Class (B3): Security Domains
The class (B3) TCB must satisfy the reference monitor requirements that it mediate all accesses of subjects to objects, be tamperproof, and be small enough to be subjected to analysis and tests. To this end, the TCB is structured to exclude code not essential to security policy enforcement, with significant system engineering during TCB design and implementation directed toward minimizing its complexity. A security administrator is supported, audit mechanisms are expanded to signal security-relevant events, and system recovery procedures are required. The system is highly resistant to penetration.
Class (A1): Verified Design
Systems in class (A1) are functionally equivalent to those in class (B3) in that no additional architectural features or policy requirements are added. The distinguishing feature of systems in this class is the analysis derived from formal design specification and verification techniques and the resulting high degree of assurance that the TCB is correctly implemented. This assurance is developmental in nature, starting with a formal model of the security policy and a formal top-level specification (FTLS) of the design. In keeping with extensive design and development analysis of the TCB required of systems in class (A1), more stringent configuration management is required and procedures are established for securely distributing the system to sites. A system security administrator is supported.
SOURCE: Department of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria, DOD 5200.28-STD, December 1985, Appendix C, pp. 93–94.
processing. It has been codified as a military standard, making it a requirement for defense systems, and its dissemination has been directed largely to major vendors of centralized systems, notably vendors who are or who supply government contractors.
Because of its shortcomings, which have been debated in the computer security community for several years, the Orange Book must be regarded as only an interim stage in the codification of prudent protection practices.