. Perhaps this happens, in the United States and elsewhere, because of the almost complete absence of academic departments devoted to scientific hydrology. There is no department responsible for basic requirements. However, the increasing urgency of the needs related to the hydrologic sciences calls for a special effort to satisfy them. Obviously, one way to do that is to create, at enough universities, the appropriate department of hydrologic sciences that includes under-

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288 OPPORTUNITIES IN THE HYDROLOGIC SCIENCES graduate majors. However, as discussed above, such a task is diffi- cult and probably unachievable; at best, its aims would be implemented too slowly to satisfy near-future needs. Another approach is to increase the duration of studies leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in the hydrologic sciences. However, such an action might make graduate studies less attractive and, therefore, be counterproductive. A more reasonable course of action is to include activities designed to influence under- graduates as a major part of the programs administered by interde- partmental committees (or groups) assisting with and organizing graduate work in the hydrologic sciences. The undergraduate experience in science and engineering can be modified in several ways to facilitate the education of hydrologic scientists who will emerge from these disciplines and to promote multidisciplinary science. For example, faculty in related disciplines can enhance awareness of hydrology and guide students to graduate programs or professional positions in hydrology. Another possibility is increased acceptance of engineering-based hydrology courses as electives in liberal arts and science degree-granting programs. The few existing hydrology departments also can help by adding to their program one or two courses from other disciplines or by revising water-related courses in ways that will attract students from other sciences. Some specific activities designed to influence undergradu- ates could include (1) development of a course list outlining undergraduate preparation for a career in scientific hydrology; (2) dissemination of such a list among undergraduate science and engineering advisors (and an attempt to get them to use the list); (3) organization of a solid (perhaps senior-level) course in scientific hydrology; (4) sponsoring, at the university level, periodic public lectures about some of the interesting problems investigated in scientific hydrology; and (5) initiating and administering a multidisciplinary undergraduate major in scien- tific hydrology. SCIENCE EDUCATION FROM KINDERGARTEN THROUGH HIGH SCHOOL The discussion above makes clear that the success of graduate pro- grams in the hydrologic sciences will depend on the quality of un- dergraduate preparation in pure science and mathematics, which, in turn, depends critically on the educational background obtained in precollegiate years. Like the statistics quoted above for geosciences and civil engineering majors, those for science education among high school students show a dismal trend.

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EDUCATION IN THE HYDROLOGIC SCIENCES 289 Less than 50 percent of high school graduates in the United States have completed more than one year of mathematics and one year of basic science. Less than 10 percent have taken a physics course. Students in Europe, the USSR, and Japan take considerably more mathematics and science courses than do North Americans. This decline in high-quality, well-attended science programs has been a concern for many years to educators and leaders in business and industry. Recognition of the need for stronger science education programs has led to a reexamination of curricula in primary and secondary education in all states during the past decade. Parents and educators are showing a renewed interest in science, which comes at a time when student interest also is growing. Student enthusiasm for science-oriented programs has never been higher than it is today, and the demand for new technical employees in science, engineering, and computer-assisted technology continues to accelerate. Intensive, high-quality learning experiences in science in prepara- tion for college require support from parents willing to continue their own education; from schools willing to upgrade their curricula and expand the diversity of science courses; from universities willing to assist in teacher education and staff development; and from businesses and research agencies willing to share their technical expertise and equipment with the schools. Program improvement can be achieved gradually by changes in school district policies or state laws and more rapidly by school-level planners utilizing, on an ad hoc basis, a diverse spectrum of opportunities to improve science education. Early in the 1980s, a California study of the attitudes and educa- tion of teachers regarding science education provided the following information: Only 5 percent of California school districts employ full-time science specialists. Student participation in science activities averaged 44 minutes per week in elementary schools. Over 40 percent of the elementary school teachers surveyed rated their own ability in science as below average when compared with other subjects. The felt they did not have the skills to teach science processes and concepts. Forty-five percent of the elementary school teachers and admin- istrators predicted that less money for instructional materials will be spent on science because state funds provided for instructional materials may be spent on any subject area districts or schools see fit within established guidelines. Although teachers expressed their support for the "hands-on"

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290 OPPORTUNITIES IN THE HYDROLOGIC SCIENCES concept, most continue to use textbooks (56 percent) or teacher-made written materials (57 percent) as the basis for their science instruc- tional programs. Although science kits or systems have been purchased by many schools or districts, only 5 percent of the teachers use them exten- sively. Many teachers expressed the feeling that other subjects took . .. . .. . priority In nme over science. Given these realities at the elementary school level, what is the probability of seeing a high-quality science background developed in students at the high school level? It is obvious that staff develop- ment for both teachers and administrators will play a pivotal role in the improvement of science education. Hydrologists have a challenge and an excellent opportunity to influence and accelerate that devel- opment. WOMEN AND ETHNIC MINORITIES IN THE HYDROLOGIC SCIENCES That the United States faces a shortage of technically trained per- sonnel in the next decade and beyond is a problem well recognized in the scientific and engineering communities (Widnall, 1988; TFWM, 1989~. Traditionally these fields have been dominated by white males. As the rate of white males entering these professions continues to decline, however, attention has turned to those populations who have been underrepresented and underutilized in science and engineering- women and minorities. If the nation is to be able to meet its needs for scientific personnel into the next century, greater numbers of women and minorities will have to be recruited and retained in science and engineering professions (TFWM, 1989; NRC, 1989b). The hydrologic sciences face perhaps an even greater challenge in meeting national needs for technically trained personnel than do other scientific disciplines. As the demand for master's-level hydrologists in government and industry increases, individuals who may have otherwise pursued a Ph.D. often opt to enter the work force. Universities find it difficult to compete with the high salaries and hands-on experience offered by consulting firms. Thus it is necessary not only to recruit more young people to fill the ranks of the hydrologic sciences as the traditional source of students dwindles, but also to recruit and train master's-level hydrologists to meet the nation's growing need for these skills. While the challenge is to improve recruitment and retention of persons of all types of background, women and racial and ethnic

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EDUCATION IN THE HYDROLOGIC SCIENCES 291 minorities face certain obstacles that require particular attention. The underrepresentation of these populations in science and engineering is well documented. The growth in the employment rate for women scientists more than doubled the rate for men between 1976 and 1986 but has slowed in recent years. In 1986, while women accounted for 44 percent of the U.S. work force, they accounted for only 27 percent of all scientists (including social scientists) and engineers. The num- ber of women planning careers in science or engineering peaked in the late 1970s and is now declining. While blacks constitute 12 percent of the general population, only 2 percent of all employed scientists and engineers are black. Hispanics, America's fastest growing minority, account for 9 percent of the population but only 2 percent of all employed scientists and engineers (TFWM, 1989~. The pattern of underrepresentation is mirrored in the numbers of graduate degrees earned by women and minorities. In 1987, women received 16.7 percent of all doctorates in the physical sciences and 6.5 percent in engineering, according to the National Research Council's Doctorate Records File (DRF), which includes data on individuals receiving Ph.D.s from U.S. universities (NRC, 1989a). This picture is only a little less discouraging than that for minorities achieving advanced degrees. From 1985 to 1987, the number of American ethnic minori- ties earning science and engineering B.S. degrees rose 21.6 percent. At the master's level, the increase was 9 percent, and at the Ph.D. level the number of degrees awarded remained static over the two- year period (Vetter, 1989~. About 1 percent of the doctorates awarded in science and engineering are earned by black Americans, and about 2 percent are earned by Hispanics (TFWM, 1989~. While in 1977 blacks earned 684 science and engineering doctorates, in 1988 that number had fallen to 311 (Vetter, 1989~. The hydrologic sciences follow the national trend of under- representation of women and minorities in their ranks. This committee's 1988 survey of the backgrounds of hydrologists demonstrates the case with respect to women (see Appendix B). Of the 2,200 persons who responded to the survey, 11 percent were female and 89 percent were male. Of the males, 54 percent held Ph.D. degrees, while only 28 percent of the women did. Data from the DRF's 1987 survey of earned doctorates (NRC, 1989a) indicate that of the 18 Ph.D.s earned in hydrology and water resources, 11 were earned by U.S. citizens and individuals with permanent visas; of these 11, 5 were awarded to women and none to minorities. In 1988 a total of 24 doctorates were awarded in hydrology and water resources, of which 14 were awarded to U.S. citizens or individuals having permanent visas (NRC, 1989a). Of the 14 recipients, 13 were white, 1 was Hispanic, and 4 were women.

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292 OPPORTUNITIES IN THE HYDROLOGIC SCIENCES The reasons that women and minorities traditionally have not chosen careers in science and engineering are diverse- some are clear, while others are subtle and not well understood. Sex-related inequalities in measures of career success, such as academic rank, tenure, and salary, may influence young women to seek careers in other professional fields where they perceive less inequality. Women in science and engineering fields have lower rates of recruitment and retention than do men. After expressing an initial interest in science or engineering studies, women, more often than men, switch to nonscience or nonengineering fields. Typically such decisions are based on sociocultural or attitudinal factors rather than academic talent. Although the rate of attainmnent of Ph.D.s remains lower for women than for men in most fields of science and engineering, there is no indication that this attrition is due to a lack of academic performance. Research indicates that, especially for women, the attrition from science and engineering majors is seldom related only to academic talent and achievement (NRC, 1989b). Women's decisions to marry and have families often are said to lead to career decisions that benefit their families but damage their careers, decisions that males are seldom, if ever, forced to make. Women scientists and engineers more frequently attribute part-time employ- ment and time spent unemployed and not seeking work to family obligations; also, married and single female academics are less geo- graphically mobile than their male counterparts, which may hinder their potential for career advancement. However, data show that marriage and parenthood do not result in lower publication rates or lower rank and salary among women (NRC, 1987~. Although the unique demands of marriage and parental responsibilities on women are not the sole cause of low rates of recruitment, retention, and success of female academics, they are likely contributors. To reduce the loss of women in engineering and the sciences, academia must develop more flexibility to accommodate the unique set of demands faced by women. Other, more subtle explanations for the lack of women in the sciences and engineering, particularly in academia, have been reported. Women graduate students often believe they are subject to inappropriate treatment by male faculty and student colleagues. "Inappropriate treatment" is defined as "any treatment that emphasizes the student as a woman first and a student second and stresses the social nature of an interaction instead of the professional or educational nature." Widnall (1988) reports that there are still male faculty members in science and engi- neering who state publicly that women do not belong in graduate school. Zikmund (1988) states that the negative experiences of women

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EDUCATION IN THE HYDROLOGIC SCIENCES 293 on faculties and in college administrations are not random and that the well-being of academic women is still being sabotaged in subtle ways. A large percentage of women responding to a Massachusetts Institute of Technology survey believed their gender was a significant barrier to receiving academic resources. The current environment that women face in graduate school thus may be a major reason for the small number of women today in science and engineering programs. An increased willingness on the part of faculty to challenge professional colleagues who make prejudicial or inappropriate remarks about women and minority students could help to reduce these types of negative experiences. The challenge for the sciences is to increase the number and diver- sity of students at all educational levels. Although successful approaches to this problem will necessarily be as diverse as the disciplines, institutions in which they are housed, and individuals who pursue them, there are some fundamental principles that have been demonstrated to work. In its 1989 report, Changing America: The New Face of Science and En- gineering, the congressionally mandated Task Force on Women, Mi- norities, and the Handicapped in Science and Technology lists ac- tions to be taken to increase the participation of underrepresented populations in science and engineering, and identifies exemplary programs of this nature (TFWM, 1989~. Experts in the field believe that increasing the participation of underrepresented populations should be approached as a systems problem, requiring coordinated changes in policies and procedures rather than isolated, radical interventions without continuity. Effec- tive programs must be implemented in all sectors of education, beginning at the prekindergarten level and continuing through employment (NRC, 1989b). At the precollege level, emphasis on the usefulness of math- ematics and science training has been shown to make these subjects more attractive to female students (NRC, 1984~. Expectations should be raised for all students, with hands-on science education provided in a forum free of cultural and gender biases. Counselors should encourage all students to consider science and engineering careers and emphasize the importance of mathematics and science proficiency in the job market of the future (TFWM, 1989~. At the college and graduate levels, educational institutions should improve recruitment and retention programs. The use of role models and mentors in education has been demonstrated to be effective in recruitment and retention programs (TFWM, 1989; NRC, 1989b). Currently, however, female and minority faculty members are most likely to be found among the untenured junior faculty and thus not available for significant amounts of time to serve as mentors. Recruitment

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294 : ~ OPPORTUNITIES IN THE HYDROLOGIC SCIENCES ~~::~ it: ~ T:HEi~:C:HANGl~:NG~ ~PR^FIL~E~OF T:HE:~H:YDROLOGIC::~:~:OM:M~U~N~ITY~ ~~ ~~ ~:~:~ al ~ ~ .: ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~ ,: _ ~ . ~ . ~ ~ I:~n~1~962,~t:h~e F~ederal~Lou:ncil tor~ie:ne~ an~d~l~chn~o~logy~publis~hed:~ th~l~lre~s~ults~ Of ~a: :~ survive elf this ~81: ~1~:~i n~divid~ua~:ls~sel~l istedl ~with~lthe~:~N~a~t;ona I it ~~::~Reg:~ister:~:::of Scie~nt:i~fic~P~ersonnel l~as~:bydrcH~og~ists.ll~ Twenty-six years: later lava ~ ~1~ 1; ~~similaFr~::but:~::~more~:eta~i:l~ed~:~s~r~ey~was~:~con~ctdd ~~as:~:~a~part of this study::: i: ~~l~l~a~mno~ng~the~app~roxi:m~atel:~y~ 3~ ~OOO:~mem~rs~of ~the~l~l~H~ydrolog~y~;sect~ion:~l~:of:~::~:~ ~ t ~ : : ~ ~ : :,: ::::: : :::. :: ~ :: :: , : : ~~ : :, :: .: I: ~ : :. ~ :: : :: :: ~ :::~ :: I: : ~: ~ ~ ~ ~ :~ t qe::~^m~f~rican:~ ~~:f~oo ~vsica ~ Noon . ~ A tremor pa ~ e: a: .~ u: res~non::ses: wetted :~ ~ ~~::~:rece~i~ved~fiom~this~ l~atter~s~u~rvey~. ::: Foll~owing~a~re~:some~ comparative High-: In: :~ ~~lights:~:frdm~th~e 1 ~1:9~60~:a:nd~ ~1988~; ~surveys;, ~~:whose~res:ulFts:~ Are: reported:: in ::; ::: detail i~ni~AD:oend~;x By: of: this report. ::: Aft:: ~~ ~ The ~:avera::ge~age~ of ~~:hyd~rolo:g~ists:l:~ h~s~not~ch~an~:ed~sig~n~ifi~carlt~iy:: :~ ~::4~3: ::: ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ _ ~ ~~ :~ ~ ~ _ ~ :~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ . :~ ,- ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~y~e:ar:s~l:n~a~n:c ~:~42~:years~1~n~:l~Y~ ,1 ~.~:~*~m~o~n~g:~te~m~a~ e Frye JO posts, ~~ cow- ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ T ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ :: ~~ Ever:, ~~ t: hi Savers g Cage ~ was::; 35 ~ y east r s~:i~n~1~:9~8~8~.~::~:: :~ ~~ ~~e ~~ l~n~:~1 960,~ ~m:o~st::h~ydrolo~gi:~sts~: i~n~::~tlie~:~suvey:: held bac~h:e~lor's~d~egre~es ~: i: ~ ~(~:74: perce~n~t),~:~w~h~erea~s~ ~:in::: ~ 1~'9:8S ~~::~most:~h:e~ld~Ph~.~D . :~:~d~eg:r:e~es~ i: (5 1:: ~~ Percents :~ : ~:~:~w~:ith ~:~th~el nu~m~ber:~:~ot:~ bJ6h~elor:~s~d~egree~hold:~e~rs~:~droppi~n~g :~ to:~ll~1 percent. ~ :~::~ 1: ~ This trend ~~m:a~y~:refl~ect:~:to~some ~~ extended: Treater Prop ens id am~ong~doc-~::: aft:: ~ ~ ~ , ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . . ~ . . ~ ~ ~ .: ~ _ ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ . . . ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ Dora: ~~ Degree: so alters :~to Join t ~e:::Am~er~f~:can~ ~eop ~~ys~c:a~ :~u:~n~;on it ~~a~n~:~amon:g i: ~ :. ~ f ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ nets '~ fair ~ i: ~ ~~r~ ~ ~~ ~r Are l ~ i: :~ ~1:~ i: ~1~ ~ On 1~9 60,~:~e ngi~n~eeri n:g~5: 5~l~percent~:and ~ ~~geology~2~8 ~ ~~perce at) were ~:~:~f :: the most im~portant~d~egree~fields~l~Mr ~~t~ydiologiist~s.~l Fins ~1198~8~:~ the~sit~u~:Mion ~~ ~:~ 1 ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ ~ ~ 1 :1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - : ~ ~~w.~as~uncn~angea~: wan respect to~:geo'~ogy ~~st~:~:~perc~ent'~ out engineer-: :~ : :: . . ~ . . _ , ., I, , , ~ :, . I ng ~~;n~ao~:~roppen:~:to~ ~~:~:~p~erCe:~n~t,~w~nI~le~nyo~rol~ogy~:na~r~fsen~to~l~4~rce~n~:t~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ r. . i ~ ~ . . ~~ __ , . . ~ . ~ I. . ~ ~ . . . i: ~:~ Asia a~egree~r~'e~l~.~ve~ral~l~,~ ~' art ~~perc~en~t~ot~tn~n~yo~ro~gl~sts:~rTesPo~n~l~n~R ~ In if: ~::~1~:9:8~8~:~were~ - in~ed~as~:~e~ngineers; ~o~f~ogists,~:~or hyd~rol:pgiNts.~:~l~ ail: ~ is: ~~A~bo~ut~:~two-~t~h~l~:rds of ~:~the~hyd~rof~ogis~respo:ndi~n~g:~:~ i~n~:~ 1~9~60 ~~wor~ked~:~ r : ::: ~ :::: ::: ::: I:: :::::::::: : :: ~ : :~ i:::::: ::: : I i: : ::: ~ : :~ : A: : i: ~ ::: :, :: ~ ~ :~ ~ ~ tutor the ~~teneral ~ gove~r'1~.,nent:,~w~ retreats unless Tear ~ one-~thl~rO~o ~~ so Inns ~ 1 Ye.; :~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ :~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ :: ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~: ~ ~ ~:~1 ~:~ Private secto~r~:~em~pl~oy~m~ent~:ros:~f:rom~ J~0 ~:perc~e~f~t:~ i n~1~960 troll ~32:~:~:perce~nt~:~:~ ~ . ,~ ~ ,~ ~ . ~ ~~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~: - ~ ~~ ~ :~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ . ~ :: ~ ID ~~Y~.~ ~~ost~ot~:those~ ln~tne~ fattest' :~gro~u~p ~w~e~re~wo~r~lng~l~n~ grin water ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ :: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ : I h~;d:~roloav.~:~: ~~ln~:~:~:1988~. ::::~the~l~federal: ~eove:rn:me.~t ~ed~ucation:al::~institf~tio:n~s.~ :~ ~~ ~ ~~:~and~;:~the:~ pr:ivate~:se~c~tor~ ~eac:h~ ~::~:ac=~.~nt~ed~t~~ about ~ oi~ne:-th~i:rd~:~ of the:: total: ~~: :: :: : ~ ::~ I: ~ :: I: ::: I:: I:: ::: If::: ::~ :~:: ~~::~ :: ::: : :: ~ ~ :: :: : I: ~ : ::: : ::::: : : ~ I:: I: i: :: ~ :: :: :::: I: I: If: :: ~ : :: :: :: :: :: :::: :::: ~ : ~ ~ : :: ~ ~ I: ~:~emptoiyine~nt::~of~hyd~rologists.~:~.~:orty:pe~rce~nt~:of:a.fl hydroJogists~:ar~e~e:m-~:~: : ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~: , ~ ~ I, ~ ~ ~ , ~ , ~ ~ ~:~::ploy:~O :~:n~: :ap~pl~e~nyd~rology:~tod~ay.~:~ :: ~~:~:~ ~:~ ~:~:~ - . . If, I, ~ . ~ ~ ~ ,. ~ ,. ~ ~ . ~ ~ a ::T~he ratio ot:~sunace water to Prou~.~water hYuroloeists~was about ~ ~ :~2~:1 ~ ~i:n~::~:1~9~60. En: 1~98~8~:the~rati~o~wa~s~ ab6~ut~0:~.7~:1~.::~:~::~: :: ~~:~:~ ~ :: ~~ ~~ : :: : . , . : ~~:~ ~~:~ ~~Most~hydio:l~ists With graduate-level degrees :~:c~hoose~spe~ci~aIties: ::~1 Win the ~earth's~crust:~ar~d~:~ land~rrns:or~c~he~mic~a::l processes. ~ ~~:~:~:~ :::1~: : ::: ~1~ ::::: :::: These~:~::~results~ st.gg:e~st:::::t:hatl:~ove~rl~:the~:~past:::~th~ree~: decades ~Ih~ydrologists: . ~ . ~ ~ . . . ~ . ~ ~ nave seconder more n i~h~fV e0.~ucate0. Anymore ~~' Rev to ~ n::ave~ A Geosciences ~ ;backg:rolmd~ll~m~ore~ ~~:evenly~::~d'4tri~b~uted~:~amon~g~thei~pu~blic:: :~a:~nd: private Sac-: :~: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ :: ~ ~ : :: Tars of::~e~mp~loy~men;t~,:~ and:~:~:mo:re~ involved: ~wi~th~:gro:urid~w~ate:r phen~ome~na,:~;~:~ ~~ ~~:~l~i~,~c~ I u:d~i n g ~~c~:h~ern i Cal ~~ ~q u Al City. :~ ~ ~~ Fern a lien ~~ had rQ I on i fits ~~:~terld ~~ to ::: Be ~ yo on er, ~:~: 1 :: Bless :~:highly~e~d~ate~d~ and :~,nore~geoscience~or~enm~d~(a~s~opposed~:to:~engi- ~ ~:~ : ~~ nerd n~:~o~:ri~e:nted)~:~than~;their~:~ma~e~:~cLol lies.:::: ~~::~ ~ :::::: : 1 i: :1 ~~ I: 1 : :::1 , ; , : ~ ~

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EDUCATION IN THE HYDROLOGIC SCIENCES 295 and retention of underrepresented students in science and engineer- ing departments would be further enhanced by the presence of women and minorities at all ranks, a signal to such students that they would be respected and treated fairly. The availability of financial support is another key factor In successful recruitment and retention programs. Students who are aware of the availability of financial support in science and engineering disciplines are more likely to pursue such careers. Some successful recruitment and retention programs offer forgivable educational loans to students from underrepresented groups who agree to pursue faculty careers (TFMW, 1989~. Although the fundamental problem of encouraging students to pursue careers In science and engineering is not unique to the hydrologic sciences, active pursuit of solutions to the problem is essential to the well-being of the field. At this time, with the increasing need for hydrologic scientists around the world and the expanding opportunities described In this report, the discipline cannot afford to ignore the importance of getting underrepresented groups involved In the hydrologic sciences. SOURCES AND SUGGESTED READING Chow, Ven Te. 1959. Open-Channel Hydraulics. McGraw-Hill, New York. Chow, Ven Te. 1964. Handbook of Applied Hydrology: A Compendium of Water Re- sources Technology. McGraw-Hill, New York. Holden, Constance. 1989. Wanted: 675,000 future scientists and engineers. Science 244:1536- 1537. National Research Council (NRC). 1984. Sex Segregation in the Workplace: Trends, Explanations, Remedies. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. National Research Council (NRC). 1987. Women: The Underrepresentation and Career Differentials in Science and Engineering. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. National Research Council (NRC). 1988. Doctorate Recipients from United States Uni- versities: Summary Report 1987. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. National Research Council (NRC). 1989a. Doctorate Recipients from United States Uni- versities: Summary Report 1988. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. National Research Council (NRC).1989b. Responding to the Changing Demography: Women in Science and Engineering. Planning Group to Assess Possible OSEP Initiatives for Increasing the Participation of Women in Scientific and Engineering Careers. Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. The Task Force on Women, Minorities, and the Handicapped in Science and Technol- ogy (TFWM). 1989. Changing America: The New Face of Science and Engineer- ing. Final Report. National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C. Vetter, Betty M. 1989. Minorities gain, but white women lose ground. AAAS Ob- server, September 1, p. 10. Widnall, S. 1988. Voices from the pipeline. Science 241:1740-1745. Zikmund, B. 1988. The well-being of academic women is still being sabotaged by colleagues, by students, and by themselves. Chronicle of Higher Education, September 1, p. A44.