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Appendix B Biographies of Committee Members FLOYD E. BLOOM, M.D. (Chair), Chairman, Department of Neu- ropharmacology, Research Institute of Scripps Clinic, La Jolla, California. Gained as a neuropharmacologist after developing an interest in the sites and mechanisms by which drugs control hypertension within the brain, Dr. Bloom worked at the National Institute of Mental Health, and at Yale University before moving to the Salk Institute in 1975. After a productive period of research there, he transferred his base of operations to the nearby Research Institute of Scripps Clinic in 1983 to re-establish the medical en- vironment which has always played a major shaping role in his selection of research topics. An active neuroscientist and past Chairman of the National Academy's neurobiology section, Dr. Bloom has pursued science policy issues through his election as president of the Society of Neuro- science, and through election to the Council of the IOM and the Board of Directors for the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He previously has served the Academy Complex as the study director for the Third Five Year Outlook on Science and Technology, and as chairman of the COSEPUP Briefing Paper for OSTP on the Neurosciences. HENRY ~ AARON, Ph.D., Senior Fellow, The Brookings Institution, Washington, D.C. Dr. Aaron joined the staff of the Brookings Institution as a senior fellow in 1968. He became a member of the Department of Economics at the University of Maryland in 1967 and was promoted to professor in 1973. He is a member of the Board of Directors of Abt Associates, Inc. He attended college at UCLA and graduate school at 230

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BIOGRAPHIES OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS 231 Harvard University, from which he received a Ph.D. in economics. Before joining the faculty at Maryland and the staff at Brookings, he served as a staff member of the President's Council of Economic Advisers. His tenure at Brookings and the University of Maryland was interrupted in 1977 and 1978 when he served as assistant secretary for planning and evaluation at the Department of Health, Education and Welfare. He chaired the 1979 Advisory Council on Social Security and chaired the panel on housing allowance experiments of the Department of Housing and Urban Development. He has been a distinguished policy fellow at the University of California's Graduate School of Public Policy and a visiting professor at Harvard University. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine. JACK D. BARCHAS, M.D., Associate Dean for Neuroscience at UCLA School of Medicine and Professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences. Dr. Barchas obtained his medical degree at Yale, and took his internship at the Pritzker School of Medicine of the Univer- sity of Chicago. He received his postdoctoral training at the NIH, and his psychiatry residency at Stanford where he was a faculty member through 1989. At Stanford, he held the Nancy Friend Pritzker Professorship and was Associate Chairman of the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. Dr. Barchas is a member of the Institute of Medicine and chairs the Board on Biobehavioral Science and Mental Disorders. The thrust of Dr. Barchas' research has dealt with neuroregulators and behavior. A major theme of his efforts has been devoted to: (1) identification of previ- ously unrecognized neuroregulators, especially neuropeptides; (2) study of fundamental control mechanisms for the neuroregulators, using analytical neurochemistry and biochemical neuroanatomy; and (3) exploration of the roles of neuroregulators in animal and human behavior as well as in human mental disorders and addictive states. RONALD BRESLOW, Ph.D., Mitchell Professor of Chemistry, Depart- ment of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York. Dr. Breslow is a physical organic chemist who also works on biochemical problems. He and his students and postdoctoral fellows design new molecules,-synthesize them, and then determine if their properties are as interesting as was hoped. An important example is the cyclopropenyl cation, the simplest aromatic system. In another area he designed and studied catalysts that were the first to be described as artificial enzymes, and he created and named the held of biochemetic chemistry. Dr. Breslow has been a faculty member of the Columbia chemistry department since 1956, but he has also served on the Board of Trustees of Rockefeller University and is a past chairman of the chemistry section of the National Academy of Sciences.

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232 APPENDIX B HOWARD E. FREEMAN, Ph.D., Professor of Sociology, University of California at Los Angeles. Professor Freeman joined UCLA in 1974 after serving as the Ford Foundation's social science advisor for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. Dr. Freeman was the founding director of UCLA's Institute for Social Science Research, a position he held from 1974 until 1981. During his directorship, ISSR became a national policy research and evaluation center, undertaking applied studies in a broad range of social problem areas. He served as chair of his department from 1985 to 1989. Prior appointments include Brandeis University, where he was Morse Professor of Urban Studies, Harvard University, and Russell Sage Foundation. Dr. Freeman has published extensively in the health and mental health fields, on the post-hospital experience of mental patients, on policy issues in the delivery of health services, and on applied research methods. His monograph, The Mental Parent Comes Home, was awarded the Hofheimer Prize of the American Psychiatric Association. He is the co-editor of the Handbook of Medical Sociology, now in its fourth edition. Professor Freeman's text with Peter H. Rossi, Evaluation: A Systematic Approach, also in its fourth edition, is used widely in social program evaluation courses each year. He is the co-editor of Evaluation Review, and on the editorial boards of other social research and health care journals. He serves as a consultant to national foundations, a number of government groups, and several international research organizations. MANNA HOLBORN GRAY, Ph.D., President and Professor of History. The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. Dr. Gray became the 10th President of the University of Chicago on July 1, 1978, after having served as provost and acting president at Yale University. She is an historian witI special interests in the history of humanism, political and historical thought and politics in the Renaissance and Reformation. She taught at Bryn Maw: from 1953 to 1954, Harvard from 1955 to 1960, and the University 0 Chicago from 1961 to 1974. She is a fellow of the American Academ' of Arts and Sciences; a member of the Renaissance Society of America the American Philosophical Society, the National Academy of Education and the Board of Overseers of Harvard University; and a trustee of BY Mawr College, the National Humanities Center, the Andrew W. Mello Foundation, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and the Center to Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences. In addition, Dr. Gray is member of the boards of directors of J.P. Morgan & Company/Morga Guarantee, the Cummins Engine Company, Atlantic Richfield Compan, and Ameritech. Dr. Gray received her B.N from Bryn Mawr College an her Ph.D. in history from HaIvard. She also holds honorary degrees frog a number of institutions of higher learning.

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BIOGRAPHIES OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS 233 BERNADINE MEALY, M.D., Chairman, Research Institute of The Cleve- land Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio. Dr. Healy graduated from Vassar College (1965) and Harvard Medical School (1970) and was a professor of medicine and cardiology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine through the mid-1980s. During 1984-85, she was deputy science advisor and associate director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy. Dr. Healy is currently vice-chairman of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (President Bush's advisory panel under Dr. Allan Bromley) and serves on the Special Medical Advisory Committee of the Department of Veterans Affairs. Besides being a member of the Institute of Medicine, she is chairman of the Office of Technology Assess- ment's Advisory Panel for New Developments in Biotechnology and serves on the Director's Advisory Committee/National Institutes of Health and on the Council on Research and Development of the Ohio Board of Re- gents. She was president of the American Heart Association (1988-89) and the American Federation for Clinical Research (1983-84), and presently serves on the Board of Overseers of Harvard College and several corporate boards. SAMUEL HELLMAN, M.D., Dean, Division of Biological Sciences and the Pritzker School of Medicine, and Vice President for the Medical Center, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. Dr. Hellman assumed his duties at the University of Chicago in September 1988. Prior to this, he was physician-in-chief of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Hospital for Cancer and Allied Diseases from 1983-1988 and concurrently held the Benno C. Schmidt Chair in Clinical Oncology at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. In addition, Dr. Hellman was professor of radiation oncology at Cornell University Medical College from 1984-1988. Before joining Sloan- Kettering, Dr. Hellman served as chairman of the Department of Radiation Therapy at the Harvard Medical School where he was the Alvin T. and Viola D. Fuller-American Cancer Society Professor. He was director of the Joint Center for Radiation Therapy at the Harvard Medical School. Simultaneously, he served as chief of radiation therapy at a number of major hospitals in Boston. Dr. Hellman has been active in both clinical and laboratory investigation. He has been involved in studies of breast cancer and lymphoma. Dr. Hellman serves as chairman of the board of Allegheny College, where he received his B.S. degree magna cum laude in 1955. He is also a member of the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Hellman received the Richard and Hilda Rosenthal Foundation Award for Clinical Research of the American Association for Cancer Research in 1980.

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234 APPENDIX B MAUREEN HENDERSON, M.D., Professor of Epidemiology and Medi- cine, University of Washington, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Cen- ter, Seattle, Washington. Dr. Henderson began her career in preven- tive medicine and clinical epidemiological research in London at St. Bartholomew's Hospital and extended it at the University of Maryland and Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. She returned to research in Seattle after ten years in academic administration. She has maintained an active interest in preventive intervention trials and is currently head of the Cancer Prevention Research Program at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. Her initial research was in the prevention of chronic lung disease. She then became a founding investigator in the multicenter national trials to control hypertension and prevent coronary heart disease. Most recently, she has been responsible for one of the ground breaking re- search programs in cancer prevention. Dr. Henderson obtained her medical and public health degrees from the University of Durham in England. RALPH HORWITZ, M.D., Professor of Medicine and Epidemiology at the Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. Dr. Horwitz is co-director of the Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Pro- gram and chief of the General Medicine Section. In his research, Dr. Horwitz has studied the fundamental methods used to evaluate the strate- gies of clinical care. He has conducted numerous investigations of the etiology, prognosis, and treatment of disease. Dr. Horwitz has proposed new methods for improving scientific design in non-experimental research and scientific quality in basic data, and he has demonstrated the prag- matic application and effectiveness of these methods. He was a recipient of the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation Faculty Scholar Award and the Alumni Fellow Award of the Pennsylvania State University. Dr. Horwitz is a member of the American Society for Clinical Investigation and the American Epidemiological Society. He is a fellow of the American College of Physicians and the American College of Epidemiology. ERNEST G. JAWORSKI, Ph.D., Distinguished Science Fellow and Di- rector of Biological Sciences, Corporate Research and Development, Mon- santo Company, St. Louis, Missouri. Dr. Jaworski has been with Monsanto since 1952 and currently actively oversees a large group of scientists whose research is devoted to several areas: plant molecular biology, chemistry, molecular genetics, and mammalian cell biology. Dr. Jaworski's work has included research on fungicides, herbicides, residue metabolism, animal growth and nutrition, plant molecular and cellular biology, and human health care product discovery. He received both his M.S. degree and Ph.D. from Oregon State University in biochemistry. Some of his current pro- fessional activities include: board member of the NutraSweet Company; fellow, American Society for Advancement of Science; member, National

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BIOGRAPHIES OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS 235 Research Council; member, UCLA Symposia Board; and board member of Oxford Glycosystems, Ltd. GERALD L KLERMAN, Ph.D., Professor of Psychiatry and Associate Chairman for Research, Department of Psychiatry, Cornell University Med- ical College, New York, New York. Dr. Klerman is a psychiatrist with major involvement in clinical research, particularly in the evaluation of treatments as they influence mental health policy. He received his B.N from Cornell University in 1950, and his M.D. from New York University in 1954. Follow- ing internship and residency in internal medicine and neurology at Bellevue Hospital in New York (1954-1956), he took his psychiatric residency train- ing in Boston at the Massachusetts Mental Health Center (1956-1958~. He has served on the faculties of Harvard and Yale. From 1977-1980, he was the administrator of the Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Admin- istration in the Public Health Service for which he received a Superior Service Award from the Public Health Service. His research activities focus on securing a more firm scientific base for clinical psychiatry. For these activities he has won a number of awards, including the American Psychi- atric Association Hofheimer Award, 197~, the Foundation Fund Award; the Anna Monika Prize; and the William Menninger Memorial Award from the American College of Physicians. THOMAS LANGFITT M.D. (ex officio member), President and Chief Executive Officer, The Glenmede Must Company and the Pew Charitable [lusts, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Prior to joining Glenmede, Dr. Langfitt had been a faculty member at the University of Pennsylvania for twenty- five years. During that time he served as professor and director of the Division of Neurosurgery and was also vice president for health affairs. Over the course of his career he made numerous contributions toward the advancement of neurosurgery and neurosciences through research, teach- ing, professional affiliations, and more than 200 published articles. He is a graduate of Princeton University and the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. His post-graduate training in general surgery, neurosurgery, and research in the neurosciences was conducted at the Johns Hopkins Medical School and Hospital. Dr. Langfitt is a charter trustee of Princeton University. He sewes on the boards of directors of the Sun Company and the New York Life Insurance Company and on the U.S. Board of SmithKline Beecham. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and the American Philosophical Society, and selves on the Medical Advisory Committee of the General Motors Corporation. JOSHUA LEDERBERG, Ph.D., University Professor, the Rockefeller University, New York, New York. Dr. Lederberg is a research geneticist and was educated at Columbia and Yale University, where he pioneered in

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236 APPENDIX B the field of bacterial genetics with the discovery of genetic recombination in bacteria. In 1958, at the age of 33, Dr. Lederberg received the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for his work and subsequent research on bacterial agents. Dr. Lederberg was a professor of genetics at the University of Wisconsin and then at Stanford University School of Medicine, until he came to the Rockefeller University in 1978. At Stanford, he was also a professor of computer science, working in research in artificial intelligence in biochemistry and medicine. A member of the National Academy of Sciences since 1957, and a charter member of the Institute of Medicine, Dr. Lederberg has been active on many government advisory committees and boards, such as NIH study sections and the National Advisory Mental Health Council, and has served as chairman of the President's Cancer Panel. Dr. Lederberg played an active role in NASA's Mariner and Viking missions to Mars. He is also involved in national security affairs as a member of the Defense Science Board, and currently serves on the congressional Technology Assessment Advisory Council. He chairs Annual Reviews, Inc. a cooperative non-profit scientific publisher, and serves on the boards of the Chemical Industry Institute for Toxicology, and several foundations as well as the Procter and Gamble Co. and the Institute for Scientific Information. He is currently co-chair of the Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology and Government. Dr. Lederberg has been awarded numerous honorary D.Sc. and M.D. degrees as well as foreign membership in the Royal Society, London. ARIEL G. LOEWSc, Ph.D., Jack and Barbara Bush Professor in the Nat- ural Sciences and Chairman, Department of Biology, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania. Dr. Loewy came to Haverford College in 1953 and was appointed chairperson of the department in 1954. He developed a new curriculum centered on molecular and cell biology and on undergraduate research. In his research, Dr. Loewy demonstrated that actin and myosin were present in non-muscle cells, purified Factor XIII from blood plasma and showed that it crosslinked fibrin with isopeptide bonds and discovered a pytomatrix of covalently-crosslinked superfine filaments. His recent work is concerned with an enzyme capable of depolymerizing crosslinked fibrin by breaking isopeptide bonds. For his work on Factor XIII, Dr. Loewy received in 1973 the James F. Mitchell Foundation International Award for Cardiovascular Research. Dr. Loewy received his B.S. and M.S. degrees from McGill University and his Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania. He received an NIH postdoctoral fellowship to work at the Department of Physical Chemistry at Harvard Medical School and a National Research Council Fellowship to work at the Biochemistry Department of Cambridge University in England.

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BIOGRAPHIES OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS 2~37 DON K. PRICE, Ph.D., Professor of Public Management, Emeritus, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Mr. Price wrote the classic science policy texts The Scien- tific Estate (1956), Government and Science (1954), and Amer~ca's Unwritten Constitution: Science, Religion, and Political Responsibili~1983~. His schol- arship in other fields has been prolific as well, and he served for nearly twenty years as dean of the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. As a science policymaker and advisor, he has served as deputy chairman of the Defense Department Research and Development Board, director of the Social Science Research Council, vice president of the Ford Foundation, board chairman of the Twentieth Century Fund, and president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He also worked with former President Herbert Hoover on the Hoover Commission study of the organization of the U.S. Presidency and served as consultant to the Executive Office of the President during three admin- istrations. Mr. Price was educated at Vanderbilt and Oxford Universities, the latter during his tenure as a Rhodes scholar. Currently, he is Albert J. Weatherhead III and Richard W. Weatherhead Professor of Public Manage- ment, Emeritus in the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard Universitr. KENNETH SHINE, M.D., Dean, School of Medicine, University of Cal- ifornia at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California. Prior to being named dean in 1986 Dr. Shine was professor and executive chair of the UCLA Department of Medicine. Dr. Shine is a noted heart researcher, cardiol- ogist, and teacher with a special interest in ischemic heart disease. He is a past president of the American Heart Association. Dr. Shine was born In Worcester, Massachusetts, in 1935. He earned his bachelor's degree in biochemical sciences in 1957 and his doctor of medicine degree in 1961, both from Harvard. He served his internship and residency in medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston before coming to UCLA in 1969 as a National Institutes of Health Special Postdoctoral Fellow. From 1970 to 1971, he served as assistant professor of medicine at Harvard and director of cardiovascular training for Beth Israel Hospital in Boston. Dr. Shine returned to UCLA in 1971 as an assistant professor of medicine and director of the coronary care unit at the UCLA Medical Center. He was appointed associate professor in 1973, chief of the division of cardiology in 1975, professor in 1977, vice-chair of the Department of Medicine in 1979, and executive chair of the department in 1981. He has received the UCLA Department of Medicine's Teacher of the Year award three times and has authored over 50 research articles. He has been selected as a visiting professor to medical schools throughout the world.

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2~8 APPENDIX B ~ DENNIS SMITH, Ph.D., Chairman, Department of Biological Sci- ences, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan. Dr. Smith received his undergraduate education in biology at Loyola College in Baltimore and his doctoral training in genetics at the University of North Carolina. Following a postdoctorate at the University of Connecticut, he joined the faculty of Emory University in Atlanta. At Emory, Dr. Smith organized the Inter- departmental Program in Genetics, serving as its first director from 1977 through 1983. In 1984, Dr. Smith accepted the position of professor and chairman of the Department of Biological Sciences at Southern Methodist University and, in 1989, joined Wayne State University in Detroit as pro- fessor and chairman of Biological Sciences. Dr. Smith's research program is focused on the analysis of DNA repair and mutagenesis in eukaryotes, using mutagen-sensitive strains of Drosophila melanogaster. He has received support from the National Institutes of Health, the Environmental Protec- tion Agency, the Air Force, the American Cancer Society, and a variety of private research foundations.