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IN THE MIND'S EYE: ENHANCING HUMAN PERFORMANCE IN THE MIND'S EYE ENHANCING HUMAN PERFORMANCE Daniel Druckman and Robert A. Bjork, Editors Committee on Techniques for the Enhancement of Human Performance Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1991
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IN THE MIND'S EYE: ENHANCING HUMAN PERFORMANCE NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W.Washington, D.C.20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. Support for the project that is the subject of this report was provided by the Army Research Institute. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data In the mind's eye : enhancing human performance / Daniel Druckman and Robert A. Bjork, editors. p. cm. “Committee on Techniques for the Enhancement of Human Performance, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council.” Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-04398-0 (cloth); ISBN 0-309-04747-1 (paper) 1. Performance—Psychological aspects. I. Druckman, Daniel, 1939- . II. Bjork, Robert A. III. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Techniques for the Enhancement of Human Performance. BF481.I5 1991 158—dc20 91-23941 CIP Copyright © 1991 by the National Academy of Sciences No part of this book may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic, or electronic procedure, or in the form of a phonographic recording, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, or otherwise copied for public or private use, wihout written permission from the publisher except for the purpose of official use by the United States government. Printed in the United States of America First Printing, September 1991 Second Printing, June 1992
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IN THE MIND'S EYE: ENHANCING HUMAN PERFORMANCE COMMITTEE ON TECHNIQUES FOR THE ENHANCEMENT OF HUMAN PERFORMANCE ROBERT A. BJORK (Chair), Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles MICHELENE T. H. CHI, Learning Research and Development Center, University of Pittsburgh ROBERT W. CHRISTINA, Department of Physical Therapy and Exericise Science, State University of New York, Buffalo JAMES H. DAVIS, Department of Psychology, University of Illinois GERALD C. DAVISON, Department of Psychology, University of Southern California ERIC EICH, Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia RAY HYMAN, Department of Psychology, University of Oregon DANIEL LANDERS, Department of Physical Education, Arizona State University FRANCIS J. PIROZZOLO, Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine LYMAN W. PORTER, Graduate School of Management, University of California, Irvine JEROME E. SINGER, Department of Medical Psychology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences RICHARD F. THOMPSON, Department of Psychology and Neurosciences Program, University of Southern California DANIEL DRUCKMAN, Study Director DONNA REIFSNIDER, Senior Project Assistant
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IN THE MIND'S EYE: ENHANCING HUMAN PERFORMANCE The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
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IN THE MIND'S EYE: ENHANCING HUMAN PERFORMANCE Contents Preface vii PART I OVERVIEW 1 1 Background 3 The Committee's First Phase, 3 The Committee's Second Phase, 4 The Report, 6 References, 11 2 Findings and Conclusions 12 Training, 12 Altering Mental States, 15 Performing, 18 PART II TRAINING 21 3 Optimizing Long-Term Retention and Transfer 23 Long-Term Retention, 25 Transfer of Training, 37 Conclusions and Implications for Training, 47 References, 49 4 Modeling Expertise 57 Cognitive Apprenticeship, 59 How Experts Excel, 63 Eliciting Knowledge from Experts, 70 Imparting Experts' Knowledge to Trainees, 71 Summary and Conclusions, 75 References, 76 5 Developing Careers 80 A Framework for Career Development, 81 Army Programs, 89 An Appraisal of the MBTI, 96 Conclusions, 101 Notes, 102 References, 102
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IN THE MIND'S EYE: ENHANCING HUMAN PERFORMANCE PART III ALTERING MENTAL STATES 105 6 Subliminal Self-Help 107 Subjectively Perceptible Versus Objectively Detectable Stimuli, 110 Mobilization, Effort Justification, and Expectancy Effects, 113 Conclusions, 116 Notes, 117 References, 117 7 Meditation 120 Scientific Evaluations of Meditation, 121 Critique of the Literature Review, 127 A Cautionary Note on Epistemology, 130 Conclusions, 130 Note, 131 References, 132 8 Managing Pain 134 Aspects of Pain, 134 Treating Acute Pain, 138 Treating Chronic Pain, 141 Conclusions, 143 References, 144 9 Hiding and Detecting Deception 148 Physical Indicators and Psychological States, 149 Improving Detection, 156 Context and Culture, 160 Conclusions, 164 Notes, 166 References, 167 10 A Broader Concept of Deception 171 Types of Deception, 172 Theories, Taxonomies, and Frameworks, 173 Interactive Settings, 185 Conclusions, 188 Notes, 189 References, 189 PART IV PERFORMING 191 11 Optimizing Individual Performance 193 The Mental Health Model of Sports Performance, 193 Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions, 203 Preperformance Routines, Sports Performance, and Physiological Measures, 215 Exercise and Stress, 225 Broader Views: Neuroscience and Peak Performance, 227 Conclusions, 233 Notes, 234 References, 235 12 Enhancing Team Performance 247 Research on Groups: In the Laboratory and on the Job, 247 Individuals and Teams, 249 Team Performance, 251 Team Performance: From Laboratory to Field, 257 Conclusions, 265 Note, 266 References, 266 APPENDICES A Committee Activities, 273 B Biographical Sketches, 276 Index 283
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IN THE MIND'S EYE: ENHANCING HUMAN PERFORMANCE Preface This is the second report of the Committee on Techniques for the Enhancement of Human Performance. The committee's first report, Enhancing Human Performance: Issues, Theories and Techniques, was published by the National Academy Press in 1988. That report was the product of a process that began in 1984 when the Army Research Institute (ARI) asked the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council to form a committee to assess the promise of some “new age ” techniques designed to enhance human performance. Those techniques, developed largely outside the academic research establishment, offered the potential to accelerate learning, improve motor skills, alter mental states, reduce stress, increase social influence, foster group cohesion, and—in the parapsychological domain—produce remote viewing and psychokinetic control of electronic devices. In response to ARI's request, a committee of 14 experts, selected for their expertise in relevant basic-science areas, was appointed under the auspices of the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (CBASSE) within the National Research Council and began its work. The reaction to the release of Enhancing Human Performance was considerable, at both the public and professional levels. A press conference was well attended, and the subsequent media coverage of the committee's recommendations was extensive; reviews of the book appeared in a number of magazines and professional journals. In general, reaction to the report was very favorable (see, e.g., the thorough review by Philip Morrison in Scientific American ). The committee was not without its critics, however. Advocates of certain techniques that were
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IN THE MIND'S EYE: ENHANCING HUMAN PERFORMANCE not viewed favorably accused the committee of being biased or closed minded, and others found certain of the committee's (relatively few) positive recommendations to be less than tough minded. (For a summary of reactions to the committee's first report, see J.A. Swets and R.A. Bjork : Enhancing human performance: an evaluation of “new age” techniques considered by the U.S. Army. Psychological Science 1(2):85-96.) The committee's second agenda emerged in part as a consequence of its first report. It became apparent that certain techniques that had not been on the committee's initial agenda deserved attention, such as using a model of the expert as a guide to training, and that other topics deserved more thorough analysis, such as meditation and other methods of altering mental states. Other techniques for committee study were suggested by virtue of their popular attention, particularly subliminal self-help audio tapes, self-assessment techniques to aid career development, and sports-psychology techniques to sustain performance under pressure. Still other topics resulted from meetings with Army staff, who encouraged the committee to explore possible innovations in training based on academic research, particularly with respect to long-term retention of critical skills and transfer of those skills to altered contexts; and who provided information on career development in the Army, on the special problems of maintaining high performance in high-stress/high-risk settings, and on the problems of detecting—and avoiding the detection of—deception. The final topics for the new agenda, managing pain and enhancing team performance, were added after committee discussions at the beginning of its second phase. With its mission fully in place, the committee embarked on the same mixture of activities that characterized its first phase; the committee's activities are discussed in Chapter 1 and detailed in Appendix A. Looking back on a committee process that was efficient, productive, and stimulating, it is now my pleasure as committee chair to acknowledge contributors to that process. Various people within the Army were more than helpful. Dr. Edgar M. Johnson, director of the Army Research Institute, has been a steady source of support, encouragement, and wise advice during the entire life of the committee. Our project monitors from the Army Research Institute, Dr. Michael Drillings and Dr. Judith Orasanu, provided able administrative and technical advice, and Major John H. Hagman of the Uniformed Health Services University, Department of Military Medicine, was a valuable source of information and advice in our work. To General Maxwell Thurman (ret.), whose enthusiasm and vision played a major role in initiating our work, the committee owes a special debt. In his commitment to research—and to the belief that each of us
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IN THE MIND'S EYE: ENHANCING HUMAN PERFORMANCE should be all that we can be—he has been a continuing source of inspiration and support. His constructive reactions to the first report, his many ideas for follow-on ARI projects, and his ability to convey the training and performance needs of the Army did much to shape the agenda and orientation of the committee 's second phase. Similarly, General John Crosby (ret.), who assisted General Thurman and the committee since its inception, has also been a valuable friend of the committee. Other key people in the Army made it possible for the committee to complete various projects and site visits. Dr. Owen Jacobs of the Army Research Institute provided invaluable advice and information relevant to career programs in the Army, and Dr. Herbert Barber at the Army War College helped the committee administer a career-instrument survey and provided advice. General Stanley Hyman arranged for a subcommittee to visit Fort Belvoir in order to discuss the Army' s concerns surrounding the issue of deception, and Major Robert Roland of the Special Operations Command made special arrangements for committee members who went to Fort Bragg to talk with Army leaders about group performance and training. The committee also profited from the Army representatives who spoke at our meetings (see Appendix A). Several individuals outside the Army were also critical in the committee 's activities. Vic Braden, founder and director of the Vic Braden Tennis College, opened his training facilities to the committee and provided an instructive overview of his teaching methods in tennis and other sports. Raymond Mulligan, Curriculum Development Coordinator at the L.F. Sillin Nuclear Training Center in Connecticut, arranged for members of several subcommittees to see the special training and performance needs of operators and other personnel in nuclear power environments. The authors of the committee's commissioned papers, Laura Darke, Manuel London, David Shannahoff-Khalsa, and Paul Thayer, deserve special appreciation for their good work. We also wish to thank the panel of scientists who reviewed our report on behalf of the Research Council; it profited greatly from their criticisms and suggestions. Our report also profited from the gifted editorial hand of Eugenia Grohman, CBASSE Associate Director for Reports; we appreciate her understanding of the issues and her ability to make technical writing readable. We also appreciate Elaine McGarraugh 's thorough and organized job of proofing and copy editing the entire manuscript. And we are grateful to Donna Reifsnider, the committee 's administrative assistant, who cheerfully handled innumerable details across all stages of the committee process. For John Swets, a treasured friend, I want to add a word of personal thanks. As chair of the committee's first phase, he served as an expert, if impossible, model. Throughout the committee's second phase he
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IN THE MIND'S EYE: ENHANCING HUMAN PERFORMANCE remained a constant source—when asked—of good advice and honest opinions. To Dan Druckman, our study director, I want to express my profound respect and gratitude. We took full advantage of his talents as a writer and editor, as a scholar of unusual breadth, and as a manager; it was his tenacity and planning that must be credited with keeping the committee mostly on track and on time. Finally, I want to express my personal debt to the committee members themselves—for their cooperation, their wisdom, and their good humor. ROBERT A. BJORK, Chair Committee on Techniques for the Enhancement of Human Performance
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IN THE MIND'S EYE: ENHANCING HUMAN PERFORMANCE IN THE MIND'S EYE
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IN THE MIND'S EYE: ENHANCING HUMAN PERFORMANCE This page in the original is blank.