crease his or her productivity. The personal computer will surely become one of the building blocks of the future IMC system; it already has, to some extent. Other such standardized solutions must be found.

The panel recognizes that real-world management cannot abruptly move into the world of IMC—that move will have to be economically justified and made incrementally. IMC cannot simply be dropped into place in the manufacturing world. Its adoption is an evolutionary process that will have to be engineered to suit different environments. In a world economy, this is a vital process.

NOTES

1. Bohn, R. and R. Jaikumar. 1989. The Dynamic Approach: An Alternative Paradigm for Operations Management. Harvard Business School Working Paper No. 88011. Boston, Mass.: Revised August 1989.

2. There is a special reason for concentrating on the statistical aspects when introducing a program of better quality at lower cost in a going operation. They are more tangible than other quality control aspects and can be presented in a more interesting and appealing manner. The preparation of a list of trouble spots converted to costs per unit period, and plotted as one would a curve of cumulative wealth, will point out the operations where X (average) and R (range) charts should first be applied. (Juran, J.M. Quality Control Handbook. 1962. 2d ed. McGrawHill Book Company, New York, N.Y.)

3. The project was abandoned due to lack of continuing funding. ITI worked with the NASA sponsored Center for Autonomous Man-controlled Robotic and Sensing Systems, located at the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan. For further information, contact Dr. Robert J. Bieringer, Manager, Sensors and Control Systems Engineering, Industrial Technology Institute, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

4. Jaikumar, R. and R. Bohn. 1986. The Development of Intelligent Systems for Industrial Use: A Conceptual Framework. Research on Technological Innovation, Management, and Policy. 3:169-211. Boston, Mass.: JAI Press, Inc.

5. Jaikumar, R. 1986. Postindustrial Manufacturing. Harvard Business Review (November-December) 69-76. Reprint No. 86606.

6. Clark, K., R. Henderson, and R. Jaikumar. 1989. A Perspective on Computer Integrated Manufacturing Tools. Harvard Business School Working Paper No. 88-048. Boston, Mass.: Revised January 1989.

7. This scenario was adapted from material provided by E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company and is used with that company's permission.

8. Jaikumar, R. 1990. An architecture for a process control costing system. Chapter 7 in Measures for Manufacturing Excellence, R. S. Kaplan, ed. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press. 193-222.



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