the spectrum of Jupiter, originally labelled unidentified, were definitely attributed to . The detection of is the first observational evidence for extraterrestrial . The interplay of theory, experiment and observation was further demonstrated by searches for interstellar by observations of absorption lines looking towards infrared sources.
Major strides were made in laboratory studies of chemical reactions and the first measurements were made at temperatures below 50K. The expected enhancement of the rate coefficients of many reactions of positive ions with heteronuclear molecules at low temperatures was established experimentally and incorporated into models of interstellar chemistry. A beginning was made on the identification of the products of dissociative recombination. Progress was made experimentally and theoretically in understanding the role of internal energy modes in chemical reactions.
Another area in which the three pronged attack of experiments, observations and theory has resulted in very significant gains in our understanding is that of interstellar solids. Interstellar dust and ice composition went from a field rich in speculation to one in which laboratory analog studies provided strong constraints on observations and theories. For example, these studies predicted the presence of, and guided the subsequent detection of, important ice constituents such as carbon monoxide and methanol, revealing the complex interplay between the gaseous and solid phases in molecular clouds.
Experimental studies of excitation and ionization due to electron impact were improved in accuracy and were extended to many more systems in states of high ionization. They were complemented by increasingly elaborate theoretical models which made evident the importance of resonance structures in electron impact processes. A significant contribution of theory was the recognition of the importance of dielectronic recombination at nebular temperatures. The first reliable field-free measurements of dielectronic recombination were carried out. Transition probabilities of intersystem lines of light-atomic ions of astrophysical importance were measured by using ion traps to confine the ions and detecting the exponential decay of the emission intensity from metastable levels populated by laser radiation or by electron impact.
The Opacity Project was initiated under the guidance of M. J. Seaton. The project is an international effort to exploit the development of powerful theories by applying them systematically, using fast large computers, to calculate atomic and ionic parameters such as oscillator strengths, transition probabilities, radiative and dielectronic recombination coefficients, photoionization cross sections and line-broadening parameters. The activity, though of inestimable value to a broad range of applied physics, was stimulated primarily by the demands of astrophysics. The first results from the project are appearing.
A deepening understanding of the physical processes in plasmas was developed. Particular advances were achieved in aspects of thermal conduction, plasma relaxation and beam-plasma interactions. The concept of a saturated heat flux, which has been important for evaporation of interstellar clouds, was observed and explained in laser-irradiated pellets. Inhibition of thermal conductivity by small scale fluctuations has been seen in confined plasmas and invoked in stellar coronae and galaxy cluster cooling flows. The idea that magnetically dominated plasmas relax to a minimum energy state consistent with constant total magnetic helicity was developed to interpret reversed-field-pinch devices and has been used to model extragalactic radio jets and solar coronal loops. Beam-plasma interaction experiments were instructive in interpreting observations of radio emission from pulsars and from solar and stellar flares.
The last decade has seen significant advances in both nuclear and particle physics, which have contributed to our understanding of astrophysical phenomenon. New information on nuclear cross sections has contributed to our understanding of solar neutrino production and big bang nucleosynthesis, along with stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis. New measurements of fundamental particle properties have also provided key input to our astrophysical understanding. More detailed measurements of the nuclear reactions important to the p-p chain have solidified our confidence in the nuclear input to the standard solar model. This new work thus makes a nuclear physics solution to the solar neutrino problem less likely. Also of relevance to the solar neutrino problem, medium energy measurements of (p,n) reactions and the extracted Gamow-Teller matrix elements have provided information on neutrino capture cross sections for several of the terrestrial solar neutrino detectors. New measurements of the key reactions of the standard big bang have improved our confidence in the predictions of the abundances of light elements produced during the big bang. While significant work has also been done on the reactions of helium burning, considerable uncertainty remains