TABLE A-1 Chronological Listing of Estimated Relative Risk (RR) of Mortality in Industrialized Countries Among Children Fed Formula Only or Formula Plus Human Milk Compared with Breastfed Infants and Childrena

 

RRb

Type of Study and Abstract Providing Detailed Description

 

Period and Site of Study

Bottle

Mixed

Reference

1869–1910, Three German states

NAc

NA

Correlation, A-21

Knodel and van de Walle, 1967

1885–1886 Berlin, Germany

4.0– 10.8d

NA

Mortality rates, A-1

Thiemich and Bessau, 1930; reviewed in Mannheimer, 1955

1895–1896 Berlin, Germany

4.1– 14.2d

NA

Mortality rates, A-1

Thiemich and Bessau, 1930; reviewed in Mannheimer, 1955

1900–1903, Derby, England

2.83

1.41

Mortality rates, A-2

Howarth, 1905

1900–1904,  Kingdom of Bavaria, Germany

NA

NA

Correlation, A-22

Greenwood and Brown, 1912

1901–1905, Finsbury, London

27.5

9.8

Case-control, A-3

Newman, 1906

NRe Liverpool, England

2.71f, 2.49g

1.59f, 0.92g

Mortality rates, A-4

Armstrong, 1904

1903–1905, Brighton, England

35.1

3.1

Case-control, A-5

Newsholme, 1906, reviewed in Newman, 1906

1906, Berlin, Germany

2.6– 10.9d

NA

Mortality rates, A-1

Thiemich and Bessau, 1930; reviewed in Mannheimer, 1955

1910, Boston, Mass.

6.06

NA

Mortality rates, A-6

Davis, 1913

1924–1929, Chicago, Ill.

5.6

4.6

Mortality rates, A-7

Grulee et al., 1934, 1935

NR, Birmingham, England

4.59

1.55

Case-fatality, A-17

Smellie, 1939

NR, Toronto, Canada

0.89

0.65

Case-fatality, A-18

Ebbs and Mulligan, 1942

1936–1942, Liverpool, England

5.62

2.52

Mortality rates, A-8

Robinson, 1951

1941–1942, Belfast, Ireland

5.15– 13.72d

NA

Mortality rates, A-9

Deeny and Murdock, 1944

1943–1947, Stockholm, Sweden

1.34– 1.75f

0.63– 0.66f

Mortality rates, A-10

Mannheimer, 1955

1942 and 1943, Isleworth, England

1.96

NA

Case-fatality, A-19

Gaidner, 1945



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