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Finding Common Ground: U.S. Export Controls in a Changed Global Environment
CoCom (Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls)
a nontreaty organization that cooperatively restricts strategic exports to controlled countries. It consists of 17 member nations: Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
in general parlance, any article, material, or supply. As used in this report, it refers to an item characterized by widespread availability and low cost; the term is used in association with the concept of controllability.
the June 1990 CoCom High-Level Meeting produced a commitment on the part of the members to further reductions in the number of controlled-item categories. The result of this exercise is to be a sharply reduced list of controlled items.
the tendency of foreign companies to design-out U.S. products, components, or suppliers in order to avoid U.S. reexport controls.
Defense industrial base
refers to the complex of industries, skilled personnel, and technologies needed to manufacture today's—and tomorrow's—sophisticated weapons systems.
shipment of militarily significant dual use items to unapproved end users, either directly, through the export of controlled items without a license (i.e., smuggling), or indirectly, through transshipment using a complex chain of untraceable reexports.
in the context of this report, items that have both military and commercial applications.
in the context of this report, refers to the former Soviet allies in the Warsaw Treaty Organization.
a legal prohibition on commerce.
the data and know-how required to design and produce a product or its components. This includes knowledge regarding design systems, materials processing, manufacturing processes, or components thereof.
the purpose or application for which controlled commodities or technical data will be used by a consignee.
covert efforts to obtain illicitly—by theft, bribery, or black-mail—protected information or technology that is classified or of relevance to military systems.
in the context of this report, the assertion by the U.S. government that its export control regulations govern trade in U.S.-controlled commodities and technical data of U.S. origin outside the territorial boundaries of the United States.