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THE COMPETITIVE EDGE: Research Priorities for U.S. Manufacturing THE COMPETITIVE EDGE Research Priorities for U.S. Manufacturing Committee on Analysis of Research Directions and Needs in U.S. Manufacturing Manufacturing Studies Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1991
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THE COMPETITIVE EDGE: Research Priorities for U.S. Manufacturing NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This study was supported by Contract No. DMC-8717382 between the National Science Foundation and the National Academy of Sciences. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data The Competitive edge : research priorities for U.S. manufacturing : report of the Committee on Analysis of Research Directions and Needs in U.S. Manufacturing, Manufacturing Studies Board, Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, National Research Council. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references (p. ) and index. ISBN 0-309-04385-9 : $24.95 1. Production engineering—Research—United States. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Analysis of Research Directions and Needs in U.S. Manufacturing. TS176.C6 1991 91-17465 658.5'072073—dc20 CIP Copyright © 1991 by the National Academy of Sciences No part of this book may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic, or electronic process, or in the form of a phonographic recording, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, or otherwise copied for public or private use, without written permission from the publisher, except for the purposes of official use by the United States Government. Printed in the United States of America First Printing July 1991 Second Printing October 1992
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THE COMPETITIVE EDGE: Research Priorities for U.S. Manufacturing COMMITTEE ON ANALYSIS OF RESEARCH DIRECTIONS AND NEEDS IN U.S. MANUFACTURING CYRIL M. PIERCE, Chairman, General Manager, Manufacturing and Quality Technology Department, GE Aircraft Engines, Cincinnati, Ohio AVAK AVAKIAN, Vice President (retired), GTE Government Systems, Concord, Massachusetts GERARDO BENI, Director, Center for Robotics Systems in Microelectronics, University of California, Santa Barbara WILLIAM G. HOWARD, JR., Senior Fellow, National Academy of Engineering, Scottsdale, Arizona RAMCHANDRAN JAIKUMAR, Professor of Business Administration, Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts JOEL MOSES, Dean of Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge GUSTAV J. OLLING, Chief, Automotive Research and CAD/CAM User Systems, Chrysler Corporation, Highland Park, Michigan HRIDAY R. PRASAD, Manager of Technology Planning, North American Automotive Manufacturing Operations, Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, Michigan A. TIM SHERROD, President, Savant Solutions Company, Menlo Park, California DAN L. SHUNK, Director, CIM Systems Research Center, Arizona State University, Tempe JAMES C. WILLIAMS, General Manager, Engineering Materials Technology Laboratory, General Electric Company, Cincinnati, Ohio MICHAEL J. WOZNY, Director, Rensselaer Design Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York Staff VERNA J. BOWEN, Staff Assistant (from Dec. 17, 1989) LUCY V. FUSCO, Staff Assistant THOMAS C. MAHONEY, Acting Director KAREN L. MILLAN, Staff Assistant (until Dec. 16, 1989) KERSTIN B. POLLACK, Study Director; MSB Director for Program Development; MSB Deputy Director JOHN SIMON, Consultant, Writer-Editor ERIC A. THACKER, Research Associate (until Aug. 10, 1990)
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THE COMPETITIVE EDGE: Research Priorities for U.S. Manufacturing MANUFACTURING STUDIES BOARD JAMES F. LARDNER, Chairman, Vice President (Retired), Component Group, Deere & Company, Davenport, Iowa MATTHEW O. DIGGS, JR., Chairman, The Diggs Group, Dayton, Ohio CHARLES P. FLETCHER, Vice President of Engineering, Aluminum Company of America, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania HEINZ K. FRIDRICH, Vice President, Manufacturing, IBM Corporation, Purchase, New York DAVID A. GARVIN, Professor, Business Administration, Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts LEONARD A. HARVEY, Secretary of Commerce, Labor, and Environmental Resources, State of West Virginia (Retired), Vienna, West Virginia CHARLES W. HOOVER, JR., Professor, Department of Industrial and Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, New York JOEL MOSES, Dean of Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge LAURENCE C. SEIFERT, Vice President, Communications and Computer Products, Sourcing and Manufacturing, AT&T Company, Bridgewater, New Jersey JOHN M. STEWART, Director, McKinsey and Company, Inc., New York, New York WILLIAM J. USERY, JR., President, Bill Usery Associates, Inc., Washington, D.C. HERBERT B. VOELCKER, Charles Lake Professor of Engineering, Sibley School of Mechanical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York Staff VERNA J. BOWEN, Staff Assistant DANA G. CAINES, Staff Associate LUCY V. FUSCO, Staff Assistant THEODORE W. JONES, Research Associate THOMAS C. MAHONEY, Acting Director KERSTIN B. POLLACK, Deputy Director, and Director of New Program Development MICHAEL L. WITMORE, Research Assistant
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THE COMPETITIVE EDGE: Research Priorities for U.S. Manufacturing Preface The Committee on Analysis of Research Directions and Needs in U.S. Manufacturing was charged by the National Science Foundation (NSF) with (1) identifying and ranking manufacturing-related technologies and disciplines to produce a comprehensive national manufacturing research agenda, and (2) performing in-depth analyses of some of the technologies and disciplines identified in that agenda. Concluding that the most important purpose of university efforts in manufacturing engineering and technology is to attract the most capable students to manufacturing careers, the committee determined that a national research agenda should address topics that encourage and develop students and faculty, while meeting industry's needs for new technology and high-leverage technical concepts. The committee reasoned that the audience for such an agenda extended beyond the program directors in the NSF's engineering directorate to the research community in government, industry, and academe. The nature of manufacturing suggests a research spectrum ranging from concept definition to proof of concept feasibility to development of applications and implementation mechanisms. The committee reasoned that if problems are carefully selected and thoughtfully researched the results will provide the basis for practical application, and therefore agreed to focus on only the front end of this spectrum —definition and proof of concept. The committee nevertheless recognizes that improving the pipeline from concept to commercial viability is also an important issue in U.S. manufacturing.
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THE COMPETITIVE EDGE: Research Priorities for U.S. Manufacturing The committee established four criteria for qualifying and ranking research: each project should be researchable within NSF's or other government agencies' accepted guidelines, and results should be available within a reasonable time frame; the research results should be useful in multiple industrial applications and provide capabilities and experience that advance manufacturing operations and competitiveness; research results should promote fundamental change in management practice and culture; and each project should expand scientific research relevant to manufacturing problems, encourage academic researchers to emphasize an interdisciplinary approach, and promote greater rapport between researchers and practitioners. Interdisciplinary topics and problems in soft areas—e.g., management, human resources, and education—were deemed as important as the technology issues. The committee decided that the best way to handle soft issues is to encourage researchers to study new technologies and disciplines and their implications for managers, workers, and organizations concurrently. When shortcomings are evident in existing practices in these areas, however, the committee agreed to include relevant research topics in the comprehensive agenda. The committee then subdivided manufacturing into six categories and nominated panels to develop research recommendations in each: intelligent manufacturing control, equipment reliability and maintenance, manufacturing of and with advanced engineered materials, manufacturing skills improvement, rapid product realization, and alternative concepts in manufacturing. Subsequently, it was decided to narrow the categories further. Materials developed by the panel on alternative concepts in manufacturing were used to help develop an overview of the report and to add management and organizational issues to what were initially largely technology-oriented materials on the product realization process (“rapid” was dropped from the descriptor for that category because it was thought to be implicit). The final report thus recommends research in five general areas:
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THE COMPETITIVE EDGE: Research Priorities for U.S. Manufacturing Intelligent Manufacturing Control Equipment Reliability and Maintenance Manufacturing of and with Advanced Engineered Materials The Product Realization Process Manufacturing Skills Improvement CYRIL M. PIERCE, Chairman Committee on Analysis of Research Directions and Needs in U.S. Manufacturing
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THE COMPETITIVE EDGE: Research Priorities for U.S. Manufacturing The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
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THE COMPETITIVE EDGE: Research Priorities for U.S. Manufacturing Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 1 OVERVIEW 3 Changing Ground Rules of Manufacturing Competitiveness, 9 A Three-Pronged Theoretical Basis, 11 Barriers to Competitiveness, 16 Steps for Changing, 18 Findings of the Panels, 20 Vision, 22 Notes, 24 2 INTELLIGENT MANUFACTURING CONTROL 25 Importance, 28 Vision, 30 Present and Future Practice, 33 Prioritized Research Recommendations, 49 Mechanisms for Diffusion and Implementation, 51 Notes, 53 3 EQUIPMENT RELIABILITY AND MAINTENANCE 54 Importance, 55 Present Practice, 57 Vision, 63
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THE COMPETITIVE EDGE: Research Priorities for U.S. Manufacturing Barriers to Progress, 66 Research Needs, 70 Notes, 77 4 MANUFACTURING OF AND WITH ADVANCED ENGINEERED MATERIALS 78 State of the Art, 79 Vision, 83 Challenges, 84 Research Needs, 92 Note, 97 5 PRODUCT REALIZATION PROCESS 98 Importance, 100 Vision, 101 Present Practice, 103 Research Needs, 113 Note, 119 6 MANUFACTURING SKILLS IMPROVEMENT 120 Importance, 122 Barriers and Challenges, 126 Research Needs and General Recommendations, 130 Notes, 139 BIBLIOGRAPHY 140 APPENDIXES A Selected Employment Data 147 B Panels of the Committee on Analysis of Research Directions and Needs in U.S. Manufacturing 153 INDEX 161
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THE COMPETITIVE EDGE: Research Priorities for U.S. Manufacturing THE COMPETITIVE EDGE
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