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ARIE JAN HAAGEN-SMIT December22, 1900-March IS, 977 BY JAMES BONNER ARIE JAN HAAGEN-SMIT was born December 22, 1900, in Utrecht, a city in west central Holland. His father was the chief chemist of the NetherIancts Royal Mint. The mint macie goIc! and silver coins, and Arie's first chemistry lesson consisted of playing hide-and-seek with his sisters among piles of goIc! and silver bricks at the mint. He also hacl the opportunity to watch his father dissolve goIct ant! silver coins to analyze them for their gold, silver, anct copper content. But Arie's interest in chemistry was not aroused; he found the chemistry of goIct and silver quite dull. In high school, Arie became enthusiastic about mathe- matics. He taught himself calculus and found physics fasci- nating. He also became intrigued with languages, which he learned easily ant! found rewarding. In addition to English, he studied French, German, and Latin. His only poor grade in high school was in the Dutch language, ant! his wife, Zus, tells us that Arie was always a poor speller in Dutch. During his high school (lays he also cleveloped athletic skills. He became a rower and would begin rowing as soon as the canal ice melted in the spring. He also sailecl on the lakes of HolIanc! ant! was a champion boxer. Between rowing and boxing, he developed the largest biceps of any faculty mem- ber in the California Institute of Technology Division of Biol- 189

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190 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS ogy up to about 1960. After 1960, when he gained worldwide recognition for his outstanding work on air pollution, he al- ways wore a coat with sleeves and it was no longer possible to check on the status of his biceps. In 191S, Arie entered the University of Utrecht and chose chemistry as his major. His wife believes that he might have become a mathematician or a physicist were it not for the fact that he was counseled by university officials that no positions were available in these fields in Holland. He studied chem- istry as an undergraduate with a minor in mathematics. (As my mother used to tell me, a little chemistry can do no harm, and ~ sympathized with Haagy. ~ also had a chemistry under- graduate degree with a minor in mathematics.) When the time came for graduate school, Arie again chose Utrecht and organic chemistry, considering inorganic chemistry a dull "assembly of facts." His organic chemistry professor at Utrecht at that time was P. van Romburgh, a natural products chemist who soon had Arie isolating a der- matitis-inducing agent from the outer layers (arils) of the fruit of the cashew nut. The cashews, imported from Java, were exotic and made Arie fee} that he was studying the world. The agent from the arils, which became the subject of Arie's first published paper, turned out to be a substance closely related to the dermatitis-inducing agents of poison oak and poison ivy, not surprising in that poison oak, poison ivy, and the cashew nut are all species of the same family and therefore closely related. Van Romburgh retired in 1928 and was succeeded by the young Leopold Ruzicka, fresh from Zurich. Ruzicka, then the young giant of European organic chemistry, was totally immersed in the study of the isoprenoids, in particular, the isolation, structure, and synthesis of the sesquiterpenes. Arie's work with Ruzicka resulted in his thesis, Investigations in the Field of Sesquiterpenes. This work awakened in Arie a

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ARIE JAN HAAGEN-SMIT 191 lifelong interest in the chemistry of the terpenes, from the lowliest isoprene to polyterpenes such as rubber. Arie received his Ph.D. from the University of Utrecht in 1929 anc! stayed on as chief assistant in organic chemistry. In this position, which has no exact correlative in American chemistry departments, he was able to do his own research on natural products but was also obliged to supervise uncler- gracluate laboratory courses. It was an enviable position, but poorly paicl. In 1930, LeopoIc! Ruzicka was called back to Zurich to become professor of organic chemistry at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. He was immectiately succeeded at Utrecht by Fritz Kogel, a German who brought with him his assistant, Hanni ErxIeben. Arie stayocI on as chief assistant. Utrecht at that time was the worict center for the stucly of plant hormones. Caltech, which eventually numbered three Utrecht graduates among its chemistry faculty, was basically a substation of Utrecht for plant growth hormone studies anti the only center for plant hormone stucly in the Unitec! States. While still a Utrecht graduate student, Frits Went devel- opecl a biological assay for the plant-growth substance. Kogel, with Arie's assistance, set out to isolate the active principle, the plant-growth substance. In 1954, Arie isolated this active material then callect heteroauxin, now auxin. The work, published that same year, established inclole-3-acetic acid as a plant-growth material . . . . wit n amen activity. The isolation of this material laid the cornerstone of our knowlecIge of plant-growth regulation. In 1935, Kenneth V. Thimann at Caltech inclepenclently isolated inclole-3-acetic acid from a cli~erent source. Where Arie had usect human urine, Thimann usect culture medium from the fungus Rhi- zopus but the substance was the same. Inclole-3-acetic acid

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192 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS was not isolated from higher plants and shown to be a hor- mone until 1946, but the effects of Arie Jan Haagen-Smit's findings about the chemical nature of the plant-growth reg- ulator spread wicle long before the compound was estab- lished as a natural plant component. Arie never cIaimec} special credit for this great discovery. Neither did he claim credit for an even more important final, made in the summer of 1935. Frits Went, then a faculty mem- ber at Caltech, spent that summer in Utrecht working with Arie. They discoverect that substances never found in nature but chemically similar to indole-3-acetic acicI, such as alpha- naphthalene-acetic acid, can mimic completely the action of incloleacetic acid in the control of plant growth. From this discovery not patented by the discoverersgrew the whole field of chemical control of plant growth, the invention of 2,4-D as a weed killer, the idea of selective herbicides, the whole field of agricultural chemicals, anct a multibillion- doliar business worIc~wide. This 1935 finding was monumen- tal, its importance clocumentable only many years after the fact. Meanwhile, work in Utrecht on the plant-growth hor- mone took a curious twist. The Went bioassay for auxin ac- tivity is highly specific for the natural hormone or closely relater! derivatives. In a series of papers publisher] in Hoppe- Seyler's Zeitschr~ft fur physicalische Chemie in 1933 and 1934, Kogel, Haagen-Smit, and ErxIeben clescribed the isolation in pure form and the structure determination of two active plant hormones, auxin a anct b.i Auxin was revealer! to be a ' These investigations took place from 1931 to 1936. From 1934 to 1935, I was a postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Chemistry at the University of Utrecht. I got to know Haagen-Smit, Kogel, and Erxleben very well. Erxleben was responsible for chemical degradations and structure determination, Haagen-Smit for isolation and biological assays, and Kogel for overall master planning, writing, and publica- tion. So far as I know, Haagen-Smit had nothing, or next to nothing, to do with the chemistry or structure determination of auxin a and b.

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ARI E JA N HAA GE N - S M IT 193 trihydroxymonocarboxylic acid of eighteen carbon atoms. Auxin b contained one less carbon atom and one hydroxy} group, as well as one carbony! group. Auxin a was isolated from human urine; auxin a and b were isolated from corn oil. (Only a single sample, from Hungary, contained the two hormones. All subsequent corn oil samples were free of both auxin a and b.) Though it was later possible to obtain degradation prod- ucts and determine their structure, the isolation of auxins a and b could never be repeated and turned out to be a scam perpetrated by Hanni ErxIeben. ErxIeben left detailed note- books in which samples were properly recorded. After the end of World War IT, I. A. VIiegenthart, the new professor of organic chemistry, reinvestigated these samples by mass spectrometry.2 "Authentic" auxin a turned out to be cholic acid; similar findings were made with respect to the degradation products. It is now believed that auxins a and b never existed. Haagen- Smit writes, "It is possible that the initial mistake was to ad- vertise the purity of auxin a prematurely. Professor Kogel's eagerness to publish and his dictatorial behavior possibly made it very difficult for Miss ErxIeben to retract her error, although this could have been done quite readily in the early period. It was ErxIeben's persistence in covering up which led to the unwitting involvement of many associates."3 In any event, Haagen-Smit did not worry greatly about auxin a. Initially, he believed it existed, and after his arrival at Caltech he established a factory to produce it. When this factory produced only indole-3-acetic acid with no sign of 2 j. A. and J. F. G. Vliegenthart, "Reinvestigation of authentic samples of auxins a- and lo-related products by mass spectrometry," Proceedings of the Recueils des Travaux Chimique des Pays-Pas, 85(1966):1266-72. 3 From W. P. Jacobs, Plant Hormones and Plant Development (London: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1979), p. 57.

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94 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS auxin a, he isolated indole-3-acetic acid from plants ant! from urine ant! let it go at that. Although Utrecht was the original center of plant hor- mone work, Caltech grew in importance with the appoint- ment of Herman Dolk ant! Kenneth Thimann to the faculty in 1930. The plant hormone group was further enlarged by the appointment of Frits Went and Johannes van Overbeek. In 1935, Thimann left Caltech to establish a competing plant hormone center at Harvard, and he persuaded Haagen-Smit to come to Harvard for the 1936-1937 academic year. At Harvard, however, the chemistry faculty could not ciecicle whether or not there was such a thing as biochemistry, al- though Thimann, with a Ph.D. in that subject, certainly tried to convince them. In 1937, with Harvard in doubt about the wisdom of appointing more biochemists, it was relatively easy for Frits Went and Thomas Hunt Morgan, the chairman of the Division of Biology at Caltech, to persuade Haagen-Smit to return to Caltech. Arie ancI his wife Marie (known to all as Zus), rapidly took root in Pasadena, where they raised their childrenMaria, Margaret, and ~ohanna (today Maria Van Pelt, Margaret Daniel, and ~ohanna Demers), and a son, Jan, from Arie's first marriage. CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY At Caltech Haagen-Smit undertook a variety of tasks to determine, by trial and error, which would interest him the most. With David Bonner he found that adenine was a leaf- growth factor for radish leaves. With this author and James English, he discovered that the wound] hormone active on bean plants was I-decene-l, cloclecanoic acid. With Joseph Koepfli and Gorclen Alles, he isolated the active principle of Cannabis saliva (marijuana). With Edward Tatum, he identi- fied the chemical nature of the precursor of the Drosophila eye pigment, and with several of his students he attempted

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ARIE JAN HAAGEN-SMIT 195 the reisolation of auxins from plant material attempts that always resulted in the isolation of inclole-3-acetic acid. Terpenes, however, remained his greatest love. He inves- tigated the leaf of] of the California bay tree, Umbellularia californica, whose principal component is umbellulone. He separated the terpenes of guayule leaf oil, Parthenium argen- tatum, and, with Nicholas Mirov of the U.S. Forest Genetic Station in Placerville, determined the composition of the tur- pentines of a wide variety of pine trees. Separating the com- ponents of the pine turpentines by fractional distillation, he remarket! in later years how simple it all wouic! have been if he hac! waited until gas chromatography had been invented. He wrote what became a classic chapter on the chemistry, origin, ant! function of essential oils in plants for Gunther's 948 The Essential Oils. From the late 1940s onward, Haagen-Smit undertook a massive program to determine the flavor components of the pineapple. Reports of his studies with Arthur Prater, Clara Deasy, and Justus Kirchner were published in a series of ar- ticles beginning in 1945. This work led in turn to investiga- tions of the flavor components of wines, onions, and garlic. Haagen-Smit passed air over plants enclosed in translucent plastic chambers, collecting in a coIc! trap the volatile flavor- ing materials evaporated from the plants. Investigating the chemical nature of these volatiles that is, the substances ctis- tillec! oh plants exposed to the heat of sunlighthe founct that there were many, particularly terpenes, that were clis- tille(1 out of leaves and wastecl. In some cases, the amount of terpenes waster! through distillation by sunlight amounted to one-quarter or more of the total photosynthate of the plant. Haagy had many graduate stuclents, including two of my brothers, Walter and David. He was good with students, sug- gesting interesting projects for them to work on, giving help- fu! suggestions, and teaching a fascinating aclvanced class on

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196 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS the chemistry of natural products. This class was always well attended. One of Haagy's graduate students toIct me several years after his departure from Caltech that his notes on the course "Chemistry of Natural Products" contained more meat and information than his notes from any other class he tract taken as a graduate student at the Institute. In addition to sharing the academic burdens of teaching and supervising graduate students, Arie served as the Divi- sion of Biology's first executive officer, a position he heal for six years. ~ remember there was so much work to clo as ex- ecutive officer at the time that each evening, instead of a briefcase, Arie took home a suitcase full of papers to work on. In the morning, he brought back the suitcase full of re- solved work. SMOG AND MICROCHEMISTRY Until well into Florid War IT, the gasoline proclucect in southern California was produced by the straight fractional distillation of crude of! ant! principally container! saturated hydrocarbons. In the summer of 1943 a butactiene plant for the manufacture of one monomer for a synthetic rubber opened in Los Angeles. It quickly became surrounded by a fog of beautiful, eye-irritating, orange vapor: Smog had been born. The catalytic cracking of petroleum, which began on a large scale at this time, lect to the production of a vast array of unsaturated hydrocarbons, and soon the aerosol we now know as smog was not only generated abundantly in indus- trial Los Angeles but also cirifted from Los Angeles inland to the San Gabriel Mountains. It travelled east as far as River- si(le and even New Jersey! The aerosol, contained untler the inversion layer characteristic of summer and fall clays in southern California, couIcl not rise up and be (liluted. In the late 1940s, no one knew the chemical nature of the smoggy aerosol, although it was widely suspected that it had

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ARIE JAN HAAGEN-SMIT 197 something to do with emissions of petroleum products. The Western Oil and Gas Association, the industrial association of petroleum companies, engaged the services of the south- ern branch of Stanford Research Institute to determine the chemical nature of smog. They found that smog was causer! by sulfur dioxide emissions. Stringent laws were immecliately passed in Laos Angeles County, putting a lid on SO2 emissions, and soon Los Angeles had the cleanest air from the stand- point of SO2 pollution of any major city of the Unitec} States. But smog continues! to get worse, and at this point Haa- gen-Smit intervened. His training and experience in micro- chemistry that is, the determination of the chemical nature of substances available only in very small quantities stood him in gooct stead. He and his constant colleague, Charles E. BracIley,4 determiner! that the aerosol was composed of polymerized oxidation products of unsaturates] hydrocar- bons. They further showed that these unsaturated hydrocar- bons were releaser! from gasoline storage tanks, from the gasoline tanks of automobiles, and were also present in the exhaust of automobiles. Further study showed that the for- mation of smog was even more complicatect because it was not clue to unsaturated hydrocarbons alone, but to their ox- iciation by ozone. Early in the course of these investigations (work clone in collaboration with Milton Zaitlin, Herbert Hall, and W. Noble) it was also found that smog injured plants. Sensi- tive plants such as spinach ant! alfalfa were used for sometime to determine smog severity at smog-measuring stations throughout Los Angeles County. Haagen-Smit and Charles Bradley also worked out a simple quantitative method for 4 Charles E. Bradley was the retired head of chemical research for the United States Rubber Company and the first professional chemist ever employed in the rubber industry in the United States.

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198 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS determining ozone concentration in the air: Put a piece of bent, anc! therefore stressed, rubber tubing into an air sample and determine how long it takes for the stressed rub- ber to crack a simple, elegant, ant! quick test for ozone con- . ~ centrat~on In air. The single, localized smog source of ~ 943 was quickly con- trolled by the reduction of leaks from the butadiene plant. In the years after 1943? however, smog in Los Angeles grew ever more intense and pervasive. In 1947 the Los Angeles County Air Pollution Control District was formed by an act of the California legislature to stucly the problem. It was also provided with the legal tools to enforce measures necessary for improving the situation. Haagen-Smit was instrumental in persuading city, county, ant! state officials to establish this organization and institute these important measures. By the late 1940s, Haagen-Smit not only knew the nature of smog, he realized the magnitude of the problem of clearing with it ant! the need for action on a wide front. More research was needed, for example, to find out in cletai! how the high oxi- dant levels in Los Angeles air were generated. From 1950 to 1959, Haagen-Smit took a year's leave of absence from his academic post to lead the research efforts of the Los Angeles County Air Pollution Control District. These further stucties confirmed the cletails of the photo- chemical cycle by which primary pollutants were transformed into eye irritants and polymeric aerosols. The primary agents in this process were the oxides of nitrogen that originated in all high-temperature combustion in air (the combination of oxygen and nitrogen at high pressure and temperature and the rapic! quenching of the reaction). These conclusions were not at all readily accepted by the automobile industry, how- ever, anc! it was not until 1954 that general agreement as to the chemical nature of smog and the photochemical nature of its genesis was achieved.

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ARIE JAN HAAGEN-SMIT 207 With D. Bonner and F. Went. Leaf growth factors, a bioassay and source for leaf growth factors. Bot. Gaz. (Chicago), 101:128. With i. English, fir., and I. Bonner. The wound hormones of plants. II. The isolation of a crystalline active substance. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 25:323. With I. English, Jr., and [. Bonner. The wound hormones of plants. IV. Structure and synthesis of a traumatin. l. Am. Chem. Soc., 61:3434. 1940 With C. Wawra, J. Koepfli, G. Alles, G. Feigen, and A. Prater. A physiologically active principle from Cannabis saliva (mari- juana). Science, 91:602. Research in plant hormones: History, development, methods, achievements. Pac. Chem. Metall. Ind., p. 22. With A. Prater. The excystment of protozoa; Isolation of crystalline excystment factors for Colpoda duodenarza. ]. Cell. Comp. Phys- iol., 15:95. With A. Prater. Sealable absorption microtube. Ind. Eng. Chem., 12:184. With A. Prater. Microhydrogenation apparatus. Ind. Eng. Chem., 12:705. 1941 With E. Tatum. Identification of Drosophila V + hormone of bac- terial origin. l. Biol. Chem., 140:575. The essence of plants and its separation. Plant Culture League, 3. With W. Leech and W. Bergen. Estimation, isolation, and identifi- cation of auxins in plant material. Science, 93:624. 1942 With G. Alles, G. Feigen, and W. Dandliker. Evidence of another physiologically active principle in Cannabis saliva (marihuana). J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 76:21. With H. Bonner. Poisonous plants in California. Plant Culture League, 4. With W. Leech and W. Bergen. The estimation, isolation, and iden- tification of auxins in plant materials. Am. l. Bot., 29:500:

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208 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With I. Raper. Sexual hormones in Achlya. IV. Properties of hor- mone A of Achlya bisexuals. ]. Biol. Chem., 143:31 1. 1943 With C. Jeffries and J. Kirchner. Separation of carotenes from xan- thophylls. Ind. Eng. Chem., 15:179. With S. Lepkovsky and E. Roboz. Xanthurenic acid and its role in the tryptophane metabolism of pyridoxine-deficient rats. J. Biol. Chem., 149:195. 1944 Chemical constituents of California oils; Guayule and bay oil. In: Proceedings, Conference on the Cultivation of Drug and Associated Plants in California. With I. Overbeek and R. Siu. Factors affecting the growth of Datura embryos in vitro. Am. I. Bot., 31:219. The chemistry of essential oils. Chem. Dig., 13:167. With R. Siu. Chemical investigations in guayule. I. Essential oil of guayule, Parthenium argentatum, gray. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 66:2068. Studies on the culturing in vitro of immature plant embryos. Yearb. Am. Philos. Soc., p. 170. 1945 With R. Siu and G. Wilson. A method for the culturing of excised, immature corn embryos in vitro. Science, 101:234. With I. Kirchner, A. Prater, and C. Deasy. Chemical studies of pine- apple (Ananas satins Lividly. I. The volatile flavor and odor constituents of pineapple. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 67:1646. With I. Kirchner, C. Deasy, and A. Prater. Chemical studies of pine- apple (Ananas satins Lindl.~. II. Isolation and identification of a sulfur-containing ester in pineapple. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 67:1651. Essential oils. Eng. Sci. (Caltech), vol. 7. 1946 With l. Kirchner and A. Prater. Separation of acide by chromato- graphic adsorption of their p-phenylphenacyl esters. Ind. Eng. Chem., 18:31.

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A RI E JAN HAAGEN - S M IT 209 With W. Dandliker, S. Wittwer, and A. Murneek. Isolation of 3- indoleacetic acid from immature corn kernels. Am. [. Bot, 33:118. Flavor studies on pineapple. Am. Perfum. Essent. Oil Rev., 48:62. With A. Strickland, C. fearers, and I. Kirchner. Studies on vitamin A content of canned pineapple. Food Res., 11:142. 1947 With C. Redemann and N. Mirov. Composition of gum turpentine of Torrey pine. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 69:2014. Precision with carbon big-organic chemistry. Eng. Sci. (Caltech), 10~5), 17. With A. Strickland. Chemical substances inducing excystment of the resting cysts of Colpoda duodenar~a. ]. Cell. Comp. Physiol., 30:381. With H. Friedgood, i. Garst, and L. Steinitz. The concentration and preservation of urinary substances by lyophilization. Science, 105:99. Pine oleoresins. Proc. Drug Assoc. Econ. Plants, p. 268. 1948 With A. Strickland. The excystment of Colpoda duodenaria. Science, 107:204. The chemistry, origin, and function of essential oils in plants. In: The Essential Oils, vol. 1, pp. 15-77. New York: D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc. With H. Borsook, C. Deasy, J. Keighley, and P. Lowy. Alpha- aminoadipic acid: A product of lysine metabolism. T. Biol Chem., 173:423. With H. Borsook, C. Deasy, J. Dubnoff, C. Fong, W. Fraser, G. Keighley, and P. Lowy. Protein and peptide turnover with re- spect to lysine in guinea pig liver homogenate. Fed. Proc. Fed Am. Soc. Exp. Biol., 7:22a. With H. Borsook, C. Deasy, G. Keighley, and P. Lowy. Isolation of a peptide in guinea pig liver homogenate and its turnover of leucine. J. Biol. Chem., 174:1041. With H. Borsook, C. Deasy, G. Keighley, and P. Lowy. The degra- dation of L-lysine in guinea pig liver homogenate: Formation of alpha-aminoadipic acid. {. Biol. Chem., 176: 1383.

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210 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With H. Borsook, C. Deasy, G. Keighley, and P. Lowy. The degra- dation of alpha-aminoadipic acid in guinea pig liver homoge- nate.J. Am. Chem. Soc., 176:1395. With C. Fong. Chemical investigation of guayule. II. The structure of partheniol, a sesquiterpene alcohol from guayule. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 70:2075. With H. Friedgood and J. Garst. A new method for the separation of androgens from estrogens and for the partition of estriol from the estrone-estradiol fraction with special reference to the identification and quantitative microdetermination of estrogens by ultraviolet absorption spectrophotometry. J. Biol. Chem., 174:523. Azulenes. Fortschr. Chem. Org. Naturst., 5:40. With E. Roboz. A mucilage from aloe Vera. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 70:3248. 1949 Essential oils a brief survey of their chemistry and production in the United States. Econ. Bot., 3:71. The chemistry of flavor. Eng. Sci. (Caltech), 12~61:3. With N. Mirov and T. Wang. Chemical composition of gum tur- pentines of pines: A report on Pinus strobes, P. cembra, P. toeda, P. radiata, and P. virginiana. J. Am. Pharm. Assoc., 38:403. With N. Mirov and J. Thurlow. Composition of gum turpentine of Pinus lambertiana. J. Am. Pharm. Assoc., 38:407. With C. Bradley. The essential oil of Pectis papposa. Econ. Bot., 30:407. With F. Hirosawa and T. Wang. Chemical studies on grapes and wines. I. Volatile constituents of Zinfandel grapes (Vitis vinifera, var. Zinfandel). Food Res., 14:472. 1950 With T. Wang and N. Mirov. Composition of gum turpentines of Pinus ar~stata, P. balfouriana, P. pexibilis, and P. parviflora. J. Am. Pharm Assoc., 39:254. Plant growth hormones. Sci. Couns., 8:7. With C. Redemann, T. Wang, and N. Mirov. Composition of gum

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ARI E JAN H AA GEN - S M IT 211 turpentines of pines: A report on Pinus ponderosa, ~ banksiana, ~ canar~en~s~s, and ~ washoens~s. J. Am. Pharm. Assoc., 39:260. With T. Wang and N. Mirov. Composition of gum turpentines of Pinus ar~stata, ~ balfourzana, P. Rebills, and P. parvipora. ]. Am. Pharm. Assoc., 39:254. With I. Pinckard and L. Zechmeister. Contribution to the structure of pro-y-carotene and prolycopene obtained from various sources. Arch. Biochem., 26:358. Second Technical and Administrative Report on Air Pollution Con- trol in Los Angeles County, ed. A. I. Haagen-Smit, Air Pollution Control District, County of Los Angeles, 1950-1951. The air pollution problem in Los Angeles. Eng. Sci. (Caltech), 14~3~:7. The ogre smog. Eng. Sci. (Caltech), 14~3~:17. 1951 The history and nature of plant growth hormones. In: Plant Growth Substances, ed. F. Skoog, p. 3. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. With C. Bradley. The application of rubber in the quantitative de- termination of smog. Rubber Chem. Technol., 24:750. With F. Hirosawa. Chemical studies on wine. II. Volatile constitu- ents of Zinfandel wine. Food Res. The power of microanalysis. l. Chem. Educ., 28:496. With C. Bradley. The essential oil of Bursara microphylla. ]. Am. Pharm. Assoc. Sci. Ed., 40:591. The chemistry of Los Angeles smog. Report of Tuberculosis Assoc., Second Annual Chest Disease Symposium, February. With T. Wang and N. Mirov. Composition of gum turpentines of pines. XIII. A report on Pinus albicaulas. ]. Am. Pharm. Assoc. Sci. Ed., 40:557. 1952 With E. Darley, M. Zaitlin, H. Hull, and W. Noble. Investigation on injury of plants from air pollution in the Los Angeles area. Plant Physiol., 27:18. Chemistry and physiology of Los Angeles smog. Ind. Eng. Chem., 44: 1342.

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212 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Smell and taste. Sci. Am., 186:28. Smog research pays off. Eng. Sci. (Caltech), 1 5~8~: 1 1. With C. Bradley and M. Fox. Formation of ozone in Los Angeles smog. In: Proceedings, Second National Air Pollution Symposium, Pasadena, California, May, p. 54. 1953 Essential oils. Sci. Am., 189:70. With C. Bradley and M. Fox. Ozone formation in photochemical oxidation of organic substances. Ind. Eng. Chem., 45:2086. The biogenesis of terpenes. Annul Rev. Plant Physiol., 4:305. Present status of the smog problem. i. Appl. Nutr., 6:298. 1954 With M. Fox. Photochemical ozone formation with hydrocarbons and automobile exhaust. Air Repair, 4: 105. The control of air pollution in Los Angeles. Eng. Sci. (Caltech), 18~3~: 11. The nature of air pollution in Los Angeles. Calif. Health, 11: 131. 1955 Sesquiterpenes and diterpenes. Fortschr. Chem. Org. Naturst., 12:1. With D. Viglierchio. Investigation of plant wound hormones. Rec. Trav. Chim. Pays-gas., 74: 1197. With M. Fox. Automobile exhaust and ozone formation. Soc. Auto. Eng. Trans., 63:575. 1956 With M. Fox. Ozone formation in photochemical oxidation of or- ganic substances. Ind. Eng. Chem., 48: 1484. Air pollution in Los Angeles and its control. J. Appl. Nutr., 9:413. Atmospheric reactions of air pollutants. Ind. Eng. Chem., 48:65a. 1957 Rubber cracking. In: A Message from Voit, Special Publication. New Haven: W. l. Voit Rubber Corporation. Air pollution A national problem. Yale Sci. Rev. 31:7.

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ARIE JAN HAAGEN-SMIT 213 Studies on air pollution control by Southern California Edison Company. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng. Pap., 57-SA-59. With V. Taylor. The application of the Beckman infrared analyzer to the continuous analysis of SO2 and NO in flue gases. Clean Air Q. (State of Calif., Dept. of Public Health), 1:4. 1958 The lower terpenes. In: The Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, vol. 10, ed. W. Ruhland, p. 52. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Rubber and its environment. (Symposium on the reaction of ozone on rubber. (1) Am. Soc. Test. Mater., Spec. Tech. Publ., 229:3- 10. With M. Brunelle. The long-term oxidant records scanned by ex- perts. Clean Air Q. (State of Calif., Dept. of Public Health), 2~1), 1. Frequent and severe smog attacks experienced in the state this year. Clean Air Q. (State of Calif., Dept. of Public Health), 2~4), 3. With M. Brunelle. The application of phenolphthalein reagent to atmospheric oxidant analysis. Int. I. Air Pollut., 1 :51. Progress in smog control. Eng. Sci. (Caltech), 2 1~9~: 1 1. Air pollution. Science, 128:869. When is air polluted and why is it necessary to measure air pollu- tants? In: Proceedings of a National Conference on Air Pollution, Washington, D.C., pp. 81-83; and, With W. Chadwick. Some findings toward control of air pollution from combustion of fuel oil and natural gas, pp. 84-86. 1959 Studies of air pollution control by Southern California Edison Company. J. Eng. Power, 1-6. The air and you. (Program in the series "The Next Hundred Years," KRCA-TV, Channel 4, February 15.) Smog: world problem with many answers. The UNESCO Courier no. 3. With V. Taylor and M. Brunelle. Spectroscopic analysis of indus- trial emissions for nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide. Int. I. Air Pollut., 2: 159.

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214 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With M. Brunelle. Ozone cracking in the Los Angeles area. Rubber Chem. Technol., 32:1134. With M. Brunelle and I. Hara. Nitrogen oxide content of smokes from different types of tobacco. AMA Arch. Ind. Health, 20:399. 1961 Essential oils. Eng. Sci. (Caltech), 24~7~:7-11. With i. F. Middleton. Photochemical air pollution in the United States, Canada and Mexico. l. Air Pollut. Control, 2:129-34. With A. Hamilton. Cleaning up our polluted air. Think, 27: 18. 1962 Smog controlis it just around the corner? Eng. Sci. (Caltech), 26~2~:9. 1964 The control of air pollution. Sci. Am., 210:25. Some thoughts about air conservation. Industrial Associates Lec- ture, California Institute of Technology, June 22. Sideline (Aquaria). Calif. Inst. Technol. Q., 5:22. Discussion on trends in air pollution. Arch. Environ. Health, 8:31. New and revised motor vehicle standards adopted. Clean Air Q. (State of Calif., Dept. of Public Health), 8:1. 1965 Atmospheric ecology, the troubled outdoors. Arch. Environ. Health,11:87. Carbon monoxide and the freeway commuter. Calif. Inst. Technol. Q., Spring. Also in: Eng. Sci. (Caltech), 28~5~:22. Air pollution. I. Am. Med. Asoc., 191: 152. 1966 The troubled outdoors. In: Proceedings of the Wilderness Conference, April 2-4, 1965. New York: Plenum Press. Air conservation. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Publication no. 80.

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ARIE JAN HAAGEN-SMIT 215 Foothill smog hunt. Altadenan/Pasadenan, April 14. Mass transit and air pollution. In: Report of the Fourth Annual Con- vention, League of Women Voters, May. Air, water, and people. Presented at the Twenty-ninth Annual Alumni Seminar, California Institute of Technology, May 7. Wilderness in a changing world. In: Problems of Pollution, p. 128. San Francisco: The Sierra Club. Carbon monoxide levels in city driving. Arch. Environ. Health, 1 2:548. With C. Pollard, i. Bonner, and C. Nimmo. Metabolic transfor- mation of mevalonic acid by an enzyme system from peas. Plant Physiol., 41:66. 1967 Air, water and people. Research Management, Ind. Res. Inst., 10:187. The chemistry of atmospheric pollution. In: Proceedings, Confer- ence on Museum Climatology, London, September. With L. G. Wayner. Atmospheric reactions and scavenging pro- cesses. In: Air Pollution, vol. 1. New York: Academic Press. 1968 Urgent problems in air conservation. University of Wisconsin, Pilot Project in Environmental Sciences, January 10. Airs from heaven, blasts from hell. Beckman Lecture, California Institute of Technology. Air conservation. Scientia (Milan), 103: 261-80. Is there hope for Los Angeles? Presented at the Science Writers Seminar on Global Pollution, San Francisco, January 29. 1969 California air pollution progress. The Valuator (Calif. Teachers Assoc. Publ.), Fall. Poor plants- poor people. Lasca Leaves, 19~2~:32-35. 1970 Man and his home. Vital Speeches of the Day, 36:572. Also in: The Living Wilderness, 34:38.

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216 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS A lesson from the smog capital of the world. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 672:887-97. 1971 The future of environmental research. (Dedication of Biotron.) Univ. Wis. Univ.-Ind. Res. Newsl., 6:1.

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