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Index A Abies species, 86 A. bracteata, 60, 61, 63, 67 A. fraseri, 63, 67, 148 A. guatemalensis, 122, 162, 197 in breeding or testing programs, 147-148 endangered/threatened, 162 genetic diversity of, 63 seed sources for research, 188, 189, 191, 197 Acacia species, 5, 11, 47, 95 A. albida, 119, 122, 148, 162 A. aneura, 120, 148 A. auriculiformis, 119 A. mangium, 119, 120, 148, 193, 196 A. nilotica, 95, 122, 148, 162 A. Senegal, 119, 121, 148, 162, 198 in breeding or testing programs, 103, 119, 122, 130, 148-149 endangered/threatened, 162 nitrogen-fixing, 120 seed sources for research, 183 188, 190-199 Acalypha diversifolia, 64 Acer species, 86, 149, 184 Acid rain, 34, 131; see also Atmospheric pollution 213 Acrocarpus species, 195 Adansonia digitata, 162, 195 Aesculus species, 86 Afforestation, 11, 87, 100, 201 Africa ex situ conservation stands, 114 fuelwood use, 37-38 see also specific countries African cypress, 122 African Genetic Resources Network, 114 African Ministers Conference on the Environment, 114 Afzelia species, 162, 198, 199 Aga this species, 122, 149, 163 Agonis species, 184 Agriculture/agricultural crops alley farming, 42, 43 comparing trees with, 32-33 deforestation for, 28 gene banks, 87 slash-and-burn, 28 Agroforestry, 5, 115, 118 breeding programs, 94, 96, 117, 122 defined, 201 research needs, 72, 96, 130 research, training, and information dissemination, 43, 109-110 seed collection for, 120, 190

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214 1 Index types of, 42-43 see also Production forestry Albizia species, 44, 149, 163, 190, 195, 197, 198 Alder, 86, 149 Alleles, 92 defined, 54-55, 201 extinction rates, 70 frequencies, gene flow, and selection, 68-70 inbreeding and loss of, 78 neutral, and quantification of gene flow, 57-59 selection pressures, 82 Alley farming, 42, 43 Allozyme screening, 7, 8, 59-60, 61, 67, 68 Allozymes, 53, 201 Alnus species, 86, 149, 163, 186, 187, 190, 192, 198 Alseis blackiana, 64 Amazon Basin, 12, 27, 39, 55, 83, 111 Angiosperms, 116, 201 Annona muricata, 195 Anthocephalus species, 149, 193 Antiaris species, 184 Apomixis, 52, 201 Arabic gumtree, 95 Araucaria species, 44, 95, 149, 163, 184, 194 Arboreta, 31, 85, 86, 194 Argentina, seed sources for research, 183 Arid-zone projects, 94, 105, 107, 121, 122 Arnold Arboretum, 85 Ash, 43, 86, 152 Asia agroforestry research, 43 ex situ conservation stands, 114 forest rehabilitation in, 111 fuelwood use, 38 pollen vectors, 83 population densities of rare species in tropical wet forests, 76 see also specific countries Association of Southeast Asian Nations, 118 Atmospheric pollution forest genetic resource losses to, 23, 26-27, 34, 35 research needs on, 72, 131 Atriplex species, 149, 163, 184 Australia Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, 47, 94, 100, 120 121 Program on Australian Tree Resources, 120 seed sources for research, 183 184 Tree Seed Center, 120, 121, 183 Trees and Shrubs for Fuelwood and Agroforestry project, 120 Austria, seed sources for research, 185 Azadirachta species, 149, 184 B Bambusa species, 190 Banff National Park, 80 Barro Colorado Island (Panama), 26, 64 Base pair, 54-55, 201 Bats, 54, 55, 56 Banhinia species, 184 Beech, 43, 152 Bees, 54 Berchemia species, 199 Bertholletia excelsa, 57, 164 Betula species, 86, 150, 164, 184 Biodiversity defined, 201 importance of, 1-2, 19, 41 losses due to deforestation, 15, 23-24 see also Forest genetic resources; Structure of tree genetic . . ~ . varlahon; l ree genetic resources Biosphere defined, 202 reserves, 31, 82, 84, 94, 114-115 Birch, 86, 150 Birds, 55, 56 Bombacaceae, 55

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Index I 215 Bombax species, 150, 157, 184 Botanical gardens, 31, 85 Brachychiton species, 184 Brazil conflicts over conservation, 101 conservation efforts, 7, 111 deforestation in, 17, 24 energy use from trees, 38, 42 forestlands, 16 Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, 69 roundwood production, 39 seed sources for research, 185 tree plantations, 44 Breeding collections for, 86, 103 cycle for trees, 31, 73 gene pool and, 99 interpopulation differentiation and, 70 managed programs, 5, 44-45, 93- 95 multiple-population strategies, 29 progress of programs, 33 recommended programs, 11-12, 127 research needs, 45, 131 species in programs, 147-159 structure of genetic diversity and, 73, 94 targeting populations for, 74 untested species, 5-6, 49 see also Inbreeding; Mating systems; Outcrossing Brewer's spruce, 124 Burkina Faso fuelwood use, 38 seed sources for research, 185 tree planting, 32 C Cachi hydroelectric project, 41 Caesalpinia species, 165, 186, 194 California Conifer Germplasm Conservation Project, 124 genetic diversity of tree species in, 62-64 Calliandra species, 117, 150, 191, 195 Callitris species, 150, 184, 195 Calocedrus decurrens, 64, 150, 188 Camellia species, 54, 165 Cameroon, in situ conservation projects, 102 Canada forestry programs, 117-118 roundwood production, 39 seed sources for research, 185- 186 Tree Seed Center, 118 Carbon dioxide (atmospheric), 33 34, 40 Caribbean, deforestation rates, 23 Caryocar species, 55, 165 Cassia species, 187, 190, 191, 193, 196 Casuarina species in breeding or testing programs, 120, 150 endangered/threatened species, 165 nitrogen-fixing, 120 seed sources for research, 183, 184, 187, 188, 193-196 storage of seed, 86 Cedrela species, 119, 122, 150, 165, 188, 198 Cedrus species, 150, 165, 188, 189 Celtis species, 150, 165, 184 Central America conservation programs, 7, 101, 116-117 deforestation rates, 23 Central America and Mexico Coniferous Resources Cooperative, 7, 101, 116-117, 127, 197 Centre Technique Forestier Tropical, 18, 47, 94, 100, 119, 127, 188 Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza, 18, 116, 117, 133 Ceratorlia species, 166, 184, 187 Cercis species, 166, 187 Chile reforestation in, 133 seed sources for research, 186

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216 1 Index China fuelwood use, 38 roundwood production, 39 seed sources for research, 186 Chinese cedar, 122, 150 Chromosomes, 54, 204 Cibistax donnell-smithii, 188 Cinchona, 46 Cinnamomum species, 184 Citrus species, 86 Climatic adaptability, 70; see also Global climatic change Climax forests, 44, 202 Clinal variation, 68 Clone banks, 86, 87, 94, 104, 194 Closed forests, 22, 23 Collections of tree germplasm, 74 75 active, 89, 93, 201 conifer and angiosperm, 116, 188 defined, 203 gene flow considerations, 7, 68, 71 need for, 2 Pinus, 121 seed, 11, 87, 103, 119, 124, 183 199 species included in, 74 uses of, 87 see also Seed storage Colombia, seed sources for research, 186-187 Colophospermum species, 192 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, 47, 94, 100, 127 Coniferous forests, 21, 43 Conifers, 52, 53, 56, 60, 71 collections, 116, 188, 189 conserving, 101, 112, 124 defined, 202 genetic diversity of, 13-14, 62-64 see also individual species Conservation and management adequacy of programs, 15 breeding system and, 71 choice of method, 89-92 cooperation in exploring, collecting, and evaluating tree genetic resources, 11-13, 48- 49, 130-131 coordinating and expanding existing programs, 129-132 economic reasons for, 15, 99 education and training needs, 16- 18, 98 exploration, testing, and breeding, 11-13, 45-47, 49 funding for programs, 16-17, 124-125 global program, 91-92 international efforts, see Institutions managing tree genetic resources; International cooperation; and specific institutions monitoring center, 112 natural vegetation management, 41-42 sampling problems, 13, 68, 71, 74, 126 structure of genetic variation and, 7, 67-68, 70-71, 82-83 technical and biological factors, 89-91 of untested species, 5-6, 11-12, 49 see also Ex situ conservation; In situ conservation; International cooperation Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, 108-109, 110, 115, 138 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora, 112 Cordia species, 119, 122, 150, 166, 191 Costa Rica energy use from trees, 38 genetic resource programs, 116, 117, 133 migration of pollinators, 83 Organization for Tropical Studies, 26 seed sources for research, 187 siltation effects of deforestation, 41 tree plantations, 44 Cotoneaster species, 184 Cratuegus species, 184

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Index I 217 Cryopreservation, 10, 87, 97-98, 130-131, 202 Cryptomeria species, 5, 59, 150, 184, 189 Cuba, seed sources for research, 187 Cuban pine, 104 Cupressus species, 64, 122, 151, 166- 167, 189, 191, 192, 194, 196 Cuttings, 87 Cypress, 122, 151 Cyprus, seed sources for research, 187 Czechoslovakia, pollution and forest tree losses in, 26 D Dalbergia species, 151, 167, 190, 199 Danish Forest Seed Center, 47, 94, 100, 121, 187 Data bases development of, 13, 97, 132, 135 forestry, 60 Protected Areas Data Unit, 112 provenance trial results, 120-121 recommended, on tree genetic resources, 13, 97 Deforestation, 14, 15 activities associated with, 12, 27- 28 economic effects of, 3-4 rates, 23, 125 research, 115, 131 sedimentation effects of, 40-41 Delonix species, 190 Denmark, seed sources for research, 187 Desertification, 28 Developing countries fuelwood plantings in, 120 genetic resources conservation projects, 107 industrial plantation forestry, 43 see also specific countries Dichrostachys species, 199 Dioecy, 51-52, 202 Diploidy, 54, 202 DNA, 10, 54-55 Dodonaea species, 191 Dominican Republic, 125 Douglas fir, 8, 12, 67, 86, 124, 157 Dry tropical forests, 23, 42 Duranta species, 184 Durio species, 55, 168 E Ecogeographical surveys, 74, 96-97 Ecosystems Conservation Group, 115 Ecotypic differentiation, 68, 201 Ecuador, inventory of forest trees, 34-35 Ecuador laurel, 122 Education and training needs, 98, 127, 131-132, 135 El Salvador, seed sources for research, 188 Elaeis guineensis, 195 Electrophoresis, 7, 60, 202 Endangered/threatened species, 4, 24 in breeding or testing programs, 93 case histories on, 111-112 databook on, 107 defined, 203, 206 ex situ conservation programs, 101, 130 in situ conservation of, 77, 94 international trade convention, 112 literature survey of, 161-181 provenance trials, 101 Entada species, 195 Enterolobium species, 197 Erosion, 4, 11, 40 Erythrina species, 168, 184, 193, 199 Ethiopia, seed sources for research, 188 Eucalyptus afforestation with, 9 in breeding or testing programs, 11, 33, 47, 103, 104, 112, 119, 126, 151-152 E. camaldulensis, 94, 104, 151, 184 E. grandis, 44, 64, 151 E. tereticornis, 104, 152

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218 1 Index endangered/threatened, 168-170 gene flow relative to pollination mechanism, 57-58 genetic diversity of, 64 growth rates, 44 management status of, 94, 95 mating systems, 7, 59 seed sources for research, 120, 183-185, 187, 188, 190, 193, 194, 196, 199 storage of seed, 86 Europe conservation projects, 10 forestland distribution, 22 genetic resource losses, 23 see also specific countries Ex situ conservation, 2, 71 activities and projects, 103-105, 130-131 barriers to, 91 defined, 203 design of stands, 89-91 evaluation, testing, and breeding, 131 methods, 10, 31, 85-88 objective of, 30 recommendations, 9-11, 97 sampling patterns, 32-33 Ex situ field trials, 46 Exotic species, 8, 43, 203 Extinction, 2, 4, 23, 70, 78, 95, 161, 162, 170, 171, 177, 203 Extractive reserves, 39 F Ficus species, 55, 170 Finland roundwood production, 39 seed sources for research, 188 Firs, 86, 147-148 Flacourtia indica, 195 Flindersia species, 184 Fodder from trees, 4, 15, 38, 40, 43 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, 15, 89, 99, 106-108, 114, 115, 126, 127 arid-zone and Sahel projects, 94, 105, 107 Commission on Plant Genetic Resources, 108 coordination of international program, 18, 136, 138 Ecosystems Conservation Group, 106 ex situ conservation projects, 11, 104 exploration, collection, and evaluation efforts, 47 Forest Resources Development Branch, 108 Forest Wildlands and Conservation Branch, 108 Forestry Resources Division, 100, 108 in situ conservation projects, 94, 102, 106 newsletter, 107 Panel of Experts on Forest Gene Resources, 13, 100, 102, 106-108 Plant Production and Protection Division, 108 provenance testing, 92 seed collection and seedlot management, 108 Tropical Forestry Action Plan, 108 Working Group on In Situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources, 106 Food web, 83, 203 Forest fallows, 23 Forest fires, 111 Forest genetic resources conflicts over availability and use, 101 inventory of, 6, 25-26, 34-35 losses, 4, 23-24 newsletter, 107 Forest red gum, 104 Forestlands, distribution of, 3, 21, 22 Forestry data base, 60 see also Agroforestry; and other specific types Forestry/Fuelwood Research Education and Development project, 43

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Index 1 219 Forestry Research Institute of Malaysia, 43 Forests (world) Germplasm, see Collections of tree germplasm Gifford Pinchot National Forest, 34 causes of losses, 1, 3, 26-29, 34 Gleditsia species, 184 ecosystem resilience, 24-25, 41 Gliricidia species, 117, 122, 152, 187, losses in, 21-25; see also 197 Deforestation symbiotic relationships in, 4, 40, 77 see also specific types of forests France Centre Technique Forestier Tropical, 47, 94, 100, 117, 188 roundwood production, 39 seed sources for research, 188 189 Fraxinus species, 86, 152, 184, 198 French Guiana, 119 Fuelwood, 4, 28, 29, 126 energy use by country, 5, 37-38, 42 production of, 15, 43, 108 species conservation efforts, 109, 112-113, 120 G Gene banks, 85, 87, 95, 101, 133, 135, 189, 203 Gene flow, 126 allele frequencies, selection and, 68-70 defined, 203 mating systems and, 7, 53-55 neutral alleles and quantification of, 57-59 see also Structure of tree genetic diversity Gene pools, 2, 11, 24, 52, 74, 84, 97, 99, 203 Genes, 54, 203, 204 Genetic drift, 57, 78 Genetic resources, see Forest genetic resources; Tree genetic resources Geoffroea species, 186 Germany pollution and forest tree losses in, 15, 26 seed sources for research, 189 Global climatic change, 1, 14, 26, 33-34, 40, 72, 92, 101, 131 Gmelina species, 11, 47, 86 G. arborea, 44, 119, 121, 152, 187, 193, 194 seed sources for research, 186, 187, 190, 192-194, 197 Great Basin bristlecone pine, 67 Great Britain, see United Kingdom Greece, seed sources for research, 189 Greenhouse gases, 1, 33-34, 40 Grevillea species, 152, 183, 187, 195, 196 Grewia species, 191 Guatemala forest genetic resource programs, 116 seed sources for research, 189 Guazuma species, 153, 187 H Haiti, deforestation in, 125 Hakea species, 183 Hardwickia species, 190 Hardwoods, 11, 43, 47, 53, 56, 122, 188, 189, 197 Hemlock, 86, 159 Hermaphroditic flowers, 51, 204 Hibiscus species, 153, 184, 187 Honduras forest genetic resource programs, 116 seed sources for research, 190 Hopea species, 10, 86 Horse chestnut, 86 Hummingbirds, 56 Hungary, seed sources for research, 190 Hybanthus prunifolius, 64 Hydroelectric dams, 40-41 Hymenosporum species, 184

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220 / Index In situ conservation, 2, 71 activities and projects, 102-103, 130-132, 133, 135 barriers to, 91 characteristics of methods, 75 classification of areas, 80-82 defined, 204 ecosystem dynamics and integrity, 83-84 FAO projects, 94 inventory strategy, 79-80 maintaining nonproduction stands, 75 manuals on, 102-103 minimum viable population size, 77-78, 81-82, 83, 204 natural regeneration, 30-31 number of reserves needed, 77, 78-79, 131 objectives of, 30, 91 prospects for effective programs, 84-85 recommendations, 9-10, 49, 72 sampling strategy, 78-83 segregating populations, 80-83 site selection, 84, 102 size of reserve, 69, 72-74, 76-78, 81-82, 91, 131 species included in stands, 96 of threatened/endangered species, 77 Inbreeding, 31, 32 and conservation, 68, 70 defined, 7, 204 and genetic diversity, 52, 59, 61, 67, 77-78 India agroforestry research, 43, 130 economic benefits of forest products, 39 energy use from wood, 38 reforestation efforts, 23 religious significance of trees, 41 seed sources for research, 190 Indonesia fuelwood use, 38 logging operations, 113 research on fire damage, 111 seed sources for research, 190- 191 Industrial plantation forestry, 47, 72 defined, 5 genetic losses from, 28-29 growth rates of trees, 44 potential species for, 103-104 purpose and composition of, 43- 44 see also Production forestry Inga species, 193 Institutions managing tree genetic resources adequacy of programs, 124-127 ex situ conservation activities, 103-105 in situ conservation activities, 102-103 international, 15, 99-100, 105-115 national/regional, 15-18, 101, 116-124, 127-128, 132-134 private industry, 101, 116 recommendations, 15-18, 127-128 see also specific institutions Interbreeding, 70, 204 International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, 108-109, 114 agricultural crop programs, 89 exploration, collection, and evaluation efforts, 47 role in coordinating international efforts, 18-19, 136-137, 138 International cooperation coordinating and expanding existing programs, 129-132 development of international program, 134-137 development of regional/national programs, 132-134 FAO coordination, 136, 138 IBPGR coordination, 136-137, 138 recommendations, 18-19, 137-138 International Council for Research in Agroforestry, 43, 109-110 International Development Research Center of Canada, 109 International Tropical Timber Agreement, 110 International Tropical Timber Organization, 110-111

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Index 1 221 International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 93, 102, 106, 115 classification of in situ conservation areas, 80-82 conservation projects, 111-112, 114 international coordinating role, 131 Protected Areas Data Unit, 112 Threatened Plants Committee, 111-112 World Conservation Monitoring Center, 112 International Union of Forestry Research Organizations conservation activities of, 10, 112 113, 126 Eighteenth World Congress, 26 role in international coordination of efforts, 136 Special Program for Developing Countries, 112 Special Task Force on Pollution, 15, 26 Ireland, seed sources for research, 191 Israel, seed sources for research, 191 Italy, seed sources for research, 191 Ivory Coast, seed sources for research, 191 J facaranda species, 153, 194, 195 Jamaica, seed sources for research, 191 Japan industrial production forestry, 5, 39 seed sources for research, 192 Japanese camelia, 54 Juglans species, 153, 172, 193, 198 Julbernardia species, 199 K Kadam, 93 Kauri pine, 122, 149 Kenya fuelwood use, 38 seed sources for research, 192 Khaya species, 153, 172, 199 Korea, seed sources for research, 192 L La Selva biological field station, 26 Lagunaria species, 184 Land use systems agroforestry, 5, 42-43, 75 constraints and opportunities of, 44-45 FAO forestry program, 108 industrial plantation forestry, 5, 43-44 natural vegetation management, 5, 41-42 Larch, 43, 85, 86, 153 Larix species, 43, 58, 85, 86 in breeding or testing programs, 153 genetic diversity of, 64 seed sources for research, 185, 188, 189 Latin America, fuelwood use, 38; see also specific countries Latin American Forest Seed Bank, 117, 187 Laurel, 44 Laurus species, 187 Legumes, 94, 122 Leptospermum species, 184 Leucaena species, 11, 122 in breeding or testing programs, 153 L. Ieucoephala, 32, 44, 153, 196 seed sources for research, 187, 191, 193, 196, 197, 198 Liquidambar species, 86 L. styraciflua, 122, 153, 173 Liriodendron tulipikra, 8, 58, 59, 61, 86, 153 Living stands, 11, 86, 87, 90 Loblolly pine, 59, 124 Logging, 28, 34, 111, 113 Lonchocarpus species, 199

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222 1 Index M Maesopsis species, 153, 192, Mahogany, 10, 44, 86, 113 Malawi fuelwood use, 38 growth rates of plantation tree species, 44 seed sources for research, 192 Malaysia conservation projects, 102, 111 Forestry Research Institute, 43 roundwood production, 39 seed sources for research, 193 Man and the Biosphere Program, 82, 94, 102, 115-116 Managed nature reserves, 81-82 Management of forests for economic uses, 39 factors affecting choice of conservation method, 91-92 and population sizes and structures, 75 status, by tree species, 93-95 see also Conservation and management Manilkara species, 162, 173, 195 Maple, 56, 86, 149 Mating systems and gene flow, 7, 53-56, 69-70 and genetic variation, 14, 67 mechanisms, 51-53 nonrandom within continuous stands, 59 random, 78 research needs on, 14, 72, 131 and reserve size, 74, 78 see also Breeding; Inbreeding; Outcrossing Melaleuca species, 183, 184 Melia azedarach, 153, 195 Mendelian traits, 55 Mexico, seed sources for research, 193 Micropropagation, 87, 204 Millettia species, 173, 190 Mimosa species, 154, 173, 185, 197 Mimusops species, 173, 199 Moist tropical forests losses, 3, 21, 23, 28 195 natural vegetation management, 42 outbreeding, 76 Monkey puzzle, 95, 149 Monoecy, 51-52, 204 Moringa species, 154, 191 Moths, 83 Mulberry, 154 Multiple-use management area/ managed resource area, 82 Myoporum species, 184 N National parks, 81, 94, 102, 121, 124, 133 Natural selection, 68-70, 206; see also Selection pressures Natural vegetation management, 5, 41-42 Nepal deforestation and erosion in, 106 fuelwood use, 38, 40 seed sources for research, 193 New Caledonia, 119 New Zealand, seed sources for research, 193-194 Newtonia species, 195 Nicaragua fuelwood use, 38 seed sources for research, 194 Nigeria fuelwood use, 38 seed sources for research, 194 Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association, 11, 94, 198 North America genetic resource losses, 23 replacement of climax forests, 28 Norway spruce, 60, 74 o Oak, 10, 43, 53, 112 Olea species, 174, 184 Open formations, losses of, 23 Organization for Tropical Studies, 26 Outcrossing, 31, 32 defined, 7, 205

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Index 1 223 genetic structure and, 53, 57, 60 61, 67, 68 Oxford Forestry Institute, 11, 18, 47, 100, 127 provenance testing, 92, 121 tropical pine project, 94 Ozone layer depletion, 26 p Pakistan reforestation project, 100 seed sources for research, 194 Panama Barro Colorado Island, 26, 64 population densities of large trees, 76 Panmictic populations, 78, 205 Papua New Guinea growth rates of plantation tree species, 44 seed sources for research, 194 Paraserianthes falcataria, 193 Parkinsonia species, 154, 187, 197 Paulownia species, 154, 184, 186, 192, 198 Peru in situ conservation projects, 102 seed sources for research, 194-195 Philippines Ambuklao Dam project, 41 conservation activities in, 121 sedimentation in reservoirs, 40-41 seed sources for research, 195 tree plantations, 44 Photosynthesis, 1, 40 Photinia species, 184 Picea species, 86 in breeding or testing programs, 154 endangered/threatened, 175 gene flow relative to pollination mechanism, 58 genetic diversity of, 63 P. abies, 58, 60, 63, 74, 154, 185, 187, 188, 189, 195, 196 P. brewerana, 124 P. sitchensis, 63, 68, 154, 185, 187, 188 seed sources for research, 185- 189, 191, 196 Pinus species, 33, 43, 44, 47 in breeding or testing programs, 119, 122-123, 154-156 endangered/threatened, 95, 175- 176 gene flow relative to pollination mechanism, 58 genetic diversity of, 62-63 growth rates, 44 P. caribacea, 12, 44, 62, 104, 119, 122, 123, 154, 188, 195 P. contorts, 58, 60, 62, 155, 175, 185-187 P. densiflora, 74, 155 P. greggii, 122, 123, 155, 175 P. kesiya, 119, 121, 122, 155, 187, 195, 197 P. Iongaeva, 58, 62, 67 P. merkusii, 121, 122, 155, 187, 195, 197 P. monticola, 58, 62, 67, 155 P. oocarpa, 12, 62, 104, 122, 123, 155-156, 175 P. patula, 44, 94, 122, 123, 156, 175, 192 P. ponderosa, 58, 59, 62-63, 124, 156 P. resinosa, 60, 61, 63, 67, 156 P. sylvestris, 58, 59, 61, 63, 156, 187, 189, 196, 197 P. tueda, 58, 59, 63, 69, 124, 156, 188 P. tecunumanfi, 122, 123, 156, 175 P. torreyana, 60, 61, 63, 67 provenance trials, 104, 121, 122, 123 seed sources for research, 185-199 storage of seeds, 86 tropical, 11, 94 Pistacia species, 156, 176, 187 Pithecellobium species, 176, 185, 197, 198 Plane tree, 86 Plantations, see Industrial plantation forestry Platanus species, 86, 156, 176 Poirlciana regia, 194 Pollen conservation, 10, 85-86, 87, 130

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224 / Index Pollen dispersal, 205 augmentation of, 79 food web and, 83-84 and gene flow, 8, 52, 53-56, 57-59, 61, 69 Pollution, see Atmospheric pollution Polygenic traits, 55 Ponderosa pine, 59, 124 Pongamia species, 190 Poplar, 33, 53, 56, 156 Populus species, 33, 53, 56, 58 in breeding or testing programs, 112, 156-157 endangered/threatened, 176 seed sources for research, 186, 190, 194, 197 Production forestry, 75, 82, 91, 99 breeding programs, 12, 15-16, 70, 94, 96, 105, 112, 126-127 demand for, 15 FAO efforts, 102, 108 research needs for, 12-13, 72, 96 research programs, 118 seed collection stands, 12, 93 see also Agroforestry; Fuelwood; Industrial plantation forestry; Wood production Prosopis species, 122, 130 in breeding or testing programs, 157 endangered/threatened, 176-177 seed sources for research, 183, 186, 187, 190, 191, 194-197 Protium species, 56, 76 Provenance and progeny testing, 7-8, 68 defined, 46, 205 programs, 92, 101, 103, 104-105, 121, 122, 123 purpose of, 46 technique, 59-60 Prunus species, 86, 157, 177, 192, 198 Pseudotsuga species, 86 endangered/threatened, 177 P. menziesii, 8, 12, 58, 64, 67, 68, 157, 185, 186, 188, 193 seed collections, 124, 185, 186, 188, 189, 191, 193 Psychotria horizontalis, 64 Pterocarpus species, 157, 190, 195 Puerto Rico, seed sources for research, 195 Pyracantha species, 184 Q Quararibea asterolepis, 65 Quercus species in breeding or testing programs, 112, 157 endangered/threatened, 177 gene flow relative to pollination mechanism, 58 Q. velutina, 8, 58 seed sources for research, 1&7 storage of seed, 10, 86 Quillaja saponaria, 186 Quinine, 46 R lkattan species, 195 Reclamation areas, 75 Recommendations atmospheric pollution, 14-15, 33-34 conserving untested species, 11-12, 49 cooperation in exploring, collecting, and evaluating tree genetic resources, 11-13, 48-49 data base on tree genetic resources, 13, 97 education and training in forest genetic resource conservation, 98, 127 ex situ management, 9- ~ 1, 97 exploration, testing, and breeding, 11-13, 49 funding and personnel for conservation, 16-18, 127 genetic structures, 14, 72 genetic variation, 13-14, 71-72 global climatic change, 14-15, 33-34 global strategy, 18-19, 137-138 in situ management, 9-10, 97-98 . . . Increase In conservation programs, 9-10, 15-18, 96-97

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Index 1 225 institutions, 15-18, 127-128 international leadership, 18-19, 137-138 inventory of forest trees, 14, 34-35 storage of germplasm, 13, 97-98 testing and breeding programs, 12-13, 127 see also Research needs Reconstituted/reassembled wood, 38 Red cedar, 5, 59, 150 Red oak, 8 Red pine, 60 Reforestation, 11, 23, 87, 100, 111, 118, 133, 206 Regeneration, 23, 28, 30-31, 39 artificial, 75 cycle, 31, 73 natural, 75 of seed, 11, 86-87, 88 seminatural, 91-92 Reproduction, see Breeding; Inbreeding; Mating systems; Outcrossing Reproductive capacity, 52-53 Research on agroforestry systems, 43 on pollution-related tree losses, 26 seed sources for, 183-199 Research needs atmospheric pollution, 14-15, 33-34, 131 breeding systems, 45 conservation program design, 91, 131 effects of global climatic change, 14-15, 33-34, 131 ex situ conservation methods, 9-11, 97, 130-132 exploration, testing, and breeding, 11-13, 45, 130-131 genetic variation patterns, 13-14, 71-72 in situ conservation methods, 9-10, 97-98, 130-132 inventory of forest trees, 14, 34-35, 131 pollution effects on trees, 33-34, 131 reproduction of trees, 14, 31-32, 72, 131 storage methods, 130 tree losses, 2-3 Reserves, 102 biosphere, 31, 82, 84, 94, 114-115 classification of, 80-82 design of, 7, 131 determining adequacy of, 79-80 endangered species in, 94 extractive, 39 inventory strategy, 79-80 managed nature, 81-82 minimum viable population size, 77-78, 131 number needed, 77, 78-79, 131 sampling strategies, 78-83 size considerations, 69, 72-74, 76-78, 81-82, 91, 131 strict nature, 80-81, 82 Rhus species, 191 Ricinus species, 191 Rinorea sylvatica, 65 Rio Palenque field station, 35 River red gum, 94 Robinia species, 157, 191, 198 Rockefeller Foundation, 116 Romania, seed sources for research, 195 Roundwood production, by country, 39 Rural development forestry, 42-43 Rwanda, seed sources for research, 195 S Sahel project, 94, 105, 112-113 Salix species, 157, 177, 186, 187, 190, 194 Sand dune fixation, 9 Santa Lucia fir, 60 Santalum species, 177, 190 Sapium species, 184 Savannah woodlands, losses of, 23, 26, 29 Schizolobium parahybum, 158, 185 Scots pine, 59 Sedimentation, deforestation and, 4, 40-41 Seed banks, 11, 31, 85, 86, 94, 97, 117, 206

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226 1 Index collection and distribution activities, 12, 119, 120-121, 124, 206 orchards/stands, 12, 92, 93, 103, 104, 105, 117, 188, 189, 194 predators, 83 recalcitrant/desiccation-intolerant, 10, 86-87, 88 sources for research, 183-199 Seed dispersal augmentation of, 79 food web and, 83-84 and gene flow, 52, 53, 56, 57, 69 Seed storage cryogenic, 10, 87-88, 95 FAO efforts, 108 feasibility of, 10, 75, 88, 90, 91, 98 international efforts, 133 research needs, 89, 97, 130 species amenable to, 86 techniques, 86-88 Selection pressures, 60, 78, 82, 90; see also Natural selection Self-incompatibility, 52 Self-sterility, 52 Selling (self-pollination), 7, 52, 61, 67, 206 Senegal afforestation measures, 9 seed sources for research, 195 Sequoiadendron giganteum, 58, 64, 158, 188 Sesbania species, 158, 190, 194, 195 She oaks, 86, 120, 150 Shore pine, 60 Shorea species, 10, 86, 158, 178 Sierra Leone, seed sources for research, 196 Silvipastoral systems, 43, 91, 115, 117, 206 Sitka pine, 68 Soil-tree relationship, 4, 9, 40 Solomon Islands, seed sources for research, 196 Sophora species, 178, 187 Sorocea affinis, 65 South Africa, seed sources for research, 196 South America, deforestation rates, 23 Spanish cedar, lip Spondias species, 178, 185 Spruce, 43, 63, 86, 154 Squirrels, 56 Stands boundaries, ecological stability of, 14 clearings, 75 continuous, 59 density, mating and, 53, 59, 70 design of, 89-91 ex situ conservation in, 89-91, 114 in situ conservation in, 75, 96 living, 11, 86, 87, 90 nonproduction, maintenance of, 75 seed collection, 12, 92, 93, 103, 104, 105, 117, 206 species included in, 96 Stone fruits, 86 Strict nature reserves, 80-81, 82 Structure of tree genetic variation, 31 allozyme studies and morphological variation, 68 among populations, 61, 68-70 and breeding, 73, 94 conservation and management and, 7, 67-68, 70-71, 73 estimation of, 59-71 levels of variation in, 55 mating systems and, 14, 51-59 measures of variability, 7-8, 60 packaging of genetic information, 54-55 population complexity and, 70 population divergence, 61, 68 research needs on, 8, 14, 71-72, 74 by species, 62-64 within populations, 60-61, 68, 70, 79 see also Gene flow Sudan fuelwood use, 38 seed sources for research, 196 Swartzia species, 65, 178 Sweden National Forestry Gene Bank, 101

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Index 1 227 roundwood production, 39 seed sources for research, 196 Sweet gum, 86, 122, 153 Swietenia species, 44, 158, 178 Syncarpia species, 184 T Tabebuia species, 7, 66, 158, 178 Tamarack, 53 Tamarindus species, 184 Tamarix species, 191 Tanzania, seed sources for research, 196 Teak, 11, 44, 47, 49, 119, 158 Tecoma species, 187 Tectona species, 11, 44, 47, 49, 119 endangered/threatened, 179 seed sources for research, 187, 195, 197 T. grandis, 119, 121, 158, 187, 197 Temperate forests distribution of, 21, 22 losses, 21, 23 seminatural regeneration, 92 Temperate tree species mating systems, 51-52 pollen dispersal, 54 Terminalia species, 95, 119, 158, 179, 187, 188, 195, 196 Tetraclinis species, 195 Thailand conservation activities in, 49, 121 seed sources for research, 197 seed technology development, 118 teak breeding in, 49 Thespesia species, 191 Threatened species, see Endangered/ threatened species Thaja plicata, 64, 158 Tipuana species, 184, 194 Tissue culture, 10, 87, 88, 90, 91, 97, 130, 206 Torrey pine, 60 Tree genetic resources coordination of exploration, evaluation, and collection programs, 6, 47, 48-49 data base on, 97 evaluation of, 46-47 exploration for, 45-46, 47, 48 germplasm, 2, 31 increasing usefulness of, 45-47 inventory of, 72 losses, 4, 69 narrowing of genetic base, 28, 94 program development for untested species, 12-13, 47 status of, 2, 97 see also Gene pools; Structure of tree genetic variation Tree species in breeding or testing programs, 147-159 candidates for development, 6 en dangered/threa tene d, 4, 24, 77, 93, 161-181 gene flow and pollination mechanism by, 57-58 growth rates, 44 of industrial value, 93 inventory data, 25-26 management status of, 12-13, 93-95, 96 see also Temperate tree species; Tropical tree species; and under individual genera Trees amenity benefits of, 4, 33, 41 causes of losses, 26-29 comparison with agricultural crops, 32-33 crop rotations, 33 ecological benefits of, 1, 4, 33, 40-41 economic value of, 2, 4, 33, 37-39 genetic variation, 32-33; see also Structure of tree genetic variation land use systems, 41-45 nondestructive harvesting, 28, 39 plantations, 28-29; see also Industrial plantation forestry reproductive biology, 31 uses of, 1, 4, 33, 37-39 Trema species, 179, 190 Triplochiton scleroxylon, 158, 179, 194 Tropical Forestry Action Plan, 108

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228 1 Index Tropical forests distribution of, 21, 22 losses, 3-4 rain forests, 23, 26, 27 rehabilitation potential, 23 see also Dry tropical forests; Moist tropical forests Tropical tree species angiosperms, 64-65 genetic projects, 123 growth rates, 44 inventory needs, 6, 26 mating mechanisms, 14, 51, 52 pollen dispersal, 54-55 reserve size, 76 see also Tree species; and under individual genera Tsuga species, 86, 159 Tulip tree, 8, 59, 86, 153 Tunisia, seed sources for research, 197 U Ulmus species, 159, 179, 186 United Kingdom inventory of tree species, 25-26 Oxford Forestry Institute, 11, 47, 92, 121, 122-123, 127, 197 seed sources for research, 197 United Nations Development Program, 115 United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, 106 Man and the Biosphere Program, 82, 94, 102, 115-116 Scientific Advisory Panel for Biosphere Reserves, 107 United Nations Environment Program, 102, 104, 106, 111, 113-114, 115, 131 United States Agency for International Development, 112, 116, 124 Department of Agriculture ex situ conservation in, 104 Forest Service, 102, 123-124 roundwood production, 39 seed sources for research, 197-198 state programs, 124 V Venezuela, seed sources for research, 198 Vietnam, conservation activities in, 49, 121 Virola species, 180 Vitex species, 195 W Wasps, 54 Watershed management, 117 West Indian cedar, 119 West Indian pine, 12, 104 Western white pine, 67 Western yellow pine, 59 Widdringtonia species, 122 Wilderness areas, 102 Wildfires, 23 Wildlands program, 117 Willows, 33, 56, 157 Wood production, 4, 38, 102; see also Production forestry World Bank, 115 World Conservation Strategy, 111 World Wide Fund for Nature, 103, 111 World Wildlife Fund, 69, 103 Zaire, deforestation in, 118 Zambia in situ genetic reserves, 114 seed sources for research, 199 Zimbabwe, seed sources for research, 199

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Recent Publications of the Board on Agriculture Policy and Resources Managing Global Genetic Resources: The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (1991), 174 pp., ISBN 0-309-04390-5. Investing in Research: A Proposal to Strengthen the Agricultural, Food, and Environmental System (1989), 156 pp., ISBN 0-309-04127-9. Alternative Agriculture (1989), 464 pp., ISBN 0-309-03987-8; ISBN 0-309-03985-1 (pbk). Understanding Agriculture: New Directions for Education (1988), 80 pp., ISBN 0-309-03936-3. Designing Foods: Animal Product Options in the Marketplace (1988), 394 pp., ISBN 0-309-03798-0; ISBN 0-309-03795-6 (pbk). Agricultural Biotechnology: Strategies for National Competitiveness (1987), 224 pp., ISBN 0-309-03745-X. Regulating Pesticides in Food: The Delaney Paradox (1987), 288 pp., ISBN 0-309-03746-8. Pesticide Resistance: Strategies and Tactics for Management (1986), 480 pp., ISBN 0-309-03627-5. Pesticides and Groundwater Quality: Issues and Problems in Four States (1986), 136 pp., ISBN 0-309-03676-3. Soil Conservation: Assessing the National Resources Inventory, Volume 1 (1986), 134 pp., ISBN 0-309-03649-9. Soil Conservation: Assessing the National Resources Inventory, Volume 2 (1986), 314 pp., ISBN 0-309-03675-5. New Directions for Biosciences Research in Agriculture: High-Reward Opportunities (1985), 122 pp., ISBN 0-309-03542-2. Genetic Engineering of Plants: Agricultural Research Opportunities and Policy Concerns (1984), 96 pp., ISBN 0-309-03434-5. Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals Series and Related Titles Nutrient Requirements of Horses, Fifth Revised Edition (1989), 128 pp., ISBN 0-309-03989-4; diskette included. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, Sixth Revised Edition, Update 1989 (1989), 168 pp., ISBN 0-309-03826-X; diskette included. Nutrient Requirements of Swine, Ninth Revised Edition (1988), 96 pp., ISBN 0-309-03779-4. Vitamin Tolerance of Animals (1987), 105 pp., ISBN 0-309-03728-X. Predicting Feed Intake of Food-Producing Animals (1986), 95 pp., ISBN 0-309-03695-X. Nutrient Requirements of Cats, Revised Edition (1986), 87 pp., ISBN 0-309-03682-8. Nutrient Requirements of Dogs, Revised Edition (1985), 79 pp., ISBN 0-309-03496-5. Nutrient Requirements of Sheep, Sixth Revised Edition (1985), 106 pp., ISBN 0-309-03596-1. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, Sixth Revised Edition (1984), 90 pp., ISBN 0-309-03447-7. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, Eighth Revised Edition (1984), 71 pp., ISBN 0-309-03486-8. More information, additional titles (prior to 1984), and prices are available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20418, (202) 334-3313 (information only); (800) 624-6242 (orders only).

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