I
Introduction



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Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs I Introduction

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Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs This page in the original is blank.

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Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs 1 Introduction In 1985, Congress enacted two laws containing provisions concerning the care and use of animals in research, testing, and education: the Health Research Extension Act (Public Law 99-158) and the Food Security Act (Public Law 99-198). The former revised the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 289d) and made compliance with the Public Health Service (PHS) Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals a matter of law for all PHS-funded research. The latter extensively amended the Animal Welfare Act (7 U.S.C. 2131–2156). Both laws contain a requirement that institutions provide training for staff who care for or use animals. The regulations that implement the Animal Welfare Act specifically require that institutions provide training in: Humane methods of animal maintenance and experimentation, including: basic needs of each species of animal maintained at the institution; proper handling and care for various species of animals used by the facility; proper preprocedural and postprocedural care of animals; and aseptic surgical methods and procedures. The concept, availability, and use of research or testing methods that limit the use of animals or minimize animal distress; Proper use of anesthetics, analgesics, and tranquilizers for any species of animals used by the facility; Methods whereby deficiencies in animal care and treatment are reported, including deficiencies in animal care and treatment reported by any employee of the facility. Utilization of services available to provide information: on appropriate methods of animal care and use; on alternatives to the use of live animals in research;

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Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs that could prevent unintended and unnecessary duplication of research involving animals; and regarding the intent and requirements of the Act. PHS policy requires that PHS-funded institutions file an Animal Welfare Assurance that must include ''a synopsis of training or instruction in the humane practice of animal care and use, as well as training or instruction in research or testing methods that minimize the number of animals required to obtain valid results and minimize animal distress, offered to scientists, animal technicians, and other personnel involved in animal care, treatment, oruse" (PHS, 1986, p. 4). The Committee on Educational Programs in Laboratory Animal Science (EPLAS) has prepared this guide to aid institutions in implementing an education and training program that will meet the expectations of the PHS Office for Protection from Research Risks (OPRR), which oversees the PHS policy, and the Regulatory Enforcement and Animal Care (REAC) unit of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, which regulates the Animal Welfare Act. This guide has been designed to fulfill several purposes. First, it is intended to assist institutional officials and institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs) in determining the scope and depth of education and training programs that will meet both institutional needs and the requirements of the OPRR and REAC. Second, it is offered as a reference for the person or committee assigned the responsibility for coordinating these programs. Finally, portions of the guide will be useful to those people (content experts) who develop the material to be presented. The EPLAS committee firmly believes that a strong education program on the care and use of laboratory animals goes beyond the involvement of scientists, research technicians, and animal care personnel. To promote understanding of the scientific process and minimize misunderstandings, the committee suggests that administrators, nonscientific members of IACUCs, support staff, and other nonscientific personnel indirectly involved in activities using live animals be included in the program. To accomodate the diverse backgrounds and needs of personnel, the committee has developed a multiphase program. Those topics considered essential elements for all personnel have been arranged into a single introductory module (core module). The core module has intentionally been designed as a broad overview that can be presented in 3 to 4 hours. The overall goals are to give personnel an appreciation of the scope and intent of the laws, regulations, and policies and to facilitate compliance by providing them with pertinent information and by directing them to additional skill training and resources. The IACUC and the course coordinator are responsible for developing clear objectives for each phase of the training program. These objectives must incorporate both federally mandated and institutional requirements. The methods for presenting the material will depend on the audience, the objectives that have been set, the nature of the content, and the resources available. This committee recognizes that people who provide day-to-day animal care require additional training that goes beyond the scope and content proposed in this document. There is no suggestion that the program proposed in this report should in any way replace

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Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs existing programs such as those offered by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (AALAS). We also recognize that the approach we have taken will require considerable time and planning by the instructional staff; however, the committee believes that the suggested program provides the necessary information without encumbering scientific personnel with hours of training in species or research techniques inappropriate to their needs. We believe the strategy we have adopted fulfills the requirements of the PHS policy and the regulations of the Animal Welfare Act, while being flexible enough to serve the needs of the wide variety of institutions that must comply with these requirements. Reference PHS (Public Health Service). 1986. Animal welfare assurance. P. 4 in Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Copies available from: Office for Protection from Research Risks, Building 31, Room 4B09, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892

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Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs 2 How to Use this Guide To fully understand this guide, all of the introductory material in Part I should be read before proceeding to Part II. Part II contains four course modules that can be customized to fit the needs of the institution's education and training program. The first of these, the core module, is intended for all personnel involved both directly and peripherally with laboratory animals used in research, education, and testing, and for some of these people, it will satisfy the total educational requirement. The other three modules are intended for select groups of personnel according to their need to know. Species-specific sessions, with hands-on training, should be provided for all people who will be in direct contact with animals. In addition, the pain-management and surgery modules should be offered if they are applicable to the institution's needs. These modules are hierarchical. The species-specific module builds on introductory material in the core. The pain module builds on both the core and the species-specific modules, while the surgery module requires information and skills presented in all three preceding modules. The modules furnish major topic headings and provide a cross-reference to Part III, which contains detailed outlines of the material contained in the modules. This cross-referencing indicates the depth of presentation within the module. For example, both the Core Module and the Pain-Management Module show anesthetics as a topic and refer to the content outline in chapter 6. However, the Core Module draws primarily from the first point in chapter 6 (i.e., 6.1), while the Pain-Management Module recommends covering the entire outline. Content experts asked to deliver information or teach skills should be provided with both the module outline and the corresponding content outlines from Part III. In addition to guiding the speakers, these outlines can also be used to select alternative (e.g., audiovisual, computer-aided, and independent-study) instructional

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Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs materials. Some sections might also be useful as handouts. Permission for limited reproduction of portions of this book for educational purposes, but not for sale, may be granted on receipt of a written request to the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, Washington, DC 20418. Part IV lists audiovisual and computer-aided teaching materials and cites organizations that can furnish information on the topics recommended for presentation. It also includes a bibliography. The references that the committee believes are essential for a minimum institutional library have been designated by an asterisk. The three chapters that make up Part V may be helpful to some IACUCs and course coordinators. They present very basic material on how to approach the task of education and training, how to plan and deliver a lecture-based program, and how to evaluate the institutional program and individual courses. Three appendixes provide a set of principles adopted by the federal government for the humane care and use of animals, a description of the Animal Welfare Information Center of the National Agricultural Library, and a series of statements that can be used by course coordinators for developing learning objectives or by participants for self-assessment.

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