a Nutrients listed in this table are those most commonly included in nutrient data bases.
b SD = Standard deviation.
c IU = International units.
d NA = Not applicable.
e Calculated as the recommended daily energy increment for lactation (500 kcal) plus the energy allowance for females 11 to 50 years of age (2,200 kcal).
f Standard deviation not applicable to the RDA.
g Units for the RDAs are micrograms of retinol equivalents (RE); this is equivalent to approximately 5 IU of vitamin A obtained from the typical U.S. diet in the form of retinol (from animal products) and carotenoids (from plants) (Olson, 1987).
h NR = Not reported.
i Women taking supplements; intake from food only.
j Women taking no supplements.
k Standard error of the mean.
l Women in the study who averaged 95% lactation over the entire lactation period.
m Given as N = 46 for 26 subjects studied twice.