Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page 113
Nutrition During Lactation 6 Milk Composition In examining the evidence concerning the influence of maternal nutrition on human milk composition, the subcommittee considered the broad spectrum of constituents of milk, the normal variation in their concentrations, and factors in addition to maternal nutrition that influence those variations. This discussion of the subcommittee's findings is not meant to be exhaustive. Rather, this chapter provides a framework for understanding how maternal nutrition can have an impact on the composition of human milk, as well as when and in what context nutritional factors are likely to be operational. Furthermore, it provides the information needed to estimate maternal nutrient requirements—the subject of Chapter 9—and provides a basis for considering some of the effects of maternal nutrition on the nursing infant's health (Chapter 7) and the effects of lactation on the mother's longer-term health and nutrient stores (Chapters 8 and 9). CHARACTERISTICS OF HUMAN MILK Human milk is a complex fluid that contains more than 200 recognized constituents (see Blanc, 1981). The number of recognized constituents has increased as analytic techniques have been improved. Milk consists of several compartments, including true solutions, colloids (casein micelles), membranes, membrane-bound globules, and live cells (Ruegg and Blanc, 1982). Its constituents can be broadly divided into categories; for example, aqueous and lipid fractions (see box) or nutritive and nonnutritive constituents. Many milk constituents serve dual roles (see later section ''Constituents of Human Milk with Other Biologic Functions"). Detailed discussions of human milk constituents
OCR for page 114
Nutrition During Lactation Classes of Constituents in Human Milk Protein and Nonprotein Nitrogen Compounds Carbohydrates Proteins Lactose Caseins Oligosaccharides α-Lactalbumin Bifidus factors Lactoferrin Glycopeptides Secretory IgA and other immunoglobulins Lipids β-Lactoglobulin Triglycerides Lysozyme Fatty acids Enzymes Phospholipids Hormones Sterols and hydrocarbons Growth factors Fat-soluble vitamins Nonprotein Nitrogen Compounds A and carotene Urea D Creatine E Creatinine K Uric acid Minerals Glucosamine Macronutrient Elements α-Amino nitrogen Calcium Nucleic acids Phosphorus Nucleotides Magnesium Polyamines Potassium Water-Soluble Vitamins Sodium Thiamin Chlorine Riboflavin Sulfur Niacin Trace Elements Pantothenic acid Iodine Biotin Iron Folate Copper Vitamin B6 Zinc Vitamin B12 Manganese Vitamin C Selenium Inositol Chromium Choline Cobalt Cells Leukocytes Epithelial cells and properties can be found in several recent review articles and books (e.g., Blanc, 1981; Carlson, 1985; Gaull et al., 1982; Goldman et al., 1987; Goldman and Goldblum, 1990; Hamosh and Goldman, 1986; Jensen, 1989; Jensen and Neville, 1985; Koldovskỳ, 1989; Lönnerdal, 1985a, 1986a; Picciano, 1984a, 1985; Ruegg and Blanc, 1982).
OCR for page 115
Nutrition During Lactation METHODOLOGIC ISSUES Types of Variation The concentration of the individual constituents of mature human milk have been shown to vary considerably (see Table 6-1), even when they are collected and analyzed under controlled, defined conditions. The greatest variations have been observed from woman to woman, although variations are also found in different samples obtained from the same woman (Picciano, 1984b). Milk composition changes from the beginning of a feeding to the end, diurnally, from day to day, and with the onset and progression of lactation. Examples are given later in this section. Early investigators recognized the importance of sampling techniques in obtaining valid data on the composition of human milk and recommended collection of a total 24-hour specimen at different stages of lactation (Hytten, 1954a; Macy et al., 1945). Although such a recommendation represents the ideal approach, it is seldom feasible without interfering with the normal lactation process. No one sampling scheme can be endorsed universally for all milk constituents. Each scheme must be designed to accommodate the variation pattern of the constituents to be measured. Failure to do this will often result in an under- or overestimation of daily secretion rates, masking possible influences of maternal nutrition. Variation in the First Weeks Post Partum Changes in milk composition over the course of lactation are most marked during the first weeks of lactation (see examples in Figure 6-1). Colostrum is the fluid secreted by the mammary gland immediately following parturition. It differs from mature human milk in physical characteristics and composition. The intense yellow color of colostrum is indicative of the high concentration of carotenoids, including α-arotene, β-carotene, β-crytoxanthin, lutein, and xeaxanthin. The carotene content of colostrum is about 10-fold higher than that of mature milk (0.34 to 7.57 mg/liter compared with 0.1 to 0.3 mg/liter, respectively [Patton et al., 1990]). During the colostral period, which lasts 4 to 7 days, rapid changes occur in milk composition: concentrations of fat and lactose increase while those of protein and minerals decrease. The term transitional milk is sometimes used to describe the postcolostral period (7 to 21 days post partum), when changes in milk composition occur less rapidly than in the first few days following parturition. Mature human milk (ò21 days post partum) also exhibits variability, but to a much smaller extent than in early lactation. Data for selected nutrients (Appendix C) illustrate this point and indicate variations among studies arising from differences in analytic techniques and other experimental circumstances.
OCR for page 116
Nutrition During Lactation TABLE 6-1 Estimates of the Concentrations of Nutrients in Mature Human Milk Nutrient Amount in Human Milka Nutrient Amount in Human Milka g/liter ± SDbb µg/liter ± SD Lactose 72.0 ± 2.5 Vitamin A, REd 670 ± 200 Protein 10.5 ± 2.0 (2,230 IUe) Fat 39.0 ± 4.0 Vitamin D 0.55 ± 0.10 mg/liter ± SD Vitamin K 2.1 ± 0.1 Calcium 280 ± 26 Folate 85 ± 37f Phosphorus 140 ± 22 Vitamin B12 0.97g,h Magnesium 35 ± 2 Biotin 4 ± 1 Sodium 180 ± 40 Iodine 110 ± 40 Potassium 525 ± 35 Selenium 20 ± 5 Chloride 420 ± 60 Manganese 6 ± 2 Iron 0.3 ± 0.1 Fluoride 16 ± 5 Zinc 1.2 ± 0.2 Chromium 50 ± 5 Copper 0.25 ± 0.03 Molybdenum NRi Vitamin E 2.3 ± 1.0 Vitamin C 40 ± 10 Thiamin 0.210 ± 0.035 Riboflavin 0.350 ± 0.025 Niacin 1.500 ± 0.200 Vitamin B6 93 ± 8c Pantothenic acid 1.800 ± 0.200 a Data taken from the Committee on Nutrition (1985), unless otherwise indicated. The values are representative of amounts of nutrients present in human milk; some of them may differ slightly from those reported by investigators cited in the text. b SD = Standard deviation. c From Styslinger and Kirksey (1985), a study of unsupplemented women. d RE = Retinol equivalents. e IU = International units. f From Brown et al. (1986a). g From Sandberg et al. (1981). h Standard deviation not reported; range 0.33 to 3.20. i NR = Not reported. Variation with Length of Gestation There are substantial differences between the milk of mothers who deliver preterm and those who deliver at full term. The subcommittee has focused on lactating mothers of full-term infants; therefore, these differences are only briefly summarized here. During the first 3 to 4 days of lactation, preterm milk (the milk secreted by mothers who delivered prematurely) has higher protein, sodium, and chloride concentrations and lower lactose concentrations than milk secreted by mothers of full-term infants. While some investigators report higher fat concentrations in preterm milk (Anderson et al., 1981; Guerrini et al., 1981),
OCR for page 117
Nutrition During Lactation FIGURE 6-1 Changes in the concentrations of lactose and whey proteins in human milk during the progression of lactation in four women during late pregnancy and the first 5 months of lactation. Values obtained for the right and left breast of each woman were averaged and used to calculate the mean plus or minus the standard error of the mean at each period. The zero on the horizontal axis indicated the time of delivery. From Kulski and Hartmann (1981) with permission.
OCR for page 118
Nutrition During Lactation others do not (Bitman et al., 1983; Sann, 1981). Calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus concentrations are similar in preterm and full-term milk, as are concentrations of copper, iron, and zinc (Hamosh and Hamosh, 1987). During early lactation the milk produced by women who deliver prematurely undergoes the same changes in composition that occur after full-term pregnancies. The change occurs, however, over a longer period in mothers who deliver prematurely than in mothers of full-term infants (that is, 3 to 5 weeks compared with 3 to 5 days, respectively). The bioactive and immunologic properties of human milk also differ between preterm and full-term milk; this is discussed in detail elsewhere (Goldman, 1989b). Variation in Content of Macronutrients (Fat, Carbohydrate, and Protein) Lipids are among the most variable and difficult nutrients to measure accurately in human milk: among women, the total fat content of 24-hour milk samples may vary from less than 20 g/liter to more than 50 g/liter. However, Hytten (1954b) reports that the average fat content of milk secreted on the seventh day of lactation by any one woman was predictive of the average concentration in later lactation. Within one woman, the fat content of milk increases from the beginning to the end of a single nursing; it differs by as much as 20 g/liter in 24-hour collections on subsequent days, it differs from lactation to lactation in a nonconsistent manner, and it is influenced by the length of time between sample collection (the longest interval yielding the lowest fat values). These large variations complicate the measurement of total fat secreted by lactating women and, in turn, affect calculations of the energy value of milk, which are determined mainly by milk fat content. Among the macronutrients in human milk, lactose appears to be the least variable and thus the least influenced by improper sampling. The coefficient of variation (standard deviation divided by the mean) for human milk lactose content is 7.2% compared with 13% for the total nitrogen content (which is indicative of protein content) and 25% for the fat content in total 24-hour samples (Hytten, 1954c). Precision and Validity of Methods There are adequate methods for quantifying many human milk constituents. Unfortunately, methods designed to study bovine milk or other biologic fluids have been inappropriately applied in the analysis of human milk, thereby providing inaccurate and unreliable information, even in some recent studies. To obtain accurate results, one must apply proper sampling, extraction, handling, and storage procedures as well as a sensitive and selective detection system. A few examples of the many problems that must be addressed are presented below:
OCR for page 119
Nutrition During Lactation Bioactive constituents. Enzymes and other bioactive constituents of human milk may alter the composition of expressed milk (Greenberg and Graves (1984), even at temperatures well below 0° C. (Berkow et al., 1984; Bitman et al., 1983). Bound forms. Several of the vitamins (such as vitamin D, folate, and pantothenic acid) are secreted bound to other compounds, and they must be released before they can be completely extracted or detected. For example, accurate measurement of the total content of pantothenic acid in human milk requires double enzyme hydrolysis (Song et al., 1984). Distribution in aqueous and lipid fractions. Vitamin D and its metabolites are secreted in the aqueous fraction of human milk and are attached to binding proteins (Hollis et al., 1982), but on standing they diffuse to the lipid fraction of milk. Thus, whether aqueous or lipid solvents are used should be determined by the handling procedure. Other sources of measurement errors. Commercial sources of reagents such as enzymes may be contaminated with vitamins and be responsible for falsely elevated levels in milk (Song et al., 1984). Many of the water-soluble vitamins are measured by microbiological assays. Care must be taken to ensure that the vitamin to be measured is stable under the extraction method employed and that the vitamin is converted to a form that can be utilized by the test organism. For example, the folate content of human milk is likely to be underestimated unless an antioxidant is used to prevent it from being oxidized, conjugase pretreatment is performed to cleave the long-chain forms of the vitamin, heat treatment is applied to release the folate from its binding proteins before microbiological analysis, and test organisms are selected that are able to use all the forms of folate in the samples (O'Connor et al., 1990a). The reproducibility and validity of techniques used in different studies could not always be ascertained by the subcommittee. Thus, the data on the nutrient content of human milk must be interpreted with caution. Large variations reported for many milk constituents may reflect improper sampling or analytic inaccuracies or both rather than true biologic variance. In addition to the methodologic concerns just described, there are problems of measurement and detection specific to nonnutrient constituents, as follows: The leukocytes in human milk are difficult to identify because their morphology is altered by the presence of many intracytoplasmic lipid bodies. Certain constituents, such as secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA), exist in a different physical form than they do in other tissues, such as blood, and therefore require discrete detection procedures. The titer of specific antibodies in human milk depends on whether the woman has recently been exposed to the relevant immunogen via the intestinal or respiratory tract.
OCR for page 120
Nutrition During Lactation TABLE 6-2 Origins of Nutrients in Human Milka Origin Proteins Carbohydrates Lipids Vitamins Minerals Synthesis in mammary gland x x x o o Transfer from plasma to milk x x x x x a x indicates that the nutrient has this origin; o indicates that it does not. Nonspecific blocking factors in human milk may interfere with the detection of certain components by solid-phase immunoassays. Clearly, considerable effort is required to reliably detect and quantify many of the constituents in human milk and, therefore, to determine whether changes in maternal nutrition influence the content of such constituents in milk. There are other methodologic issues that are likely to hamper investigations of the influence of maternal nutrition on milk composition. Most recently, nutrient-nutrient interrelations have emerged as possible confounding variables. For example, a study of preterm infants indicates that zinc undernutrition could be responsible for low vitamin A levels in serum (Hustead et al., 1988). If this is also true for lactating women, supplemental vitamin A would have no effect on the vitamin A level in milk. Similarly, maternal iron deficiency in rats can cause an impairment of milk folic acid secretion that is not corrected with supplemental folic acid (O'Connor et al., 1990a). ORIGIN OF MILK CONSTITUENTS There are three sources of the milk constituents: some are synthesized in the mammary secretory cell from precursors in the plasma, some are produced by other cells in the mammary gland, and others are transferred directly from plasma to milk (see Table 6-2). All physiologic and biochemical phenomena that influence the composition of plasma may also affect the composition of milk. Milk composition can be modified further by hormones or other bioactive factors that are capable of influencing biosynthetic processes in the mammary gland. Metabolic changes and their relationships with milk production and composition have been well documented in studies in animals, especially cows, goats, and rats. The mixed origin of milk constituents is well illustrated by considering the lipid components of milk. Milk triglycerides (which account for 98% of the total lipid content) are synthesized in the mammary alveolar cell. Fatty acids may be derived from the plasma (transported there from either the intestine or fat deposits), or they may be synthesized from glucose within the mammary gland. The origins of the fatty acids can be distinguished: fatty acids synthesized within the mammary gland have chain lengths of 16 carbons or less; those derived
OCR for page 121
Nutrition During Lactation from dietary sources (other than dairy products) and from adipose tissue tend to have longer carbon chains. The increase in prolactin level preceding and during lactation (Zinder et al., 1974) has two important effects on lipids. (1) Lipoprotein lipase activity in the mammary gland increases sharply (Hamosh et al., 1970). This enzyme hydrolyzes triglycerides and thus frees their fatty acids for transport into the cell, where they are reesterified. (2) Lipoprotein lipase activity in adipose tissue decreases (Hamosh et al., 1970). Both of these channel fat to the lactating mammary gland, where it is incorporated in the milk. MATERNAL NUTRITION AND THE COMPOSITION OF HUMAN MILK Three aspects of maternal nutrition could have an impact on human milk composition: current dietary intake, nutrient stores, and alterations in nutrient utilization as influenced by the hormonal milieu characteristic of lactation. Alterations in maternal nutrition that change the composition of human milk may have positive, neutral, or negative consequences to the nursing infant (see Chapter 7). When maternal nutrition is continuously compromised but the concentrations of nutrients in milk and the milk volume remain unchanged, the nutrients for milk synthesis are being furnished by maternal stores or body tissues. It has not been determined when this situation has a negative impact on the mother. Chapter 9 considers this in more detail. As explained in the preceding section, investigators must carefully control for stage of lactation in studies to determine the effects of maternal nutrition on milk composition. Other factors that must be considered in such studies include frequency of nursing, environmental conditions (e.g., the specificity of secreted antibodies in human milk after exposure to infectious agents), and length of gestation. Macronutrients: Protein, Fat, and Carbohydrate Protein Milk proteins are broadly classified as caseins and whey proteins. Caseins are phosphoproteins that occur only in milk. Molecules of casein associate in combination with calcium, phosphate, and magnesium ions in structures known as micelles. These micelles enable milk to carry a much larger quantity of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium than could be carried in a simple aqueous solution. The whey proteins, such as α-lactalbumin and lactoferrin, are synthesized in the mammary gland; other proteins (including serum albumin and several bioactive enzymes and protein hormones) are transported to the milk from plasma. In addition, dimeric IgA is produced by plasma cells in the mammary gland and is transported into the milk by specific receptors. Human
OCR for page 122
Nutrition During Lactation milk also contains a variety of nonprotein nitrogen-containing compounds, including amino acids, peptides, N-acetyl sugars, urea, and nucleotides. Commonly used methods for measuring the protein content of human milk are nonspecific but often produce approximately the same results (Lönnerdal, 1985b). However, if the protein content of human milk is measured colorimetrically, an overestimation of approximately 25 to 40% is possible (Lönnerdal et al., 1987). Using amino acid analysis, Lönnerdal and coworkers (1976c) found that the protein content of mature human milk was approximately 8 to 9 g/liter. Similar values were found using nitrogen analysis of precipitated proteins, among diverse populations, i.e., disadvantaged Ethiopian women and privileged Swedish women (Lönnerdal et al., 1976a,b) and privileged U.S. women (Butte, 1984b). The nitrogen analysis method was used in a World Health Organization collaborative study, in which mature milk was found to contain 8.8, 8.3, 8.3, 7.6, and 12 g/liter in Hungary, Sweden, Guatemala, the Philippines, and Zaire, respectively (WHO, 1985). The reasons for the much higher results from Zaire are not clear. Methods based on amino acid analysis should yield results that reflect the sum of free and protein-bound amino acids. Nitrogen analyses of precipitated proteins exclude free amino acids and small peptides which may account for approximately 7 to 10% of the total amino acids found in human milk (Svanberg et al., 1977). There is no convincing evidence that diet or body composition influence the total concentration of milk protein, even in communities of undernourished women (Lönnerdal, 1986b); however, the interpretation of some studies is hampered by the use of total nitrogen as a proxy measure for the total amino acid content of milk (Deb and Cama, 1962) or by the short diet periods used in metabolic studies (Forsum and Lönnerdal, 1980). In a study of three well-nourished Swedish women, Forsum and Lönnerdal (1980) demonstrated that an increased maternal intake of protein (20% compared with 8% of energy from protein) increased total nitrogen, protein, and nonprotein nitrogen contents of mature human milk and 24-hour milk protein output. There have been reports of low concentrations of protein and altered free and total amino acid nitrogen profiles in milk of women from countries with limited food supplies: India (Deb and Cama, 1962), Pakistan (Lindblad and Rahimtoola, 1974), and Guatemala (Wurtman and Fernstrom, 1979). The nonprotein nitrogen content of human milk is higher than that in milk of other species; the importance of this to infant nutrition and health is unknown (Carlson, 1985). Taurine, an amino acid found only in animal products, is the second most abundant free amino acid in human milk (Rassin et al., 1978). Even the milk secreted by women who ingest no animal foods contains taurine concentrations of approximately 35 mg/dl—lower than concentrations in milk secreted by omnivores (54 mg/dl) but 30 times greater than levels in bovine
OCR for page 123
Nutrition During Lactation milk (Rana and Sanders, 1986). Taurine functions in bile acid conjugation and may also function as an inhibitory neurotransmitter and as a membrane stabilizer. A broad spectrum of nucleotides occurs in human milk (Janas and Picciano, 1982), but the effects of maternal nutrition on the concentrations of these nucleotides have not yet been reported. Lipids The lipids in milk are contained within membrane-enclosed milk fat globules, the core of which consists of triglycerides—the major energy source in milk. The globule membrane is composed mainly of phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins. Although there is no compelling evidence that changes in maternal fat intake influence the total quantity of milk fat, it has been shown repeatedly that the nature of the fat consumed by the mother will influence the fatty acid composition of milk (Jensen, 1989). For example, milk from four complete vegetarian women in Great Britain was found to contain five times as much C18:2 fatty acids as milk from four nonvegetarian women (31.9 and 6.9%, respectively) (Sanders et al., 1978). Finley et al. (1985) noted that, as lactation progressed, milk from both vegetarian and nonvegetarian women contained more fatty acids principally synthesized in the mammary gland (C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, C14:0) and less from the diet and adipose tissue. Chappell et al. (1985a) reported that the trans fatty acid content of human milk was directly related to maternal intake of partially hydrogenated fats and oils; in women experiencing postpartum weight loss, fat mobilized from adipose tissue also contributed trans fatty acids to human milk fat independently of current dietary intake. In the classic study of a single subject by Insull and colleagues (1959), both the total energy and fat contents of the diet were altered. Their results demonstrated that mammary lipid synthesis was influenced by energy balance as well as by the type and amount of fat in the diet. When the subject was fed excess energy as a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet, the investigators found that 40 to 60% of the fatty acids in milk fat had carbon chain lengths of less than 16. On a very high fat diet (70% of kilocalories as corn oil) that was adequate in energy, the combined linoleic and linolenic acid content of the milk fatty acids increased from approximately 2 to 45%, and there was a corresponding drop in the content of shorter-chain saturated fatty acids. When a low-fat, calorie-restricted diet was fed, C16 or longer-chain saturated fatty acids predominated in the milk, indicating that stored body fat was utilized for milk fat synthesis. Effects of such changes on infant health have not been studied. Using stable isotope methodology, Hachey and colleagues (1987, 1989) confirmed the results of the study of Insull et al. (1959) showing that diet composition affects milk fat synthesis. Hachey et al. estimate that when the
OCR for page 142
Nutrition During Lactation Bitman, J., D.L. Wood, N.R. Mehta, P. Hamosh, and M. Hamosh. 1983. Lipolysis of triglycerides in human milk at low temperatures: a note of caution. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 2:521-524. Blanc, B. 1981. Biochemical aspects of human milk—comparison with bovine milk. World Rev. Nutr. Diet. 36:1-89. Brines, R.D., and J.H. Brock. 1983. The effect of trypsin and chymotrypsin on the in vitro antimicrobial and iron-binding properties of lactoferrin in human milk and bovine colostrum. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 759:229-235. Brown, C.M., A.M. Smith, and M.F. Picciano. 1986a. Forms of human milk folacin and variation patterns. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 5:278-282. Brown, K.H., N.A. Akhtar, A.D. Robertson, and M.G. Ahmed. 1986b. Lactational capacity of marginally nourished mothers: relationships between maternal nutritional status and quantity and proximate composition of milk. Pediatrics 78:909-919. Bullen, J.J., H.J. Rogers, and E. Griffiths. 1978. Role of iron in bacterial infection. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 80:1-35. Burgio, G.R., A. Lanzavecchia, A. Plebani, S. Jayakar, and A.G. Ugazio. 1980. Ontogeny of secretory immunity: levels of secretory IgA and natural antibodies in saliva. Pediatr. Res. 14:1111-1114. Butte, N.F., and D.H. Calloway. 1981. Evaluation of lactational performance of Navajo women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34:2210-2215. Butte, N.F., R.M. Goldblum, L.M. Fehl, K. Loftin, E.O. Smith, C. Garza, and A.S. Goldman. 1984a. Daily ingestion of immunologic components in human milk during the first four months of life. Acta Paediatr. Scand. 73:296-301. Butte, N.F., C. Garza, J.E. Stuff, E.O. Smith, and B.L. Nichols. 1984b. Effect of maternal diet and body composition on lactational performance. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 39:296-306. Carlson, S.E. 1985. Human milk nonprotein nitrogen: occurrence and possible functions . Adv. Pediatr. 32:43-70. Carpenter, G. 1980. Epidermal growth factor is a major growth-promoting agent in human milk. Science 210:198-199. Casey, C.E., M.R. Neifert, J.M. Seacat, and M.C. Neville. 1986. Nutrient intake by breastfed infants during the first five days after birth. Am. J. Dis. Child. 140:933-936. Casey, C.E., M.C. Neville, and K.M. Hambidge. 1989. Studies in human lactation: secretion of zinc, copper, and manganese in human milk. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 49:773-785. Cavell, P.A., and E.M. Widdowson. 1964. Intakes and excretions of iron, copper, and zinc in the neonatal period. Arch. Dis. Child. 39:496-501. Cevreska, S., V.P. Kovacev, M. Stankovski, and E. Kamamaras. 1975. The presence of immunologically reactive insulin in milk of women during the first week of lactation and its relation to changes in plasma insulin concentrations. God. Zb. Med. Fak. Skopje. 21:35-41. Chappell, J.E., M.T. Clandinin, and C. Kearney-Volpe. 1985a. Trans fatty acids in human milk lipids: influence of maternal diet and weight loss . Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 42:49-56. Chappell, J.E., T. Francis, and M.T. Clandinin. 1985b. Vitamin A and E content of human milk at early stages of lactation. Early Hum. Dev. 11:157-167. Chappell, J.E., T. Francis, and M.T. Clandinin. 1986. Simultaneous high performance chromatography analysis of retinol esters and tocopherol isomers in human milk. Nutr. Res. 6:849-852.
OCR for page 143
Nutrition During Lactation Chipman, D.M., and N. Sharon. 1969. Mechanism of lysozyme action. Science 165:454-465. Cleary, T.G., J.P. Chambers, and L.K. Pickering. 1983. Protection of suckling mice from the heat-stable enterotoxin of Escherichia coli by human milk. J. Infect. Dis. 148:1114-1119. Committee on Nutrition. 1985. Composition of human milk: normative data. Pp. 363-368 in Pediatric Nutrition Handbook, 2nd ed. American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village, Ill. Crago, S.S., S.J. Prince, T.G. Pretlow, J.R. McGhee, and J. Mestecky. 1979. Human colostral cells. I. Separation and characterization. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38:585-597. Cruz, J.R., B. Carlsson, and B. García. 1982. Studies in human milk. III. Secretory IgA quantity and antibody levels against Escherichiae coli in colostrum and milk from underprivileged and privileged mothers. Pediatr. Res. 16:272-276. Cumming, F.J., and M.H. Briggs. 1983. Changes in plasma vitamin A in lactating and nonlactating oral contraceptive users. Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 90:73-77. Dallman, P.R. 1986. Iron deficiency in the weanling: a nutritional problem on the way to resolution. Acta Paediatr. Scand. Suppl. 323:59-67. Deb, A.K., and H.R. Cama. 1962. Studies on human lactation. Dietary nitrogen utilization during lactation, and distribution of nitrogen in mother's milk. Br. J. Nutr. 16:65-73. Debski, B., D.A. Finley, M.F. Picciano, B. Lönnerdal, and J.A. Milner. 1989. Selenium content and glutathione peroxidase activity of milk from vegetarian and nonvegetarian women. J. Nutr. 119:215-220. Delange, F. 1985. Physiopathology of iodine nutrition. Pp. 291-299 in R.K. Chandra, ed. Trace Elements in Nutrition of Children. Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series, Vol. 8. Raven Press, New York. Department of Health and Social Security. 1977. Composition of Mature Human Milk. Report on Health and Social Security. 12. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London. Dewey, K.G., D.A. Finley, and B. Lönnerdal. 1984. Breast milk volume and composition during late lactation (7-20 months). J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 3:713-720. Ekstrand, J., C.J. Spak, J. Falch, J. Afseth, and H. Ulvestad. 1984a. Distribution of fluoride to human breast milk: following intake of high doses of fluoride. Caries Res. 18:93-95. Ekstrand, J., L.I. Hardell, and C.J. Spak. 1984b. Fluoride balance studies on infants in a 1-ppm-water-fluoride area. Caries Res. 18:87-92. Ellis, L., M.F. Picciano, A.M. Smith, M. Hamosh, and N.R. Mehta. 1990. The impact of gestational length on human milk selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity. Pediatr. Res. 27:32-50. Esala, S., E. Vuori, and A. Helle. 1982. Effect of maternal fluorine intake on breast milk fluorine content. Br. J. Nutr. 48:201-204. Feeley, R.M., R.R. Eitenmiller, J.B. Jones, Jr., and H. Barnhart. 1983. Copper, iron, and zinc contents of human milk at early stages of lactation. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 37:443-448. Finley, D.A., B. Lönnerdal, K.G. Dewey, and L.E. Grivetti. 1985. Breast milk composition: fat content and fatty acid composition in vegetarians and nonvegetarians. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 41:787-800. Forsum, E., and B. Lönnerdal. 1980. Effect of protein intake on protein and nitrogen composition of breast milk. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 33:1809-1813. Fransson, G.B., and B. Lönnerdal. 1980. Iron in human milk. J. Pediatr. 96:380-384.
OCR for page 144
Nutrition During Lactation Friss, H.E., L.G. Rubin, S. Carsons, J. Baranowski, and P.J. Lipsitz. 1988. Plasma fibronectin concentrations in breastfed and formula fed neonates. Arch. Dis. Child. 63:528-532. Funk, M.A., L. Hamlin, M.F. Picciano, A. Prentice, and J.A. Milner. 1990. Milk selenium of rural African women: influence of maternal nutrition, parity, and length of lactation. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 51:220-224. Furmanski, P., L. Zhen-Pu, M.B. Fortuna, C.V.B. Swamy, and M. Ramachandra Das. 1989. Multiple molecular forms of human lactoferrin: identification of a class of lactoferrins that possess ribonuclease activity and lack iron-binding capacity. J. Exp. Med. 170:415-429. Gaull, G.E., R.G. Jensen, D.K. Rassin, and M.H. Malloy. 1982. Human milk as food. Adv. Perinat. Med. 2:47-120. Gebre-Medhin, M., A. Vahlquist, Y. Hofvander, L. Uppsäll, and B. Vahlquist. 1976. Breast milk composition in Ethiopian and Swedish mothers. I. Vitamin A and β-carotene. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 29:441-451. Gillin, F.D., D.S. Reiner, and C.S. Wang. 1983. Human milk kills parasitic intestinal protozoa. Science 221:1290-1292. Gillin, F.D., D.S. Reiner, and M.J. Gault. 1985. Cholate-dependent killing of Giardia lamblia by human milk. Infect. Immun. 47:619-622. Goldman, A.S., and R.M. Goldblum. 1989a. Immunoglobulins in human milk. Pp. 43-51 in S.A. Atkinson and B. Lönnerdal, eds. Protein and Non-Protein Nitrogen in Human Milk. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla. Goldman, A.S., and R.M. Goldblum. 1989b. Immunologic system in human milk: characteristics and effects. Pp. 135-142 in E. Lebenthal, ed. Textbook of Gastroenterology and Nutrition in Early Infancy, 2nd ed. Raven Press, New York. Goldman, A.S., and R.M. Goldblum. 1990. Human milk: immunologic-nutritional relationships. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 587:236-245. Goldman, A.S., C. Garza, B.L. Nichols, and R.M. Goldblum. 1982. Immunologic factors in human milk during the first year of lactation. J. Pediatr. 100:563-567. Goldman, A.S., R.M. Goldblum, and C. Garza. 1983a. Immunologic components in human milk during the second year of lactation. Acta Paediatr. Scand. 72:461-462. Goldman, A.S., R.M. Goldblum, C. Garza, B.L. Nichols, and E.O. Smith. 1983b. Immunologic components in human milk during weaning. Acta Paediatr. Scand. 72:133-134. Goldman, A.S., L.W. Thorpe, R.M. Goldblum, and L.A. Hanson. 1986. Anti-inflammatory properties of human milk. Acta Paediatr. Scand. 75:689-695. Goldman, A.S., S.A. Atkinson, and L.A. Hanson. 1987. Human Lactation 3: The Effects of Human Milk on the Recipient Infant. Plenum Press, New York. 400 pp. Goldman, A.S., R.M. Goldblum, and L.A. Hanson. 1990. Anti-inflammatory systems in human milk. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 262:69-76. Greenberg, R., and M.L. Graves. 1984. Plasmin cleaves human beta-casein. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 125:463-468. Greer, F.R., B.W. Hollis, D.J. Cripps, and R.C. Tsang. 1984a. Effects of maternal ultraviolet B irradiation on vitamin D content of human milk. J. Pediatr. 105:431-433. Greer, F.R., B.W. Hollis, and J.L. Napoli. 1984b. High concentrations of vitamin D2 in human milk associated with pharmacologic doses of vitamin D2. J. Pediatr. 105:61-64. Guerrini, P., G. Bosi, R. Chierici, and A. Fabbri. 1981. Human milk: relationship of fat content with gestational age. Early Hum. Dev. 5:187-194.
OCR for page 145
Nutrition During Lactation Gushurst, C.A., J.A. Mueller, J.A. Green, and F. Sedor. 1984. Breast milk iodide: reassessment in the 1980s. Pediatrics 73:354-357. Gyllenberg, H., and P. Roine. 1957. The value of colony counts in evaluating the abundance of ''Lactobacillus" bifidus in infant faeces. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 41:144. György, P., R.W. Jeanloz, H. von Nicolai, and F. Zilliken. 1974. Undialyzable growth factors for Lactobacillus bifidus var. Pennsylvanicus: protective effect of sialic acid bound to glycoproteins and oligosaccharides against bacterial degradation. Eur. J. Biochem. 43:29-33. Hachey, D.L., M.R. Thomas, E.A. Emken, C. Garza, L. Brown-Booth, R.O. Adlof, and P.D. Klein. 1987. Human lactation: maternal transfer of dietary triglycerides labeled with stable isotopes. J. Lipid Res. 28:1185-1192. Hachey, D.L., G.H. Silber, W.W. Wong, and C. Garza. 1989. Human lactation II: endogenous fatty acid synthesis by the mammary gland. Pediatr. Res. 25:63-68. Hall, L., and P.N. Campbell. 1986. α-Lactalbumin and related proteins: a versatile gene family with an interesting parentage. Essays Biochem. 22:1-26. Hamosh, M. 1989. Enzymes in human milk: their role in nutrient digestion, gastrointestinal function, and nutrient delivery to the newborn infant. Pp. 121-134 in E. Lebenthal, ed. Textbook of Gastroenterology and Nutrition in Infancy, 2nd ed. Raven Press, New York. Hamosh, M., and A.S. Goldman, eds. 1986. Human Lactation 2: Maternal and Environmental Factors. Plenum Press, New York. 657 pp. Hamosh, M., and P. Hamosh. 1983. Lipoprotein lipase: its physiological and clinical significance. Mol. Aspects Med. 6:199-289. Hamosh, P., and M. Hamosh. 1987. Differences in composition of preterm, term and weaning milk. Pp. 129-141 in Xanthou, M., ed. New Aspects of Nutrition in Pregnancy, Infancy and Prematurity. Elsevier Science Publishers. B.V. (Biomedical Division). Hamosh, M., and P. Hamosh. 1988. Mother to infant biochemical and immunological transfer through breast milk. Pp. 155-160 in G.H. Wiknjosastro, W.H. Prakoso, and K. Maeda, eds. Perinatology. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam. Hamosh, M., T.R. Clary, S.S. Chernick, and R.O. Scow. 1970. Lipoprotein lipase activity of adipose and mammary tissue and plasma triglyceride in pregnant and lactating rats . Biochim. Biophys. Acta 210:473-482. Hamosh, M., L.M. Freed, J.B. Jones, S.E. Berkow, J. Bitman, N.R. Mehta, B. Happ, and P. Hamosh. 1985a. Enzymes in human milk. Pp. 251-266 in R.G. Jensen and M.C. Neville, eds. Human Lactation: Milk Components and Methodologies. Plenum Press, New York. Hamosh, M., J. Bitman, C.S. Fink, L.M. Freed, C.M. York, D.L. Wood, N.R. Mehta, and P. Hamosh. 1985b. Lipid composition of preterm human milk and its digestion by the infant. Pp. 153-164 in J. Schaub, ed. Composition and Physiological Properties of Human Milk. Elsevier, Amsterdam. Hanson, L.A., T. Söderström, C. Brinton, B. Carlsson, P. Larsson, L. Mellander, and C.S. Eden. 1983. Neonatal colonization with Escherichia coli and the ontogeny of the antibody response. Prog. Allergy 33:40-52. Haroon, Y., M.J. Shearer, S. Rahim, W.G. Gunn, G. McEnery, and P. Barkhan. 1982. The content of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) in human milk, cows' milk and infant formula foods determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. J. Nutr. 112:1105-1117.
OCR for page 146
Nutrition During Lactation Hartmann, P.E., and J.K. Kulski. 1978. Changes in the composition of the mammary secretion of women after abrupt termination of breastfeeding. J. Physiol. (Lond) 275:1-11. Hartmann, P.E., and C.G. Prosser. 1982. Acute changes in the composition of milk during the ovulatory menstrual cycle in lactating women. J. Physiol. (Lond) 324:21-30. Healy, D.L., S. Rattigan, P.E. Hartmann, A.C. Herington, and H.G. Burger. 1980. Prolactin in human milk: correlation with lactose, total protein, and α-lactalbumin levels. Am. J. Physiol. 238:E83-E86. Hernell, O., M. Gebre-Medhin, and T. Olivecrona. 1977. Breast milk composition in Ethiopian and Swedish mothers. IV. Milk lipases. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 30:508-511. Ho, P.C., and J.W.M. Lawton. 1978. Human colostral cells: phagocytosis and killing of E. coli, and C. albicans. J. Pediatr. 93:910-915. Hollis, B.W., B.A. Roos, and P.W. Lambert. 1982. Vitamin D compounds in human and bovine milk. Advances Nutr. Res. 4:49-75. Hollis, B.W., P.W. Lambert, and R.L. Horst. 1983. Factors affecting the antirachitic sterol content of native milk. Pp. 157-182 in M.F. Holick, T.K. Gray, and C.S. Anast, eds. Perinatal Calcium and Phosphorous Metabolism. Elsevier, Amsterdam. Holmgren, J., A.M. Svennerholm, and C. Ahren. 1981. Nonimmunoglobulin fraction of human milk inhibits bacterial adhesion (hemagglutination) and enterotoxin binding of Escherichiae coli and Vibrio cholerae. Infect. Immun. 33:136-141. Hood, R.L., and A.R. Johnson. 1980. Supplementation of infant formulations with biotin. Nutr. Reports Internat. 21:727-731. Hrubetz, M.C., H.J. Deuel, Jr., and B.J. Hanley. 1945. Studies on carotenoid metabolism. V. The effect of a high vitamin A intake on the composition of human milk. J. Nutr. 29:245-254. Hustead, V.A., J.L. Greger, and G.R. Gutcher. 1988. Zinc supplementation and plasma concentration of vitamin A in preterm infants. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 47:1017-1021. Hytten, F.E. 1954a. Clinical and chemical studies in human lactation. I. Collection of milk samples. Br. Med. J. 1:175-176. Hytten, F.E. 1954b. Clinical and chemical studies in human lactation. IV. Trends in milk composition during course of lactation. Br. Med. J.:249-253. Hytten, F.E. 1954c. Clinical and chemical studies in human lactation. V. Individual differences in composition of milk. Br. Med. J. 1:253-255. Hytten, F.E., and A.M. Thomson. 1961. Nutrition of the lactating woman. Pp. 3-46 in Kon, S.K. and A.T. Cowie, eds. Milk: the Mammary Gland and Its Secretion. Academic Press, New York. Insull, W., Jr., J. Hirsch, T. James, and E.H. Ahrens, Jr. 1959. The fatty acids of human milk. II. Alterations produced by manipulation of caloric balance and exchange of dietary fats. J. Clin. Invest. 38:443-450. Isaacs, C.E., H. Thormar, and T. Pessolano. 1986. Membrane-disruptive effect of human milk: inactivation of enveloped viruses. J. Infect. Dis. 154:966-971. Janas, L.M., and M.F. Picciano. 1982. The nucleotide profile of human milk. Pediatr. Res. 16:659-662. Jelliffe, D.B. 1966. The Assessment of the Nutritional Status of the Community. Monograph Series No. 53. World Health Organization, Geneva. 271 pp. Jenness, R. 1979. The composition of human milk. Semin. Perinatol. 3:225-239. Jensen, R.G. 1989. The Lipids of Human Milk. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla. 213 pp. Jensen, R.G., and M.C. Neville, eds. 1985. Human Lactation: Milk Components and Methodologies. Plenum Press, New York. 307 pp.
OCR for page 147
Nutrition During Lactation Johnson, P.R., Jr., and J.S. Roloff. 1982. Vitamin B12 deficiency in an infant strictly breastfed by a mother with latent pernicious anemia . J. Pediatr. 100:917-919. Karra, M.V., A. Kirksey, O. Galal, N.S. Bassily, G.G. Harrison, and N.W. Jerome. 1989. Effect of short-term oral zinc supplementation on the concentration of zinc in milk from American and Egyptian women. Nutr. Res. 9:471-478. Keller. M.A., R.M. Kidd, Y.J. Bryson, J.L. Turner, and J. Carter. 1981. Lymphokine production by human milk lymphocytes. Infect. Immun. 32:632-636. Keller, M.A., J. Faust, L.J. Rolewic, and D.D. Stewart. 1986. T cell subsets in human colostrum. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 5:439-443. Kidwell, W.R., D.S. Salomon, S. Mohanam, and G.I. Bell. 1987. Production of growth factors by normal human mammary cells in culture. Pp. 227-239 in A.S. Goldman, S.A. Atkinson, and L.A. Hanson, eds. Human Lactation 3: The Effects of Human Milk on the Recipient Infant. Plenum Press, New York. Kirksey, A., and J.L.B. Roepke. 1981. Vitamin B6 nutriture of mothers of three breastfed neonates with central nervous system disorders. Fed. Proc., Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. 40:864. Kirksey, A., J.A. Ernst, J.L. Roepke, and T.L. Tsai. 1979. Influence of mineral intake and use of oral contraceptives before pregnancy on the content of human colostrum and of more mature milk. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 32:30-39. Kobata, A. 1972. Isolation of oligosaccharides from human milk. Pp. 262-271 in V. Ginsburg, ed. Methods in Enzymology, Vol. 28: Complex Carbohydrates, Part B. Academic Press, New York. Kobayashi, H., C. Kanno, K. Yamauchi, and T. Tsugo. 1975. Identification of α-, β-, γ, and δ-tocopherols and their contents in human milk. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 380:282-290. Kohl, S., L.K. Pickering, T.G. Cleary, K.D. Steinmetz, and L.S. Loo. 1980. Human colostral cytotoxicity. II. Relative defects in colostral leukocyte cytotoxicity and inhibition of peripheral blood leukocyte cytotoxicity by colostrum. J. Infect. Dis. 142:884-891. Koldovsky, O. 1989. Hormones in milk: their possible physiological significance for the neonate. Pp. 97-119 in E. Lebenthal, ed. Textbook of Gastroenterology and Nutrition in Infancy, 2nd ed. Raven Press, New York. Koldovsky, O., A. Bedrick, P. Pollack, R.K. Rao, and W. Thornburg. 1987. Hormones in milk: their presence and possible physiological significance. Pp. 183-196 in A.S. Goldman, S.A. Atkinson, and L.A. Hanson, eds. Human Lactation 3: The Effects of Human Milk on the Recipient Infant. Plenum Press, New York. Krebs, N.F., K.M. Hambidge, M.A. Jacobs, and J.O. Rasbach. 1985. The effects of dietary zinc supplement during lactation on longitudinal changes in maternal zinc status and milk zinc concentrations. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 41:560-570. Kulski, J.K., and P.E. Hartmann. 1981. Changes in body composition during the initiation of lactation. Aust. J. Exp. Bio. Med. Sci. 59:101-114. Kumpulainen, J. 1989. Selenium: requirement and supplementation. Acta Paediatr. Scand. Suppl. 351:114-117. Lawton, J.W.M., K.F. Shortridge, R.L.C. Wong, and M.H. Ng. 1979. Interferon synthesis by human colostral leucocytes. Arch. Dis. Child. 54:127-130. Leake, R.D., R.E. Weitzman, and D.A. Fisher. 1981. Oxytocin concentrations during the neonatal period. Biol. Neonate 39:127-131. Leyva-Cobián, F., and J. Clemente. 1984. Phenotypic characterization and functional activity of human milk macrophages. Immunol. Lett. 8:249-256.
OCR for page 148
Nutrition During Lactation Lindblad, B.S., and R.J. Rahimtoola. 1974. A pilot study of the quality of human milk in a lower socio-economic group in Karachi, Pakistan. Acta Paediatr. Scand. 63:125-128. Lindh, E. 1975. Increased resistance of immunoglobulin A dimers to proteolytic degradation after binding of secretory component. J. Immunol. 114:284-286. Lönnerdal, B. 1985a. Biochemistry and physiological function of human milk proteins. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 42:1299-1317. Lönnerdal, B. 1985b. Methods for studying the total protein content of human milk . Pp. 25-31 in R.G. Jensen and M.C. Neville, eds. Human Lactation: Milk Components and Methodologies. Plenum Press, New York. Lönnerdal, B. 1986a. Effects of maternal dietary intake on human milk composition. J. Nutr. 116:499-513. Lönnerdal, B. 1986b. Effects of maternal nutrition on human lactation. Pp. 301-323 in M. Hamosh and A.S. Goldman, eds. Human Lactation 2: Maternal and Environmental Factors. Plenum Press, New York. Lönnerdal, B., E. Forsum, M. Gebre-Medhin, and L. Hambraeus. 1976a. Breast milk composition in Ethiopian and Swedish mothers. II. Lactose, nitrogen and protein contents. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 29:1134-1141. Lönnerdal, B., E. Forsum, and L. Hambraeus. 1976b. A longitudinal study of the protein, nitrogen, and lactose contents of human milk from Swedish well-nourished mothers. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 29:1127-1133. Lönnerdal, B., E. Forsum, and L. Hambraeus. 1976c. The protein content of human milk. I. A transversal study of Swedish normal material. Nutr. Rep. Int. 13:125-134. Lönnerdal, B., C.L. Keen, and L.S. Hurley. 1981. Iron, copper, zinc, and manganese in milk. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 1:149-174. Lönnerdal, B., L.R. Woodhouse, and C. Glazier. 1987. Compartmentalization and quantitation of human milk protein. J. Nutr. 117:1385-1395. Macy, I.G. 1949. Composition of human colostrum and milk. Am. J. Dis. Child. 78:589-603. Macy, I.G., H.H. Williams, J.P. Pratt, and B.M. Hamil. 1945. Human milk studies. XIX. Implications of breastfeeding and their investigation. Am. J. Dis. Child. 70:135-141. Mannan, S., and M.F. Picciano. 1987. Influence of maternal selenium status on human milk selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 46:95-100. Metz, J., R. Zalusky, and V. Herbert. 1968. Folic acid binding by serum and milk. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 21:289-297. Miranda, R., N.G. Saravia, R. Ackerman, N. Murphy, S. Berman, and D.N. McMurray. 1983. Effect of maternal nutritional status on immunological substances in human colostrum and milk. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 37:632-640. Moser, P.B., and R.D. Reynolds. 1983. Dietary zinc intake and zinc concentrations of plasma, erythrocytes, and breast milk in antepartum and postpartum lactating and nonlactating women: a longitudinal study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 38:101-108. Murray, M.J., A.B. Murray, N.J. Murray, and M.B. Murray. 1978. The effect of iron status of Nigerian mothers on that of their infants at birth and 6 months, and on the concentration of Fe in breast milk. Br. J. Nutr. 39:627-630. Mushtaha, A.A., F.C. Schmalstieg, T.K. Hughes, Jr., S. Rajaraman, H.E. Rudloff, and A.S. Goldman. 1989a. Chemokinetic agents for monocytes in human milk: possible role of tumor necrosis factor-α. Pediatr. Res. 25:629-633.
OCR for page 149
Nutrition During Lactation Mushtaha, A.A., F.C. Schmalstieg, T.K. Hughes, Jr., H.E. Rudloff, and A.S. Goldman. 1989b. Chemokinetic effects of exogenous and endogenous tumor necrosis factor- on human blood monocytes. Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol. 90:11-15. Nakajima, S., A.S. Baba, and N. Tamura. 1977. Complement system in human colostrum: presence of nine complement components and factors of alternative pathway in human colostrum. Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol. 54:428-433. Narula, P., S.K. Mittal, S. Gupta, and K. Saha. 1982. Cellular and humoral factors of human milk in relation to nutritional status in lactating mothers. Indian J. Med Res. 76:415-423. Naylor, A.J. 1981. Elevated sodium concentration in human milk: its clinical significance. Refrig. Sci. Technol. 1981-2:79-84. Nichols, B.L., K.S. McKee, J.F. Henry, and M. Putman. 1987. Human lactoferrin stimulates thymidine incorporation into DNA of rat crypt cells. Pediatr. Res. 21:563-567. Nommsen, L.A., C.A. Lovelady, M.J. Heinig, B. Lönnerdal, and K.G. Dewey. In press. Determinants of energy, protein, lipid and lactose concentrations in human milk during the first 12 months of lactation: the DARLING Study. J. Clin. Nutr. NRC (National Research Council). 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances, 10th ed. Report of the Subcommittee on the Tenth Edition of the RDAs, Food and Nutrition Board, Commission on Life Sciences. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 284 pp. O'Connor, D.L., M.F. Picciano, T. Tamura, and B. Shane. 1990a. Impaired milk folate secretion is not corrected by supplemental folate during iron deficiency in rats. J. Nutr 120:499-506. O'Connor, D.L., T. Tamura, and M.F. Picciano. 1990b. Presence of folylpolyglutamates in human milk. FASEB J. 4:A915 (abstract). Okamoto, Y., and P.L. Ogra. 1989. Antiviral factors in human milk: implications in respiratory syncytial virus infection. Acta Paediatr. Scand., Suppl. 351:137-143. Otnæss, A.B., and A.M. Svennerholm. 1982. Nonimmunoglobulin fraction of human milk protects rabbits against enterotoxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion. Infect. Immun. 35:738-740. Otnæss, A.B.K., A. Laegreid, and K. Ertresvåg. 1983. Inhibition of enterotoxin from Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae by gangliosides from human milk. Infect. Immun. 40:563-569. Özkaragöz, F., H.B. Rudloff, S. Rajaraman, A.K. Mushtaha, F.C. Schmalstieg, and A.S. Goldman. 1988. The motility of human milk macrophages in collagen gels. Pediatr. Res. 23:449-452. Patton, S., L.M. Canfield, G.E. Huston, A.M. Ferris, and R.G. Jensen. 1990. Carotenoids of human colostrum. Lipids 25:159-165. Picciano, M.F. 1984a. The composition of human milk. Pp. 111-122 in P.L. White and N. Selvey, eds. Malnutrition: Determinants and Consequences. Alan R. Liss, New York. Picciano, M.F. 1984b. What constitutes a representative human milk sample? J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 3:280-283. Picciano, M.F. 1985. Trace elements in human milk and infant formulas. Pp. 157-174 in R.K. Chandra (ed.). Trace Elements in Nutrition of Children. Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series, Vol. 8. Raven Press, N.Y. Picciano, M.F., and H.A. Guthrie. 1976. Copper, iron, and zinc contents of mature human milk. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 29:242-254. Picciano, M.F., E.J. Calkins, J.R. Garrick, and R.H. Deering. 1981. Milk and mineral intakes of breastfed infants. Acta Paediatr. Scand. 70:189-194.
OCR for page 150
Nutrition During Lactation Pratt, J.P., B.M. Hamil, E.Z. Moyer, M. Kaucher, C. Roderuck, M.N. Coryell, S. Miller, H.H. Williams, and I.G. Macy. 1951. Metabolism of women during the reproductive cycle. XVIII. The effect of multivitamin supplements on the secretion of B vitamins in human milk. J. Nutr. 44:141-157. Prentice, A., A.M. Prentice, and R.G. Whitehead. 1981. Breast-milk fat concentrations of rural African women. 2. Long-term variations within a community. Br. J. Nutr. 45:495-503. Prentice, A., L.M. Jarjou, P.J. Drury, O. Dewit, and M.A. Crawford. 1989. Breast-milk fatty acids of rural Gambian mothers: effects of diet and maternal parity. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 8:486-490. Rana, S.K., and T.A.B. Sanders. 1986. Taurine concentrations in the diet, plasma, urine and breast milk of vegans compared with omnivores. Br. J. Nutr. 56:17-27. Rassin, D.K., J.A. Sturman, and G.E. Gaull. 1978. Taurine and other free amino acids in milk of man and other mammals. Early Hum. Dev. 2:1-13. Reddy, V., and S.G. Srikantia. 1978. Interaction of nutrition and the immune response. Indian J. Med. Res. 66:48-57. Reddy, V., C. Bhaskaram, N. Raghuramuhi, and V. Jagadeesan. 1977. Antimicrobial factors in human milk. Acta Paediatr. Scand. 66:229-232. Resta, S., J.P. Luby, C.R. Rosenfeld, and J.D. Siegel. 1985. Isolation and propagation of a human enteric coronavirus. Science 229:978-981. Robertson, D.M., B. Carlsson, K. Coffman, M. Han-Zoric, F. Salil, C. Jones, and L.A. Hanson. 1988. Avidity of IgA antibody to Escherichia coli polysaccharide and diphtheria toxin in breast milk from Swedish and Pakistani mothers. Scand. J. Immunol. 28:783-789. Robinson, J.E., B.A.M. Harvey, and J.F. Soothill. 1978. Phagocytosis and killing of bacteria and yeast by human milk cells after opsonisation in aqueous phase of milk. Br. Med. J. 1:1443-1445. Roepke, J.L.B., and A. Kirksey. 1979. Vitamin B6 nutriture during pregnancy and lactation. I. Vitamin B6 intake, levels of the vitamin in biological fluids, and condition of the infant at birth. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 32:2249-2256. Ruegg, M., and B. Blanc. 1982. Structure and properties of the particulate constituents of human milk. A review. Food Microstruct. 1:25-48. Salmenperä, L., J. Perheentupa, J.P. Pispa, and M.A. Siimes. 1985. Biotin concentrations in maternal plasma and milk during prolonged lactation. Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res. 55:281-285. Salmenperä, L., J. Perheentupa, P. Pakarinen, and M.A. Siimes. 1986a. Cu nutrition in infants during prolonged exclusive breastfeeding: low intake but rising serum concentrations of Cu and ceruloplasmin. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 43:251-257. Salmenperä, L., J. Perheentupa, and M.A. Siimes. 1986b. Folate nutrition is optimal in exclusively breastfed infants but inadequate in some of their mothers and in formula-fed infants. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 5:283-289. Samson, R.R., C. Mirtle, and D.B.L. McClelland. 1980. The effect of digestive enzymes on the binding and bacteriostatic properties of lactoferrin and vitamin B12 binder in human milk. Acta Paediatr. Scand. 69:517-523. Sandberg, D.P., J.A. Begley, and C.A. Hall. 1981. The content, binding, and forms of vitamin B12 in milk. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34:1717-1724. Sanders, T.H.B., T.R. Ellis, and J.W.T. Dickerson. 1978. Studies of vegans: the fatty acid composition of plasma choline-phosphoglycerides, erythrocytes, adipose tissue, breast milk and some indicators of susceptibility to ischemic heart disease in vegans and omnivore controls. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 31:805.
OCR for page 151
Nutrition During Lactation Sann, L., F. Bienvenu, C. Lahet, J. Bienvenu, and M. Bethenod. 1981. Comparison of the composition of breast milk from mothers of term and preterm infants. Acta Paediatr. Scand. 70:115-116. Seale, T.W., O.M. Rennert, M.L. Shiftman, and P.T. Swender. 1982. Toxic breast milk: neonatal hypernatremia associated with elevated sodium in breast milk. Pediatr. Res. 16:176a. Shahani, K.M., A.J. Kwan, and B.A. Friend. 1980. Role and significance of enzymes in human milk. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 33:1861-1868. Siimes, M.A., E. Vuori, and P. Kuitunen. 1979. Breast milk iron—a declining concentration during the course of lactation. Acta Paediatr. Scand. 68:29-31. Siimes, M.A., L. Salmenperä, and J. Perheentupa. 1984. Exclusive breastfeeding for 9 months: risk of iron deficiency. J. Pediatr. 104:196-199. Singer, L., and W.D. Armstrong. 1960. Regulation of human plasma fluoride concentration. J. Appl. Physiol. 15:508-510. Smith, H.W., and W.E. Crabb. 1961. The faecal bacterial flora of animals and man: its development in the young. J. Pathol. Bacteriol. 82:53-66. Smith, C.W., and A.S. Goldman. 1968. The cells of human colostrum. I. In vitro studies of morphology and functions. Pediatr. Res. 2:103-109. Smith, A.M., M.F. Picciano, and J.A. Milner. 1982. Selenium intakes and status of human milk and formula fed infants. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 35:521-526. Smith, A.M., M.F. Picciano, and R.H. Deering. 1983. Folate supplementation during lactation: maternal folate status, human milk folate content, and their relationship to infant folate status. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 2:622-628. Song, W.O., G.M. Chan, B.W. Wyse, and R.G. Hansen. 1984. Effect of pantothenic acid status on the content of the vitamin in human milk. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 40:317-324. Spak, C.J., L.I. Hardell, and P. de Chateau. 1983. Fluoride in human milk. Acta Paediatr. Scand. 72:699-701. Stastny, D., R.S. Vogel, and M.F. Picciano. 1984. Manganese intake and serum manganese concentration of human milk-fed and formula-fed infants . Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 39:872-878. Stephens, S., J.M. Dolby, J. Montreuil, and G. Spik. 1980. Differences in inhibition of the growth of commensal and enteropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli by lactotransferrin and secretory immunoglobulin A isolated from human milk. Immunology 41:597-603. Styslinger, L., and A. Kirksey. 1985. Effects of different levels of vitamin B6 supplementation on vitamin B6 concentrations in human milk and vitamin B6 intakes of breastfed infants. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 41:21-31. Svanberg, U., M. Gebre-Medhin, B. Ljunqvist, and M. Olsson. 1977. Breast milk composition in Ethiopian and Swedish mothers. III. Amino acids and other nitrogenous substances. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 30:499-507. Svanborg-Edén, C., B. Andersson, L. Hagberg, L.A. Hanson, H. Leffler, G. Magnusson, G. Noori, J. Dahmen, and T. Söderström. 1983. Receptor analogues and antipili antibodies as inhibitors of bacterial attachment in vivo and in vitro. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 409:580-592. Tamura, T., Y. Yoshimura, and T. Arakawa. 1980. Human milk folate and folate status in lactating mothers and their infants. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 33:193-197. Tengerdy, R.P., M.M. Mathias, and C.F. Nockels. 1981. Vitamin E, immunity and disease resistance. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 135:27-42. Thorpe, L.W., H.E. Rudloff, L.C. Powell, and A.S. Goldman. 1986. Decreased response of human milk leukocytes to chemoattractant peptides. Pediatr. Res. 20:373-377.
OCR for page 152
Nutrition During Lactation Tsuda, H., K. Takeshige, Y. Shibata, and S. Minakami. 1984. Oxygen metabolism of human colostral macrophages: comparison with monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. J. Biochem. 95:1237-1245. Vaughan, L.A., C.W. Weber, and S.R. Kemberling. 1979. Longitudinal changes in the mineral content of human milk. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 32:2301-2306. Venkatachalam, P.S., B. Belavady, and C. Gopalan. 1962. Studies on vitamin A nutritional status of mothers and infants in poor communities of India. J. Pediatr. 61:262-268. Villard, L., and C.J. Bates. 1987. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on plasma and breast milk vitamin A levels in poorly nourished Gambian women. Hum. Nutr.: Clin. Nutr. 41C:47-58. von Kries, R., M. Shearer, P.T. McCarthy, M. Haug, G. Harzer, and U. Göbel. 1987. Vitamin K1 content of maternal milk: influence of the stage of lactation, lipid composition, and vitamin K1 supplements given to the mother. Pediatr. Res. 22:513-517. von Kries, R., M.J. Shearer, and U. Göbel. 1988. Vitamin K in infancy. Eur. J. Pediatr. 147:106-112. Vuori, E. 1979. Intake of copper, iron, manganese and zinc by healthy, exclusively-breastfed infants during the first 3 months of life. Br. J. Nutr. 42:407-411. Vuori, E., S.M. Mäkinen, R. Kara, and P. Kuitunen. 1980. The effects of the dietary intakes of copper, iron, manganese, and zinc on the trace element content of human milk. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 33:227-231. Weisz-Carrington, P., M.E. Roux, M. McWilliams, J.M. Phillips-Quagliata, and M.E. Lamm. 1978. Hormonal induction of the secretory immune system in the mammary gland. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75:2928-2932. Welsh, J.K., and J.T. May. 1979. Anti-infective properties of breast milk. J. Pediatr. 94:1-9. Welsh, J.K., M. Arsenakis, R.J. Coelen, and J.T. May. 1979. Effect of antiviral lipids, heat, and freezing on the activity of viruses in human milk. J. Infect. Dis. 140:322-328. Werner, H., T. Amarant, R.P. Millar, M. Fridkin, and Y. Koch. 1985. Immunoreactive and biologically active somatostatin in human and sheep milk. Eur. J. Biochem. 148:353-357. Whitelaw, A., and A. Butterfield. 1977. High breast-milk sodium in cystic fibrosis. Lancet 2:1288. WHO (World Health Organization). 1985. The Quantity and Quality of Breast Milk. Report on the WHO Collaborative Study on Breast-Feeding. World Health Organization, Geneva. 148 pp. Wurtman, J.J., and J.D. Fernstrom. 1979. Free amino acid, protein, and fat contents of breast milk from Guatemalan mothers consuming a corn-based diet. Early Hum. Dev. 3:67-77. Zimecki, M., A. Pierce-Cretel, G. Spik, and Z. Wieczorek. 1987. Immunoregulatory properties of the proteins present in human milk. Arch. Immunol. Ther. Exp. 35:351-360. Zinder, O., M. Hamosh, T.R.C. Fleck, and R.O. Scow. 1974. Effect of prolactin on lipoprotein lipase in mammary gland and adipose tissue of rats. Am. J. Physiol. 226:744-748.
Representative terms from entire chapter: