Antiinfectious agents, in human milk, 133-137, 139, 166

Anti-inflammatory agents, in human milk, 138, 166

Antimicrobial factors, in human milk, 133-137, 139, 166

Antiprotease, in human milk, 139

Anxiety

and milk volume, 88

research needed on, 241

Apoproteins, in lactating women, 54, 58

Arsenic, in human milk, 178

Ascorbic acid, see Vitamin C

Assessment, see Nutritional status, assessment of

Atherosclerosis, effect of infant feeding on development of, 172

Atopic dermatitis, 168

Attitudes, and breastfeeding rate, 22

Autocrine control, of milk production, 84

B

Basal metabolic rate (BMR), during lactation, 100

Benefit, indicators of, 51-52

Beriberi, 126

Biceps skinfold thickness, 60, 62

Bile salt-dependent lipase, in human milk, 132, 139

Bioavailability, of nutrients, research needs, 239

Biochemical indicators

in lactating women, 54, 55-57

and successful lactation, 5

use of, 52-53

Biotin

in human milk, 116, 128

in lactating women, 57

Birth weight

cigarette smoking and, 89

and milk volume, 85-86

and nutrient utilization, 154-155

Black mothers

breastfeeding rate and duration of, 4, 29-30, 32, 33

determinants of breastfeeding in, 39-42

Black women

calcium intake by, 229

magnesium intake by, 229

vitamin A intake by, 229

Blood lipids, 54, 58

BMR, during lactation, 100

Body mass index, 60

and milk volume, 98

Body weight, see Weight

Bone mass, lactation and, 205-206

Bone metabolism, during and after lactation, 204

Bone mineralization, effect of lactation on, 204-206

Botulism, infant, 174

Breads, recommended daily servings of, 230

Breast(s), development and physiology of, 83-84

Breast abscesses, continued breastfeeding with, 169

Breast cancer, effect of breastfeeding on, 10, 206-208

Breastfeeding

beliefs about, 45-46

capability for, 10-11

current statistics for, 32-39

determinants of, 39-46, 240

exclusive, 3, 24, 37, 179

extent of, 24, 63-64

external constraints on, 46

frequency of, 14, 85, 104

health care in support of, 12-14, 240

history of, 28-32

lactation vs., 28

minimal, 25

partial, 3, 24, 37

reasons to support, 22-23

at work, 44

Breastfeeding duration

adolescent mothers, 33

age and, 32, 33

black mothers, 29-30, 32, 33

current statistics on, 4, 32-39

defined, 24

determinants of, 39-46

employed mothers, 38-39, 40-41

geographic differences in, 35

Hispanic mothers, 37

marital status and, 32, 33

parity and, 32, 33

Southeast Asian mothers, 38

white mothers, 32, 33

WIC mothers, 36

Breastfeeding practices, recommendations for, 14



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