Glossary


Alveolar ductal system

the infrastructure of the breast that includes both the milk-making lacteal cells and the lactiferous ducts of the mammary gland.

Amenorrhea

absence or abnormal stoppage of menses.

Anovulation

suspension or cessation of ovulation.

Anthropometric methods

methods of measurement of the size and proportions of the human body, including measurement of weight, height, circumferences, and skinfold thicknesses.

Antimetabolite

a substance that closely resembles one required for normal physiological function and that exerts its desired effect by replacing or interfering with the utilization of the essential metabolite. Antimetabolites are used therapeutically to slow or stop the growth of malignant cells.

Antineoplastic agent

a pharmacologic agent that inhibits or prevents the maturation and proliferation of malignant cells.

Areola

circular pigmented area surrounding the nipple of the breast.


Bioavailability

the proportion of a nutrient absorbed from food and available for physiologic function.

Body mass index (BMI)

an expression of body weight for height used for children and adults. In this report, metric units are used, namely, BMI = [(kg/m2) × 100]

Breast abscess

a localized collection of pus in the breast usually resulting from an inadequately treated mastitis.



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Nutrition During Lactation Glossary Alveolar ductal system the infrastructure of the breast that includes both the milk-making lacteal cells and the lactiferous ducts of the mammary gland. Amenorrhea absence or abnormal stoppage of menses. Anovulation suspension or cessation of ovulation. Anthropometric methods methods of measurement of the size and proportions of the human body, including measurement of weight, height, circumferences, and skinfold thicknesses. Antimetabolite a substance that closely resembles one required for normal physiological function and that exerts its desired effect by replacing or interfering with the utilization of the essential metabolite. Antimetabolites are used therapeutically to slow or stop the growth of malignant cells. Antineoplastic agent a pharmacologic agent that inhibits or prevents the maturation and proliferation of malignant cells. Areola circular pigmented area surrounding the nipple of the breast. Bioavailability the proportion of a nutrient absorbed from food and available for physiologic function. Body mass index (BMI) an expression of body weight for height used for children and adults. In this report, metric units are used, namely, BMI = [(kg/m2) × 100] Breast abscess a localized collection of pus in the breast usually resulting from an inadequately treated mastitis.

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Nutrition During Lactation Catabolism the chemical breakdown of complex substances into simpler ones. Catalysis the speeding up of a chemical reaction by a substance, needed in only a small amount, that is not itself permanently changed in the reaction. Ceruloplasmin a protein that carries the majority of the copper in the blood. Colostrum the fluid secreted by the mammary gland for the first few days following parturition. Continuance rate in this report, the percentage of women who initiated breastfeeding who were still breastfeeding when their infants reached 6 months of age. Engorgement in this report, the distension of the breast with milk. Enteropathogens microorganisms that cause intestinal disease. Enzymes proteins that serve as organic catalysts. Exclusive breastfeeding consumption of human milk as the sole source of energy. Femoral region the thigh. Fibronectin an adhesive glycoproprotein. Glutathione peroxidase a selenium-containing enzyme that reduces toxic hydrogen peroxide formed within the cell. Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn Syndrome in newborn period caused by vitamin K deficiency. Immunoregulation control of the immune response by mechanisms such as the immunoglobulin idiotype-antiidiotype network. Inducer a substance that causes or stimulates the start of an activity. Lactation performance degree of success of breastfeeding, as determined by measurements such as milk volume, milk composition, duration of breastfeeding, and infant growth. Lacteal cells cells within the mammary gland that collect and produce the nutrients that make up milk. Lactoferrin an iron-binding protein found in secretions such as milk and in specific granules of neutrophils. Lactogenesis the onset of copious milk secretion shortly after parturition. Lactogenic hormones hormones that stimulate the development and growth of the mammary glands. Lactose intolerance a condition in which the intestinal enzyme lactase, which breaks down lactose to glucose plus galactose, is lacking; this may lead to cramps and diarrhea after consumption of certain lactose-containing foods (e.g., milk).

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Nutrition During Lactation Let-down reflex in reference to breastfeeding, the transport of milk from the alveoli of the breast to the ducts in response to sensory stimulus. Release of oxytocin and prolactin results in the contraction of myoepithelial cells and the release of milk. Luteinizing hormone hormone essential for maturation of the ovarian follicle so that ovulation can occur. Lymphokines a general term for soluble mediators of immune responses that are not antibodies or complement components and that are released by sensitized lymphocytes on contact with antigens. Lysozyme an enzyme of the hydrolase class that has antibacterial properties. Macrominerals minerals (calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium) present in relatively high concentration in the human. Macronutrients protein, fat, and carbohydrate. Mastitis an infectious process in the breast that produces localized tenderness, redness and heat, together with systemic reactions of fever, malaise, and sometimes nausea and vomiting. Menaquinone vitamin K2, the form of the vitamin synthesized by bacteria. Milk-ejection reflex cf let-down reflex. Myoepithelial cells spindle-shaped or branched contractile epithelial cells found between glandular cells and basement membrane of mammary glands and certain other glands. Nutrient density nutrient content of food per 1,000 kcal of energy. Oligosaccharide a compound made up of a small number of monosaccharide (simple sugar) units. Oophorectomy excision of an ovary or ovaries. Oral elimination challenge trial in this report, a trial period during which a suspected food allergen is eliminated from the mother's diet to determine whether her breastfed infant will become asymptomatic. Organochlorinated compounds Insecticides such as DDT or PCB; usual term is organophosphates. Osteoporosis reduction in the amount of bone mass, leading to fractures after minimal trauma. Oxytocin a pituitary hormone. Among its actions is stimulation of the release of milk from the mammary glands, cf let-down reflex. Parity the number of children previously born to a woman. Partial breastfeeding consumption of human milk in combination with formula, other foods, or both. Parturition the act or process of giving birth.

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Nutrition During Lactation Phototherapy the use of variously concentrated light rays for treating conditions such as hyperbilirubinemia (jaundice) of the newborn. Phylloquinone vitamin K1, the form of the vitamin synthesized by plants. Placental lactogen a placental hormone that stimulates milk production. Postprandial after meals. progesterone a steroid hormone obtained from the corpus luteum and placenta. Among its functions is development of the mammary glands. Prolactin a pituitary hormone that stimulates lactation in mammary glands. Radiopharmaceutical a radioactive compound that is used for medical treatment or diagnosis. Residual milk volume difference between the amount of milk that can be extracted by pump compared with usual infant intake. Respiratory syncytial virus a virus that causes epidemic acute respiratory disease that is especially serious in children (e.g., it causes bronchial pneumonia and bronchitis). Retinol equivalent a unit of measurement of the vitamin A value of foods. One retinol equivalent is equivalent to approximately 5 international units of vitamin A obtained from the typical U.S. diet in the form of retinol (from animal products) and carotenoids (from plants). Substrate a substance on which an enzyme acts. Synergism the joint action of agents so that their combined effect is greater than the algebraic sum of their individual effects. Taurine a sulfur-containing amino acid important to growth of brain, retina, heart, and liver; present in high concentrations in human milk. Test weighing in this report, a method of determining the quantity of milk consumed that involves weighing the baby before and after breastfeeding. Thermogenesis heat production (energy expenditure) following the ingestion of food or exposure to cold above that produced by basal metabolism. Well nourished for purposes of this report, this term refers to a healthy woman who is of appropriate weight for height and without notable dietary limitations.

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