Index

A

Academic research,

see University research

Accretion disks, 29–30, 35, 41–42, 72, 82

Active galaxies, 40–42, 59, 64, 73, 88

Active optics, 82

Adaptive optics, 58, 76, 82–83, 85, 88, 113

Advanced Composition Explorer, 38

Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), 15, 26, 34, 38, 42, 50, 53, 63, 64–65, 68, 76

Airborne telescopes, 5, 66–67, 117

KAO, 41, 61, 67, 75, 77, 78, 79, 156

SOFIA, 5, 23, 25, 32, 35, 38, 67, 77, 78–79, 80

Air Force Office of Scientific Research, 113

Airshower detector, 70–71, 90, 111

American Astronomical Association, 114, 150–152

Andromeda Galaxy, 39

Anglo-Australian Telescope, 96

Apollo program, 103

Archiving, 95–97, 98–99

ARC telescope, 57

Arecibo telescope, 59–60, 61

Aristotle, 44–45

Asteroids, 31–32

ASTRO telescope, 68

ASTRO-D, 50, 67

Astrometric Interferometry Mission (AIM), 5, 23–24, 85

Astronomical Image Processing System (AIPS), 93, 95, 97

Astrophysical Data System, 98

Atmospheric processes, 33, 75, 127

climate and weather, 8, 32–33, 126–127

image quality and, 80, 82–83, 101, 104

Jupiter, 28, 61, 127

Mars, 10, 127

ozone layer, 127

Pluto, 10, 33 see also

Planetary atmospheres

B

Baade, W., 36

Berkeley, University of California, 60

Beryllium, 26, 62

Big Bang, 8, 9, 28, 29, 44–47, 48, 51, 52, 54, 71

Biological/organic evolution

comets, 31–32

extraterrestrial intelligence, 62

interstellar media, 62, 122

Black holes, 9, 37, 41–42, 64, 66, 79

Bruno, G., 31



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THE DECADE OF DISCOVERY IN ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS Index A Academic research, see University research Accretion disks, 29–30, 35, 41–42, 72, 82 Active galaxies, 40–42, 59, 64, 73, 88 Active optics, 82 Adaptive optics, 58, 76, 82–83, 85, 88, 113 Advanced Composition Explorer, 38 Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), 15, 26, 34, 38, 42, 50, 53, 63, 64–65, 68, 76 Airborne telescopes, 5, 66–67, 117 KAO, 41, 61, 67, 75, 77, 78, 79, 156 SOFIA, 5, 23, 25, 32, 35, 38, 67, 77, 78–79, 80 Air Force Office of Scientific Research, 113 Airshower detector, 70–71, 90, 111 American Astronomical Association, 114, 150–152 Andromeda Galaxy, 39 Anglo-Australian Telescope, 96 Apollo program, 103 Archiving, 95–97, 98–99 ARC telescope, 57 Arecibo telescope, 59–60, 61 Aristotle, 44–45 Asteroids, 31–32 ASTRO telescope, 68 ASTRO-D, 50, 67 Astrometric Interferometry Mission (AIM), 5, 23–24, 85 Astronomical Image Processing System (AIPS), 93, 95, 97 Astrophysical Data System, 98 Atmospheric processes, 33, 75, 127 climate and weather, 8, 32–33, 126–127 image quality and, 80, 82–83, 101, 104 Jupiter, 28, 61, 127 Mars, 10, 127 ozone layer, 127 Pluto, 10, 33 see also Planetary atmospheres B Baade, W., 36 Berkeley, University of California, 60 Beryllium, 26, 62 Big Bang, 8, 9, 28, 29, 44–47, 48, 51, 52, 54, 71 Biological/organic evolution comets, 31–32 extraterrestrial intelligence, 62 interstellar media, 62, 122 Black holes, 9, 37, 41–42, 64, 66, 79 Bruno, G., 31

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THE DECADE OF DISCOVERY IN ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS C California Institute of Technology, 56 Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO), 60, 75 Canada, 70, 133 Canary Islands, 85 Carnegie Institution, 56 Charon, 10 Chemical processes, 122 evolutionary, 8, 9, 31–32 galactic, 39 interstellar media, 62, 75 Chicago Airshower Array, 111 Climate and weather, 8, 32–33, 126–127 Columbus telescope, 56 Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby, 31 Comets, 31–32, 61 Computers and computer science, 6, 89, 91–99, 130 centimeter wavelength programs, 58 cost-effectiveness, 91–92, 96–97 databases, 26, 88, 89, 92 archiving, 95–97, 98–99 international collaboration, 92, 96 robotics, 27, 33, 106 simulations, 30, 42, 48, 91, 97–98, 127 Consortia, telescopes, 56–57, 96 Copernicus, N., 45, 121 Copernicus telescope, 65 Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), 38–39, 44, 46, 51, 66, 117 Cosmic Background Imager, 25, 68 Cosmic dust, 40, 75, 79 Cosmic rays, 22, 25, 38, 53, 68, 70, 71, 80, 90 see also Fly's Eye telescope Cosmology, 28–29, 44–45, 121–122 Big Bang, 8, 9, 28, 29, 44–47, 48, 51, 52, 54, 71 large-scale structure of universe, 9, 29, 47–49, 51–54, 73, 88 Cost-effectiveness, 119 computer technology, 91–92, 96–97 international efforts, 120 large missions, 15–16, 117 manned space programs, 103, 106 technology development, 68 D Dark matter, 49–51, 54, 71 black holes, 9, 37, 41–42, 64, 66, 79 Databases, 26, 88, 89, 92 archiving, 95–97, 98–99 Defense, see National security Demographic factors, 150–152 Density of universe (omega), 49, 50, 52–54 Department of Defense, 16, 83, 113 Air Force Office of Scientific Research, 113 Department of Energy, 16, 69–70, 112–113 Department of the Navy, 58, 113 Naval Observatory, 132 Naval Research Laboratory, 113 Deuterium, 65 Digges, T., 45 E Economic factors, see Cost effectiveness; Funding Education, 7, 110, 113–115, 122–124, 150–152 grants and fellowships, individuals, 55, 63, 110, 114, 116, 156 university research, 56–57, 60–61, 88–89, 106, 114, 122–124 An Educational Initiative in Astronomy , 114 8-m telescopes, see Infrared-optimized 8-m telescope; Southern 8-m telescope Einstein, A., 9, 45 Einstein Observatory (HEAO), 42, 50, 64, 91, 96, 117 Energy sources, 16, 69–70, 112, 133 Europe, 58, 63, 85, 112 see also specific countries European Southern Observatory (ESO), 88, 96, 133 European Space Agency (ESA), 61, 67, 118 Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), 67, 76, 78 Explorer program, 23, 38, 65–66, 67, 90, 118, 119 Advanced Composition Explorer, 38 COBE, 38–39, 44, 46, 51, 66, 117 EUVE, 38, 65, 89, 119 funding, 24, 112 FUSE, 5, 23, 38, 65, 89, 111–112, 119 IRAS, 4, 30, 35, 40, 66, 67, 75, 76, 78, 80, 93, 96, 117, 119, 131–132, 134 IUE, 96, 117, 119, 133, 156 SMEX, 25, 65, 90, 112, 118, 119

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THE DECADE OF DISCOVERY IN ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS Working Papers , 23, 90, 118 XTE, 65–66, 89 Extraterrestrial intelligence, 62 Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE), 38, 65, 89, 119 F Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopy Explorer (FUSE), 5, 23, 38, 65, 89, 111–112, 119 Federal government, 110–120, 152 Department of Defense, 16, 83, 113 Department of Energy, 16, 69–70, 112 Department of the Navy, 58, 113 private projects, partnerships, 56–57 see also National Aeronautics and Space Administration; National Science Foundation Fellowships and grants, see Grants and fellowships, individuals Fiber optics, 86 Field Report, 60, 62, 63, 64, 65, 69, 111 Flexible Image Transport System (FITS), 97 Fly's Eye telescope, 22, 38, 71, 90, 111 Focal plane arrays, 26 4-m telescopes, 22, 44, 53, 88, 111 European Southern Observatory (ESO), 88, 96, 133 France, 62, 67, 133 Friedmann, A., 45 Funding, 152, 153–154 archival data, 6, 96–97, 98–99 centimeter wavelength programs, 58 cooperative projects, 56–57 grants and fellowships, individuals, 2, 7, 13–14, 55, 63, 110, 114, 116, 156 ground-based infrastructure and programs, 2, 12–27, 115–116 international collaborations, 24, 67 lunar initiative, 7, 107, 108–109 NASA, 6, 27, 111–112, 116–117, 153, 156, 157 NSF, 2, 6, 13–14, 115, 153–156 prioritized equipment initiatives, 3–6, 16–18 small and moderate programs, 5, 24, 117 solar astronomy, 61–62, 85 technology development, 20, 26–27 theory, 6, 14, 69 see also Joint ventures G Galaxies and galactic processes, 28, 51, 59, 60 active, 40–42, 59, 64, 73, 88 Andromeda, 39 clusters, 9, 39, 40, 47–48, 49–50, 53 constituent elements, 38 evolution, 8, 9, 39–40, 42–44, 65, 73–74, 81–82, 103, 105 explosions, 28 gas processes, 43–44, 47, 50, 53, 60, 64, 75, 82 intergalactic media and processes, 43–44, 47, 50, 53, 60 Large Magellanic Cloud, 9 magnetic fields, 90 Milky Way, 38–39 nuclei, 66, 67, 79, 82, 88 theory, 42, 43, 44, 48–49 ultraluminous, 9, 75, 105; see also Quasars Gamma-ray astronomy, 26 , 38, 42, 70–71, 90, 105, 132 airshower detector, 70–71, 90, 111 Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO), 15, 38, 63, 64 Gas processes galactic, 43–44, 47, 50, 53, 60, 64, 75, 82 interstellar, 39, 41–42, 43, 73–74, 82, 122 supernova, 38 see also Accretion disks Geophysics, 126 volcanoes, 32–33, 61 Germany, 61, 62, 67, 78–79 Gladstone, W., 129 Global Oscillations Network Group (GONG), 61, 111, 119 Global Positioning System, 132 Granite telescope, 70 Grants and fellowships, individuals, see Funding Gravitational processes accretion disks, 29–30, 35, 41–42, 72, 82 Big Bang, 8, 9, 28, 29, 44–47, 48, 51, 52, 54, 71 black holes, 9, 37, 41–42, 64, 66, 79 dark matter, 49–51, 54, 71 galactic, 41, 43, 47, 48 refraction, 9 solar/stellar, 33, 34–35, 37 solar systems, other, 31 theory, 45, 50

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THE DECADE OF DISCOVERY IN ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS universal scale, 50, 52–53 Great Observatories, 15, 27, 59, 63, 110, 117 see also Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility; Gamma Ray Observatory; Hubble Space Telescope; Space Infrared Telescope Facility Great Red Spot, 28 Green Bank radio telescope, 59, 60, 82 Ground-based research, general, 2, 5–6, 12–14, 16–19, 20–22, 25, 55–62, 115–116, 156, 158 data archiving, 96–97, 98–99 see also specific projects H Halley's Comet, 61, 122, 134 HEAO, see Einstein Observatory Helioseismology, 9–10, 34, 61 High-Energy Astronomical Observatory, see Einstein Observatory High-Energy Transient Experiment (HETE), 118–119 Historical perspectives, 28, 29–31, 33, 121, 152 archiving, data, 95 computer technology, 91 cosmological theory, 44–45, 51, 54 galactic astronomy, 39, 49 interferometry, 83 Little Ice Age, 126 non-astronomy applications, 129–133 policy, 111–113 quasars, 40 space-based research, 63 stellar astronomy, 35, 36–37 Homestake mine, 70 Hubble, E., 45, 53 Hubble Space Telescope (HST), 15, 40, 41, 43, 44, 63–64, 68, 112, 117 I Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF), 93, 95, 97 Indiana University, 56 Inflationary universe model, 53–54 Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), 30, 35, 40, 66, 67, 75, 78, 93, 96, 117, 119, 131–132, 134 Infrared astronomy, 75–80, 158 galactic evolution, 43 infrared-optimized 8-m telescope, 4, 17, 20, 30, 32, 39, 40, 43, 44, 56, 74, 76–78, 79, 83 IRAF, 97 IRAS, 30, 35, 40, 66, 67, 75, 76, 78, 80, 93, 96, 117, 119, 131–132, 134 IRTF, 20, 61, 83 ISO, 67, 76, 78 moon, observatories on, 101 NICMOS, 64, 68 planetary evolution, 9 SIRTF, 3–4, 15, 26, 30, 35, 38, 40, 43, 50, 63, 67, 68, 74, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80 SOFIA, 5, 23, 25, 32, 35, 38, 67, 77, 78–79, 80 telescopes, general, 25, 26, 31 two-micron survey, 24 Infrared-optimized 8-m telescope, 4, 17, 20, 30, 32, 39, 40, 43, 44, 56, 74, 76–78, 79, 83 Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), 67, 76, 78 Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF), 20, 61, 83 Interdisciplinary cooperation, 69, 71, 124–126, 129–133 Interferometry, 21, 23–24, 80, 113 AIM, 5, 23–24, 85 history, 83 infrared and optical, 26–27, 31, 58, 80–81, 83–84, 103–105 moon, observatories on, 101, 103–105, 106, 108 optical, 26–27, 31, 58, 80–81, 83–84 planetary, 23–24 radio, 60, 80, 81, 105, 119, 160 VLA, 5, 13, 22–23, 58, 80, 85–86, 91, 93, 94 VLBA, 23, 40, 59, 85–86, 111 VLBI, 26, 59, 80, 126, 134 Intergalactic media and processes, 43–44, 47, 50, 53, 60 International Astronomical Union, 133 International collaborations, 24, 67, 110, 112, 119–120, 133–134 computer technology, 92, 96 cost-effectiveness, 120 IRAS, 30, 35, 40, 66, 67, 75, 78, 93, 96, 117, 119, 131–132, 134 moon-based technology, 109 particle physics, 70

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THE DECADE OF DISCOVERY IN ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS solar astronomy, 22, 34, 61, 62, 85–86 telescopes, 56, 61, 78–79, 96 VLBI, 134 see also specific countries International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE), 96, 117, 119, 133, 156 Interstellar media and processes, 65 cosmic dust, 40, 75, 79 gases, 39, 41–42, 43, 73–74, 82, 122 organic materials, 62 supernova gases, 38 Io, 33, 61 Iron, 36 Italy, 56, 62, 70 J Japan, 63, 67, 70, 112, 118, 134 Johns Hopkins University, 56 Joint ventures, 56–57, 60, 61 NASA/NSF, 112 see also International collaboration Jupiter, 28, 30, 31, 32, 61 K Kamiokande II, 70 Kant, I., 29 Keck optical telescope, 56, 78, 82, 86, 87 Kodak Company, 130 Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), 41, 61, 67, 75, 77, 78, 79, 156 L Laboratory astrophysics, 25, 26, 55, 68–70 La Palma Observatory, 96 Large Earth-based Solar Telescope (LEST), 22, 34, 85 Large-scale structure of universe, 9, 29, 47–49, 51–54, 73, 88 Laser technology, artificial stars, 83 Launch vehicles, 27, 67–68, 76, 89, 101, 117, 119 Little Ice Age, 126 Lunar bodies Charon, 10 Io, 33, 61 Moon, 6–7, 27, 100–109 M Magellanic Clouds, 9, 21, 88 Magellan telescope, 56 Magnetic fields galactic, 90 stellar, 36, 85 MANIAC, 91 Manned space exploration, 101, 103, 106 Space Shuttle, 62–63, 67–68, 89, 112, 118, 119 Mars, atmosphere, 10, 127 Medical science, 129–130 Michelson, A., 83 Microwave Observing Program, 62 Milky Way, 38–39 Millimeter Array (MMA), 4–5, 20–21, 30, 35, 53, 74, 81–82 Millimeter astronomy, 4–5, 13, 30, 35, 60–61, 158 MMA, 4–5, 20–21, 30, 35, 53, 74, 81–82 Millitech Corporation, 130 Minorities, 151–152 Mirror Laboratory of Steward Observatory, 86 Mirror technology, 56, 57, 63, 86, 106–107, 117 Keck optical telescope, 56, 78, 82, 86, 87 on moon, 101 Spectroscopic Survey Telescope, 56, 86 Mission operations and data analysis, 89, 92 see also Computers and computer science Moon, 6–7, 27, 100–109 see also Lunar bodies Multidisciplinary approach, see Interdisciplinary cooperation N National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 11, 16, 26, 27, 61, 66, 111–112, 116–117, 153, 156, 157 Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby, 31 computer science, 95–97, 98–99 education, 114, 115, 151–152 extraterrestrial intelligence, 62 interferometry, general, 5, 23–24, 85, 108 manned space exploration, 101, 103, 106, see also Space Shuttle moon observatories, 100, 107–108, 109 planning, 63, 107–108, 111, 116–117, 118

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THE DECADE OF DISCOVERY IN ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS suborbital program, 66–67, 117 theory, 69 Voyager program, 33 see also Explorer program; Great Observatories National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC), 13, 116 National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO), 13, 56, 88, 93, 115, 116 National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), 12, 58, 93–94, 115, 116 see also Very Large Array; Very Long Baseline Array National Research Council, 1–2, 10–11 Stever Report, 68 see also Field Report; Working Papers National Science Foundation, 13, 16, 57, 58, 59, 60, 69, 111, 112, 115–116, 153–156 computer science, 92, 95, 97, 98, 99 education, 114 GONG, 61, 111, 119 National security, 130–132 telescopes, 26 see also Department of Defense National Solar Observatory (NSO), 62 Naval Observatory, 132 Naval Research Laboratory, 113 Netherlands, 134 von Neumann, J., 91 Neutrino astronomy, 9, 37, 124 solar, 10, 26, 34, 62, 68–69, 70, 124 Neutron stars, 9, 36, 37, 64, 66 New Mexico State University, 57 New Technology Telescope, 88 Newton, I., 33, 45 Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Objective Spectrometer (NICMOS), 64, 68 Nuclear reactions, fusion, 36, 133 O Office of Management and Budget, 12 Office of Space Science and Applications, Strategic Plan , 63, 107, 111, 116–117, 118 Ohio State University, 56 Omega, see Density of universe Optical astronomy, 5, 21–22, 31, 32, 48, 49–50, 55–56, 58, 158 active optics, 82 adaptive optics, 58, 76, 82–83, 88, 113 interferometry, 26–27, 31, 58, 80–81, 83–84 Keck telescope, 56, 78, 82, 86, 87 laser technology, 83 National Optical Astronomy Observatories, 13, 56, 88, 93, 115 see also Mirror technology Ozone layer, 127 P Particle astrophysics, 9, 26, 33, 36, 38, 42, 55, 70–71, 124–125 American Astronomical Association, 114, 150 cosmology, 47 dark matter, 49–51, 54, 71; see also Black holes neutrinos 9, 10, 26, 34, 37, 62, 68–69, 70, 124 protons, 26, 38, 62, 90 theory, 51, 111, 124 see also Cosmic rays Pease, F., 83 Pennsylvania State University, 56 Planetary astronomy, 8, 61 geophysics, 126 volcanoes, 32–33, 61 historical perspectives, 29, 31 interferometry, 23–24 WF/PC, 63, 64 see also specific planets Planetary atmospheres, see Atmospheric processes Planetary Data System, 98 Planetary formation and evolution, 9, 29–30, 72–73 accretion disks, 29–30, 35, 41–42, 72, 82 protoplanets, 29, 82 Pluto, 10, 33 Princeton University, 57 Private telescope initiatives, 56–57, 78 Professional associations American Astronomical Association, 114, 150 International Astronomical Union, 133 Project STAR, 122 Project 2061, 122 Protogalaxies, 8 Protoplanets, 29, 82

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THE DECADE OF DISCOVERY IN ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS see also Accretion disks Protostars, 29, 34–35, 75, 97 Pulsars, 59 Q Quasars, 9, 40–42, 50, 54, 59, 82, 104, 119, 132 R Radar, 61, 131 Radioactive dating, 45 RadioAstron, 67, 134 Radio astronomy, 26, 58–61, 75, 105, 109, 158, 160 galactic processes, 42, 44 Green Bank radio telescope, 59, 60, 82 interferometry, 60, 67, 80, 81, 105, 119, 134 non-astronomy uses, 129–130, 132 radar, 61, 131 RadioAstron, 67, 134 stellar evolution, 35, 37 VLA, 5, 13, 22–23, 58, 80, 85–86, 91, 93, 94 VLBA, 23, 40, 59, 85–86, 111 VLBI, 26, 59, 80, 126, 134 VSOP, 67 see also Millimeter astronomy; Neutron stars; Submillimeter astronomy Robotics, 27, 33, 106 Rockets, see Launch vehicles Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT), 50, 67 S Scientists demographic factors, 150–152 grants and fellowships, individuals, 55, 63, 110, 114, 116, 156 professional associations, 114, 133, 150 Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI), 62 6-m telescope, 27 Sky survey, infrared, 24, 80 Small Explorers (SMEX), 25, 65, 90, 112, 118, 119 Small and moderate projects, 2, 5–6, 19, 110, 117, 118 funding, 24, 117 Smithsonian Institution, 56, 61, 70, 86 Solar astronomy, 26, 33–34, 36, 61–62 atmosphere, 85 climate and, 126–127 international efforts, 22, 34, 61, 62, 85–86 LEST, 22, 34, 85 variability, 33, 126–127, 129; see also Helioseismology Solar-Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), 61 Solar neutrinos, 10, 26, 34, 62, 68–69, 70, 124 Solar oscillations, see Helioseismology Solar system asteroids, 31–32 comets, 31–32, 61 evolution, 29–30, 31, 35 see also terms beginning Planetary and specific planets Solar systems, other, 30–31, 104 Southern 8-m telescope, 5, 21, 74, 86, 88 Soviet Union, 51, 62, 63, 67, 70, 112, 134 Space-based research, general, 5, 14–16, 21, 23–24, 25–26, 62–68 archiving, 98 see also specific projects Space Exploration Initiative, 107–108 Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), 3–4, 15, 26, 30, 35, 38, 40, 43, 50, 63, 67, 68, 74, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80 Space Science in the 21st Century , 103 Space Shuttle, 62–63, 67–68, 89, 112, 118, 119 Space Telescope Imaging Spectrometer, 64 Space Telescope Science Institute, 63 Spectroscopic Survey Telescope, 56, 86 Stellar atmospheres, 83 Stellar evolution, 8, 34–38, 72–73, 104, 105 computer models, 91 neutron stars, 9, 36, 37, 64, 66 protostars, 29–30, 34–35, 75, 97 pulsars, 59 red giants, 36 supernovae, 9, 28, 36, 37–38, 54, 67, 70, 88, 91, 124 theory, 35, 36–38, 42 white dwarfs, 36, 37, 65 Stellar magnetic fields, 36, 85 Stellar variation, see Helioseismology Stever Report, 68 Steward Observatory Mirror Laboratory, 57 Strategic Defense Initiative, 113

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THE DECADE OF DISCOVERY IN ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS Strategic Plan (NASA), 63, 107, 111, 116–117, 118 Stratospheric Facility for Far-Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), 5, 23, 25, 32, 35, 38, 67, 77, 78–79, 80 Submillimeter astronomy, 27, 60–61, 67, 75, 90, 105 CSO, 60, 75 from moon, 105, 108 SOFIA, 5, 23, 25, 32, 35, 38, 67, 77, 78–79, 80 SWAS, 63, 66 Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS), 63, 66 Sun, see Solar astronomy Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, 53 Supernovae, 9, 28, 36, 37–38, 54, 67, 70, 88, 91, 124 T Taurus constellation, 30 Technology development, 26–27, 56, 68, 72 Telescopes, 1, 4–5, 26, 27, 39, 72, 159 atmospheric processes and error, 80, 82–83, 101, 104 consortia, 56–57, 96 international collaboration, 56, 61, 78–79, 96 moon-based, 103, 108, 109 see also Airborne telescopes; 8-m telescopes; 4-m telescopes; Infrared astronomy; Interferometry; Optical astronomy; Radio astronomy; 10-m telescopes; Ultraviolet astronomy Temperature effects and measurements, 126 intergalactic, 44 stellar, 33, 34–35, 42, 61 10-m telescopes, 10, 27, 39, 43, 44, 56, 78, 82, 83 Theoretical astrophysics, 12, 29, 31, 33, 55, 68–70 computer simulations, 30, 42, 48, 91, 97–98 galactic, 42, 43, 44, 48–49 gravity, 45, 50 particle physics, 51, 111, 124 stellar, 35, 36–38, 42 see also Cosmology Time standards, 132 Two-micron survey, 24 U Ultraviolet astronomy EUVE, 38, 65, 89, 119 FUSE, 5, 23, 38, 65, 89, 111–112, 119 IUE, 96, 117, 119, 133, 156 United Kingdom, 67, 129, 134 University of Arizona, 56, 57, 61, 86 University of California, 56 University of California, Berkeley, 60 University of Chicago, 57 University of Illinois, 60 University of Maryland, 60 University of Texas, 56 University of Washington, 57 University of Wisconsin, 56 University research, 56–57, 60–61, 88–89, 106, 114, 122–124 V Venus, 127 Very Large Array (VLA), 5, 13, 22–23, 58, 80, 85–86, 91, 93, 94 Very large telescopes, 159 moon-based technology, 109 see also 8-m telescopes; 10-m telescopes Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), 23, 40, 59, 85–86, 111 Very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), 25, 59, 80, 126, 134 Volcanoes, 32–33, 61 Voyager program, 33 VSOP, 67 W Washington State University, 57 Weather, see Climate and weather Whipple Observatory, 70 White dwarfs, 36, 37, 65 Wide-Field/Planetary Camera (WF/PC), 63, 64 WIYN telescope, 56 Women, 151 Working Papers , 11, 16, 27, 75, 80, 150, 152, 161 centimeter wavelength programs, 58 Explorer program, 23, 90, 118 small programs, 24, 118 theory and laboratory astrophysics, 69

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THE DECADE OF DISCOVERY IN ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS X X-ray astronomy, 27, 38, 42, 67, 105, 132 ASTRO, 68 ASTRO-D, 50, 67 AXAF, 15, 26, 34, 38, 42, 50, 53, 63, 64–65, 68, 76 dark matter, 50 Einstein Observatory, 42, 50, 64, 91, 96, 117 ROSAT, 50, 67 X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE), 65–66, 89 Y Yale University, 56 Z Zwicky, F., 36, 49

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