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MARGARET MEAD December ~ 6, ~ 901-November 15, ~ 978 BY CLIFFORD GEERTZ MARGARET MEAD was probably the most famous anthro- pologist of her time, and even more probably the most controversial. Author of more than fifteen hundred books, articles, films, anct occasional pieces; a tireless public speaker traveling the world to instruct ancl persuade; a field re- searcher of extraordinarily extensive and varied experience; a hyperactive organizer of projects, conferences, programs, and careers; and possessed of a seemingly endless fund of opinions on every subject under the sun that she was all too willing to share with anyone who asked, and many who clic! not; she left no one who came into contact with her or her works indifferent to either. Even cleath, which came from pancreatic cancer in the winter of 197S, a month shy of her seventy-seventh birthday, clid not still the debates that circulatect about her person anct her work. The appearance in 1983 of the New Zealand/Aus- tralian anthropologist Derek Freeman's highly publicizecl wholesale attack on her first book, Coming of Age in Samoa, published fifty-five years earlier, began yet another round of intense and often bitter discussion, both popular and profes- sional, whose end is still not in sight. She was the subject of a special memorial issue of the American Anthropologist in June 1980, in which eight of her students and coworkers contrib- 329
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330 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS uted assessments of various aspects of her work; of an af- fecting memoir by her daughter, Mary Catherine Bateson, herself an anthropologist, in 1984; and of a mammoth, fact- cramme(1 popular biography by Jane Howard, also in 1984. The following memoir is heavily dependent upon these latter works, supplemented even colorect, perhaps, for they are very vivid with certain remembrances of my own. THE CAREER For all the complexity of her person anc} the variety of her interests, Meacl's biography is fairly simply toIcl, for once she found her path in the early 1920s—she never ctiverged from it. Impulsive, improvisitory, peripatetic, she may have been, as well as socially unorthodox, but she led a directecl life, willed ant! implacable. She was born in Philadelphia in December 1901, the first of five chilciren, to Emily Fogg and Edward Sherwooc! Mead. Her father was a professor of economics at the Wharton School of Finance of the University of Pennsylvania. Her mother hac! been a schoolteacher before marriage (and sub- sequently dill some work toward a master's (legree in sociol- ogy), as had been her paternal grandmother, Martha Ramsay MeacI, who lived with the family during MeacI's childhoocI. After a Quaker elementary school education in Philaclelphia ~ American Anthropologist, 82,2 (1980):261-373; Mary Catherine Bateson, With a Daughter's Eye (New York: Morrow, 1984); Jane Howard, Margaret Mead, A Life (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1984). For a full bibliography, missing only the last few years, and with an introduction by Mead on her writings, see Margaret Mead: The Complete Bibliography 1925-1975, ed. loan Gordan, (The Hague: Mouton, 1976). For a sensitive appreciation from outside anthropology, see Renee Fox, "Margaret Mead," International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (New York: The Free Press, 1979). Of the numerous newspaper obituaries, the fullest is that by Alden Whitman of The New York Times, November 16, 1978. Mead's own account of her early life is available as Blackberry Winter: My Earlier Years (New York: Morrow, 1972). It should also be remarked that the inordinate delay in the appearance of this memoir is a result of the fact that I was asked to write it only after the person to whom it was originally assigned failed at length to produce it.
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MARGARET MEAD 331 and public high school in nearby Doylestown, Mead attended DePauw University, GreencastIe, Indiana. She actively dis- liked DePauw and left after a year to transfer to Barnard College. She majored in psychology at Barnard, ultimately writing a master's essay on intelligence testing of Italian and American children. For her doctoral work she moved, in 1923, into anthropology at Columbia University under Franz Boas and Ruth Benedict, writing a library theis on cultural stability in Polynesia. In 1925 despite the misgivings of her teachers and most of her friends she travelled, aged twenty- three, alone and enervated, to Samoa for her first field trip. In a pattern that she was to repeat several times and in- deed never wholly abandon, two works one popular, ten- dentious, schematic, and over-discussed; one technical, de- tached, detailed, and generally neglected resulted from this nine-month field study: Coming of Age in Samoa (1928) and The Social Organization of Manu'a ~ ~ 9301. In ~ 928-l 929 Mead worked in Manus in the Admiralty Islands off the north coast of New Guinea for eight months, from which came the popular Growing Up in New Guinea (1930) and the technical Kinship in the Admiralty Islands (1934~. After a sum- mer's work among the Omaha Indians in Nebraska in 1930 (from which a study, The Changing Culture of an Indian Tribe tI932] resulted with the usual immediacy, though in this case with rather little impact, public or professional), Mead jour- neyed to New Guinea, where she worked among three dif- ferent groups the Tchambuli (or Chambri), the Mundu- gumor (or Biwat), and the Arapesh- between December 1931 and spring 1933. Again, two major works resulted: one for the world, argumentative and controversial, Sex and Tem- perament in Three Primitive Societies (1935), and one for the trade, systematic and not much noticed, The Mountain Arapesh ~1938-19491. From March 1936 to March 193S, plus another six weeks in 1939, Mead worked in Bali, The Netherlands
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332 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS East Indies, producing perhaps her finest single study, the essay in Balinese Character: A Photographic Anaitys?s, Bateson and Mead (19421. Finally, in 1953, she conducted a six-month restudy of Manus, which emerged in 1956 as Nero Lives for 0~: Cultural Transformation Manus ~ 928—1953. Various short revisits to her sites aside (she made at least a half-dozen of them between 1964 and 1975 alone, and nearly twenty altogether), Mead thus carried out nearly six years of exten- sive field research in no less than seven cultures all of them except Bali and the transformed Manus, neolithic; all save the Omaha, in the South Pacific and wrote substantial books (and numerous articles) about all of them. It is a rec- ord, like Malinowski's monograph Fleuve or Frazer's galactic compilation, unlikely to be broken. Not that she was otherwise idle while accomplishing this. As early as 1926 she was appointed assistant curator of eth- nology of the American Museum of Natural History in New York, a position she maintained (advancing to associate cu- rator in 1942; curator in 1964; and curator emerita, but hardly retired, in 1969) until her death, and whose obliga- tions as collector, documenter, conservator, and exhibition designer she took extremely seriously. She added upwards of three thousand items to the Museum's inventory, planned several dioramas, made hundreds of photographs and a number of films, raised (and, not insignificantly, contributed) funds, and finally created, apparently by sheer insistence, ("this has been part of my own working life for forty-five years"2) the splendid Peoples of the Pacific Hall, which opened there in 1971. Although it took Columbia University until 1954 to bring itself to make her an adjunct professor, she also taught: at . . 2 D. H. Thomas, "Margaret Mead as a Museum Anthropologist," American An- thropolog~st, op. cit., p. 357, an excellent review of this rather little known aspect of Mead's career.
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MARGARET MEAD 333 Vassar in ~ 939-l 940, ~ 940-l 94 I, ~ 945-! 946; at New York University in 1940, and from 1965 to 1967; at Wellesley in 1944; at The Menninger Foundation in 1959; at Columbia from 1947 to 1951, in 1952—1953, anct from 1954 to 1978; at Forc~ham University from 1968 to 1970; and at the Uni- versity of Rhocle Island in 1970-1971. She was, inter a great many alia, Jacob Gimbel Lecturer in the Psychology of Sex, at Stanford University ant! the University of California (19461; Mason Lecturer, University of Birmingham, England (19491; Inglis Lecturer, Graduate School of Education, Har- varcl University (1950~; Ernest Jones Lecturer, British Psy- choanalytic Society (19571; anti Dwight Terry Lecturer on Religion in the Light of Science anct Philosophy, Yale Uni- versity (19571. During the Second World War she lectured at the Office of War Information and afterwards at UNESCO and the National Institute of Mental Health. How many stu- dent groups, women's clubs, alumni associations, and profes- sional organizations she acIdressect will probably never be known. Beyonc! fielcI research, curating, and teaching, Mead was a tireless organizer and director of an astonishing variety of intellectual and social enterprises. The list of her "member- ships" in a curriculum vitae apparently prepared a year or so before her death ("Full material is provicled so that each one can select the particular items relevant for his or her pur- pose") runs to eighty-four items, from Parents Without Part- ners, Spirit of Stockholm Foundation, National Council for Negro Women, and General Board of Examining Chaplains of the Episcopal Church to Anthropological Film Research Institute, Woricl Fecleration for Mental Health, Society for Psychical Research, and The Association for Social Anthro- pology in Eastern Oceania. She served no less than twenty- six of these groups in some sort of executive capacity. She was, at various points, president of The Society for Applied
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334 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Anthropology (1949), The American Anthropological As- sociation (1960), and The American Association for the A(1- vancement of Science (1975~. She was the moving force in the Research in Contempo- rary Cultures program at Columbia from 1948 to 1950, in which more than 120 people, including Ruth Benedict, Geof- frey Corer, Nathan Leites, Martha Wolfenstein, and Rhoda Metraux, participated, and from which a number of her own "national character" studies, notably Soviet Attitudes Toward Authority (1951) and (with Metraux) Themes in French Culture (1954), emerged. By the time she was finished, she was cov- ere(1 with honors, inclucling twenty-eight honorary (1egrees (Delhi, Kalamazoo, Harvard, Lincoln, Women's MecTical Col- lege of Pennsylvania . . . ), the Viking Medal in Anthropology (1957-1958), anti, in 1975 (rather late, she thought, as flick a great many others) fellowship in The National Academy of Sciences. In 1977 she was acimittec! to the American Philo- sophical Society. In ~ 979 she was posthumously awarclect The Presidential Mecial of Freedom. Mead was married three times: first, in 1923, to Luther Cressman, a theological student, from whom she was di- vorced in 1928; seconcT, in 192S, to the New Zealanc! anthro- pologist Reo Fortune, with whom she worked in Manus, among the Omaha, and on New Guinea, anc! from whom she was divorced in 1935; and third, in 1936, to the English an- thropologist Gregory Bateson, with whom she workoct in Bali and New Guinea, and from whom she was divorced in 1950. All three of her husbands survived her, as dicl her daughter, Mary Catherine Bateson Kassarjian, at the time of her moth- er's (leash, (lean of social sciences at Reza Shah Civar Univer- sity in Iran; a grandclaughter, Sevanne Kassarjian; and one of her sisters, Elizabeth Mead Steig. When she cried, the people of Manus rested seven days in mourning and planted a coconut tree.
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MARGARET MEAD THE WORK 335 As with any scholar who produces so vast ant! varied an output, no simple verdict is possible concerning the overall quality of Mead's work. Some of it was clearly hasty, ill- consiclerecl, anct casually argued, even irresponsible. Some of it was routine, banal, momentarily useful at best, page-fi~ling at worst. Some of it was professional, careful, a modest but genuine addition to knowlecIge. Anct some of it was extraor- clinarily fine, revolutionary when written and revolutionary still. It is doubtful that any anthropologist, save perhaps she herself, ever has read or ever will read everything, even everything professional, she wrote (certainly, ~ have not); but any anthropologist, in any way serious, has read and for some time to come will read some of it. She started a great many hares and she caught a number of them. Even an attempt to demarcate the major areas, beyond Oceanic ethnography as such, in which Mead maple her main contributions is likely to prove controversial, for she had a way of making everyone from nutritionists to cinematogra- phers fee! that their interest was at the very center of her concern, before all others. Nevertheless, from a detachect perspective, four areas seem to be those upon which the clu- rability of her reputation will ultimately rest: psychological anthropology; applied anthropology; ethnographic method; and a complex of concerns centering arounc! gentler roles, chilcI socialization, and the family, which now would perhaps be called women's stucties, a categorization she would have found, anct toward the end of her life increasingly cTid finch, · . constrictive. Psychological anthropology was a major theme in her work from her first full-scale fielct study of the Samoans in the mid-1920s, concerned as it was with undermining the Sturm und Drang conception of adolescence—to her last, the
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336 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS return to Manus in the mid-1960s, where the subject was "Ethel strange emergence of a group of erstwhile savages twice upon the worm stage, once unconscious of their role, now fully aware of it" (New Lives for Did, ~ 86), and the subject of one of her very last papers, a retrospective summary piece published posthumously in 1979, "The Evocation of Psycho- logically Relevant Responses in Ethnological Field Work" (in eel. G. Spindler, The Making of Psychological Anthropollogy, pp. 88-139. Berkeley: University of California Press). There were essentially three overlapping phases of this work: first, that represented by Growing Up in New Guinea, with its attack on fixed stages of cognitive growth (the chil- dren were "realists," the aclults "animists"), as well as by the Samoan study, in which propose(1 universalities of psycholog- ical functioning were up-ended by particular counter-cases; the second, usually referred to as "culture and personality" research, in which particular cultural mechanisms (teasing, swaddling) were sought out to account for particular psycho- logical traits (affectlessness, suppressed rage); and the thircl, usually referred to as "national character" work, in which entire societies (Russian, French, American) were character- ized in psychological terms (paranoid, reservecl, optimistic). If the first of these superego from a tendency toward thesis striving, the second from a rather mechanical conception of the relation between child socialization and aclult character, and the third from a certain over-ambitiousness, taken to- gether they establishect, especially in the Manus, Balinese, and American studies, the foundations for virtually all sub- sequent work in this area. The second area, appliecl anthropology, was in many ways Meact's dominant concern, determinect as she was to make her science serve human needs. It took her into a large num- ber of government-related "policy science" activities, inclu(l- ing the clirection, as executive secretary, of The.Committee
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MARGARET MEAD 337 on Food Habits of the National Research Council cluring World War ~ I. Her concern continued after the war and con- tributecI to the enactment of the Child Nutrition Act of 1978. Five clays before her cleath she sent a "Dear Jimmy" telegram to President Carter from her hospital bed urging him to . . sign it. Her practical interests pervade all her work and deter- mine its fundamental direction. Race conflict, chilct care, marital relations, women's rights, technological development of Third WorIct countries, mental health, education, ctrug abuse, the generation ~an. American foreign nolirv `>nvi- ~_% ~ By_ +~ ]: ~ ~ ~ ~ <~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ^— r i_ ~ ~ i_ ~, ~ 3 1 ~ ~ ro~rnen~a~sm, aging, and nuclear disarmament all came- anct repeatedly uncler her gaze, half-ethnographic, half- moralist, entirely passionate. And (some rather too quotable remarks asicle), she had useful things, novel and challenging, nicely provocative, to say about all of them. Her foundation, in 1944, of The Institute of Intercultural Studies, to "stim- ulate . . . research . . . most likely to affect intercultural and international relations," and to which she declicated the greater part of her sizeable income, is only the clearest expression of the centrality of the applies! dimension in Meacl's conception of what she was about: "building a new world . . . through a clisciplinecl science of human relations" (Balinese Character, xvi). Meacl's concern with methoclological matters was with her from the beginning, intellectual daughter of Franz Boas that she was, but it was powerfully stimulated by attacks on her, as she became prominent, as "impressionistic," "intuitive," "subjective," ancl, to her the most painful cut of all, "unscien- tific." Mead was totally committee! (as her other mentor, Ruth Benedict, for example, was not) to the view that anthropol- ogy was or ought to be a science, pure and simple, just like the others. Most of her methodological discussions and en- terprises came in reaction to accusations that it, or anyway
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338 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS she, was anything less than thoroughly objective, logically rig- orous, resolutely empirical. ("Each time ~ write something about 'how ~ really do it'," she once complained to me, "'they' use it to show that I'm not to be trusted.") With a candor and bravery not otherwise matched in so- cial anthropology and certainly not by her whitecoated crit- ics, who tend to shoot at her from behind oneway mirrors- Meact continuously exposed her fielcI procedures to full view and evaluation (her papers cleposited in the Library of Con- gress letters, field notes, manuscripts; a half-million items in all probably constitute the fullest and most open record of an ethnographer's work practices extant). Her search for new and better methocis was relentless. At various points she experimented with several forms of psychological testing projective, Piagetian, A; with the analysis of chil~lren's play and children's paintings; with hy- per-behaviorist, timed observations ("There are two sorts of anthropologists," she once saicl, pointedly, to me, "'talking' anthropologists and 'looking' anthropologists: I'm a 'looking' anthropologist."; with life-history recording; with mocles of language learning ant! language use; and perhaps most ex- tensively with photography and with that original combina- tion of (documentary research, film analysis, expatriate inter- viewing, and literary study that she callecl "culture at a distance." Some of these efforts were more successful than others. Even Gregory Bateson was, or so at least he said to me, un- convincecl of some of Mead's claims for the probative value of their photographic work. Even a sympathetic observer must cock a quizzical eye at the oddly phrased claim (in her vita) that "she has hac! to learn to use seven primitive lan- guages"; and projective testing is not much now in fashion. But the vigor with which she pursues! the most intractable problems of ethnographic method and the great impact her
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MARGARET MEAD 345 chology, ed. Philip Lawrence Harriman, pp. 477-88. New York: Philosophical Library. The women in the war. In: While You Were Gone, ed. Jack Goodman, pp. 274-89. New York: Simon and Schuster. 1947 Age patterning in personality development. Am. J. Orthopsychi- atry, 17:231 - 40. The application of anthropological techniques to crossnational communication. Trans. N.Y. Acad. Sci. ser. 2, 9:133-52. The mountain Arapesh. III. Socio-economic life, and IV. Diary of events in Alitoa. Anthropol. Pap. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 40, Part 3:163-419. (Reprinted in paperback 1971, as TheMountainAr- apesh III. Stream of Events in Alitoa. American Museum Science Books B l9c. Garden City, N.Y.: Natural History Press.) On the implications for anthropology of the Gesell-Ilg approach to maturation. Am. Anthropol., 49, no. 1:69-77. 1948 An anthropologist looks at the report. In: Proceedings of a Symposium on the First Published Report of a Series of Studies of Sex Phenomena by Professor Alfred C. Kinsey, Wardell B. Pomeroy and Clyde E. Mar- tin, pp. 58-69. New York: American Social Hygiene Associa- t~on. The contemporary American family as an anthropologist sees it. Am. l. Sociol., 53:453-59. Some cultural approaches to communication problems. In: The Communication of Ideas, ed. Lyman Bryson, pp. 9 - 26. New York: Institute for Religious and Social Studies. World culture. In: The World Community, ed. Quincy Wright, pp. 47-95. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1949 Character formation and diachronic theory. In: Social Structure: Studies Presented to A. R. Radcliffe-Brown, ed. Meyer Fortes, pp. 18-34. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Male and Female: A Study of the Sexes in a Changing World. New York: Morrow. (Reprinted in paperback: 1955, Mentor, New York: New American Library; 1967, Apollo Editions, New York: Mor-
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346 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS row; 1968, Laurel Editions, New York: Dell; 1975, Paperback Editions, New York: Morrow.) The mountain Arapesh. V. The record of Unabelin with Rorschach analyses. Anthropol. Pap. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 41, part 3, pp. 285 - 390. (Reprinted in paperback 1968, as The Mountain Ara- pesh I. The Record of Unabelin with Rorschach Analyses. American Museum Science Books B 19a. Garden City, N.Y.: Natural His- tory Press.) Ruth Fulton Benedict, 1887-1948. Am. Anthropol., 51:457-68. 1950 The comparative study of cultures and the purposive cultivation of democratic values, 1941 - 1949. In: Perspectives on a Troubled Decade: Science, Philosophy and Religion, 1939-1949, ed. Lyman Bryson, Louis Finkelstein and R. M. MacIver, pp. 87-108. New York: Harper. 1951 Anthropologist and historian: their common problems. Am. Q., 3:3-13. Experience in learning primitive languages through the use of learning high level linguistic abstractions. In: Cybernetics: Cir- cular Causal and Feedback Mechanisms in Biological and Social Sys- tems, Transactions of the Seventh Conference, March 23-24, 1950, ed. Heinz van Foerster, pp. 159-85. New York: Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation. Race majority race minority. In: The People in Your Life: Psychiatry and Personal Relations by Ten Leading Authorities, ed. Margaret Hughes, pp. 120-57. New York: Knopf. Research in contemporary cultures. In: Groups, Leadership and Men, ed. Harold Guetzkow, pp. 106-17. Pittsburgh: Carnegie Press. The School of American Culture. (The Inglis Lecture, 1950.) Cam- bridge: Harvard University Press. (Reissued 1964.) Soviet Attitudes toward Authority. New York: McGraw-Hill. (Reprinted in paperback 1955, New York: Morrow; 1966, New York: Shocken.) The study of national character. In: The Policy Sciences: Recent De- velopments in Scope and Method, ed. Daniel Lerner and Harold D. Lasswell, pp. 70-84. Stanford: Stanford University Press. With Frances Cooke Macgregor and photographs by Gregory Bate-
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MARGARET MEAD 347 son. Growth and Culture: A Photographic Study of Balinese Child- hood. New York: Putnam. 1952 One aspect of male and female. In: Women, Society and Sex, ed. Johnson E. Fairchild, pp. 15-32. New York: Sheridan House. The training of the cultural anthropologist. Am. Anthropol., 54:343-46. 1953 Editor. Cultural Patterns and Technical Change: A Manual Prepared by the World Federation for Mental Health. Tensions and Technology Series. Paris: UNESCO. (Reprinted in paperback 1955 With new preface], Mentor, N.Y.: New American Library.) National character. In: Anthropology Today: An Encyclopedic Inventory, ed. A. L. Kroeber, pp. 642-67. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Editor, with Nicolas Calas. Primitive Heritage: An Anthropological An- thology. New York: Random House. Editor, with Rhoda Metraux. The Study of Culture at a Distance. Chi- cago: University of Chicago Press. (Paperback edition 1953.) 1954 Some theoretical considerations on the problem of mother-child separation. Am. I. Orthopsychiatry, 243:471-83. The swaddling hypothesis: its reception. Am. Anthropol.,56:395- 409. With Rhoda Metraux. Themes in French Culture: A Preface to a Study of French Community. (Hoover Institute Studies, ser. D, Com- munities no. 1.) Stanford: Stanford University Press. 1955 Children and ritual in Bali. In: Childhood in Contemporary Cultures, ed. Margaret Mead and Martha Wolfenstein, pp. 40-51. Chi- cago: University of Chicago Press. Editor, with Martha Wolfenstein. Childhood in Contemporary Cultures. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1955. (Reprinted in pa- perback 1963, Phoenix Books, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.)
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348 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1956 Applied Anthropology, 1955. In: Some Uses of Anthropology: Theo- retical and Applied, ed. Joseph B. Casagrande and Thomas Glad- win, pp. 94-108. Washington, D.C.: The Anthropological So- ciety of Washington. The cross-cultural approach to the study of personality. In: Psy- chology of Personality: Six Modern Approaches, ed. J. L. McCary, pp. 201-52. New York: Logos Press. New Lives for Old: Cultural Transformation Manus, 1928-1953. New York: Morrow. 1957 With Rhoda Metraux. Image of the scientist among highschool students: a pilot study. Science, 1 26:384-90. 1958 Israel and Problems of Identity. (Herzl Institute Pamphlets, 3.) New York: Theodor Herzl Foundation. Why is education obsolete. Harv. Business Rev., 36:23-36, 164- 70. 1959 The American family. In: The Search for America, ed. Huston Smith, pp. 1 16 -22. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. An Anthropologist at Work: Writings of Ruth Benedict. Boston: Hough- ton Mifflin. (Reprinted in paperback: 1966, Atheling Book, New York: Atherton Press; 1973, Equinox Books, New York: Avon.) Apprenticeship under Boas. In: The Anthropology of Franz Boas, ed. Walter Goldschmidt. (Memoirs of the American Anthropolog- ical Association, 89.) Am. Anthropol., 61:29-45. Bali in the market place of the world. Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Lett. Natl. Inst. Arts Lett., 2:286-93. Changing culture: some observationsin primitive societies. In: The Human Meaning of the Social Sciences, ed. Daniel Lerner, pp. 285-307. New York: Meridian. People and Places. Cleveland and New York: World Publishing. (Re-
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MARGARET MEAD 349 printed in paperback 1963, Bantam Pathfinder, New York: Ban- tam.) 1960 Cultural contexts of nursing problems. In: Social Science in Nursing, ed. Frances Cooke Macgregor, pp. 74-88. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. The cultural perspective. In: Communication or Conpict: Conferences: Their Nature, Dynamics and Planning, ed. Mary Capes, pp. 9-18. London: Tavistock. Weaver of the border. In: In the Company of Man, ed. Joseph B. Casagrande, pp. 175-210. New York: Harper. Editor, with Ruth L. Bunzel. The Golden Age of American Anthropol- ogy. New York: Braziller. With Theodore Schwartz. The cult as a condensed social process. In: Group Processes: Transactions of the Fifth Conference, October 12-15, 1958, ed. Bertram Schaffner, pp. 85-187. New York: Josiah Macy, fir. Foundation. 1961 Anthropology among the sciences. Am. Anthropol., 63:475-82. Cultural determinants of sexual behavior. In: Sex and Internal Se- cretions, vol. 2, 3d ea., ed. William C. Young, pp. 1433-79. Bal- timore: Williams and Wilkins. The human study of human beings. Science, 133: 163. National character and the science of anthropology. In: Culture and Social Character: The Work of David Riesman Reviewed, ed. Sey- mour M. Lipset and Leo Lowenthal, pp. 15-26. New York: Free Press of Glencoe. Some anthropological considerations concerning natural law. Nat. Law Forum, 6:51-64. With Theodore Schwartz. Micro- and macro-cultural models for cultural evolution. Anthropol. Linguist., 3: 1-7. 1962 Retrospects and prospects. In: Anthropology and Human Behavior, ed. Thomas Gladwin and William C. Sturtevant, pp. 115-49. Washington, D.C.: The Anthropological Society of Washington.
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350 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS The underdeveloped and the overdeveloped. Foreign Affairs, 4 1 :78-89. 1963 Anthropology and the camera. In: The Encyclopedia of Photography, ed. Willard D. Morgan, vol. 1, pp. 166-84. New York: Grey- stone. Anthropology and an education for the future. In: The Teaching of Anthropology, vol. 1, ed. David G. Mandelbaum, Gabriel W. Las- ker, and Ethel M. Albert, pp. 595-607. Berkeley and Los An- geles: University of California Press. The bark paintings of the mountain Arapesh of New Guinea. In: Technique and Personality in Primitive Art, pp. 8-43 (Museum of Primitive Art Lecture Series, 3.) New York: The Museum of Primitive Art. Culture and personality. In: The Encyclopedia of Mental Health, vol. 2, ed. Albert Deutsch and Helen Fishman, pp. 415-26. New York: Watts. - Human capacities. In: Man, Science, Learning and Education: The Semicentennial Lectures at Rice University, ed. S. W. Higginbotham, pp. 241 - 54. (Rice University Studies, vol. 49, suppl. 2.) Hous- ton, Tex.: William Marsh Rice University. Male and female. In: The Measure of Mankind, by Joseph Bram, Colin M. Turnbull, Marvin Harris, Margaret Mead, and Saul K. Padover, pp. 55-72. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Oceana Publications. Totem and Taboo reconsidered with respect. Bull. Menninger Clin., 27: 198-99. 1964 Continuities in Cultural Evolution. (The Dwight Harrington Terry Foundation Lectures on Religion in the Light of Science and Philosophy.) New Haven: Yale University Press. (Reprinted in paperback 1966, New Haven: Yale University Press.) Food Habits Research: Problems of the 1960's. Washington, D.C.: Na- tional Academy of Sciences National Research Council, Pub- lication 1225. The idea of national character. In: The Search for Identity: Essays on the American Character, ed. Roger L. Shinn, pp. 14-27. (Religion
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MARGARET MEAD 351 and Civilization Series.) New York: The Institute for Religious and Social Studies; Harper and Row. 1965 Anthropologists and What They Do. New York: Watts. (Reprinted 1969, Eau Claire, Wisc.: Hale.) With Ken Heyman. Family. New York: Macmillan. With Rhoda Metraux. The anthropology of human conflict. In: The Nature of Human Conf ict, ed. Elton B. McNeil, pp. 116-38. Englewood Cliffs, N. I.: Prentice-Hall. 1966 Cultural man. In: Man in Community, ed. Egbert De Vries, pp. 197- 217. London: SMC Press; New York: Association Press. With Muriel Brown. The Wagon and the Star: A Study of American Community Initiative. St. Paul, Minn.: Curriculum Resources; Chicago: Rand McNally. 1967 Homogeneity and hypertrophy: A Polynesian-based hypothesis. In: Polynesian Culture History: Essays in Honor of Kenneth ~ Emory, ed. Genevieve A. Highland and others, pp. 121-40. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press. 1968 Alternatives to war. In: War: The Anthropology of Armed Conpict and Aggression, ed. Morton Fried, Marvin Harris, and Robert Mur- phy, pp. 215-28. Garden City, N.Y.: Natural History Press. Benedict, Ruth. In: International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, vol. 2, ed. David L. Sills. New York: Macmillan and Free Press. Conferences. In: International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, vol. 3, ed. David L. Sills, pp. 215-20. New York: Macmillan and Free Press. Incest. In: International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, vol. 7, ed. David L. Sills, pp. 115-22. New York: Macmillan and Free Press. Introductory remarks, and Concluding remarks. In: Science and the Concept of Race, ed. Margaret Mead, Theodosius Dobzhansky,
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352 BIOGRAPHICAL MEM OIRS Ethel Tobach, and Robert E. Light, pp. 3-9, 169-77. New York and London: Columbia University Press. With Paul Byers. The Small Conference: An Innovation in Communi- cation. (Publications of the International Social Science Council, 9.) Paris and The Hague: Mouton. (Paperback edition 1968.) 1969 The generation gap. Science, 164:135. 1970 Anomalies in American postdivorce relationships. In: Divorce and After, ed. Paul Bohannan, pp. 97-112. Garden City, N.Y. : Doubleday. Anthropological contributions to the development of rational die- tary practices. In: VIIme Congres International des Sciences Anthro- pologtques et Ethnologzques, Moscou, August 3-10, 1964, vol. 8, pp. 147-53. Mockba: Hayka. Bio-social components of political processes. J. Intl. Affairs, 24:18- 28. The changing significance of food. Am. Sci., 58:176-81. Culture and Commitment: A Study of the Generation Gap. Garden City, N.Y.: Natural History Press/Doubleday. (Paperback edition 1970.) Some cultural anthropological responses to technical assistance ex- perience. Soc. Sci. Inf., 9:49 - 59. With R. Metraux. A Way of Seeing. New York: McCall. 1971 Anthropology in 1970. In: Environment and Society in Transition, ed. Peter Albertson and Margery Barnett, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 184: 321-28. Childbirth in a changing world. In: Pregnancy, Birth and the Newborn Baby, pp. 40-61. Boston: Delacorte Press. With fames Baldwin. A Rap on Race. Philadelphia and New York: Lippincott. (Reprinted in paperback: 1972, Delta Book, New York: Dell; 1974, Laurel Edition, New York: Dell.) Editor, with Preston McClanahan. Peoples of the Pacific. Nat. Hist., 80:34-7 1.
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MARGARET MEAD 1972 353 Blackberry Winter: My Earlier Years. New York: Morrow. (Reprinted in paperback: 1972, Touchstone Edition, New York: Simon & Schuster; 1975, New York: Pocket Books.) Changing life patterns and the consciousness of the individual. In: The Challenge of Life: Biomedical Progress and Human Values. Roche Anniversary Symposium, ed. Robert M. Kunz and Hans Fehr, pp. 304-15. Basel and Stuttgart: Birkhauser. Field work in high cultures. In: Crossing Cultural Boundaries, ed. Solon T. Kimball and fames B. Watson, pp. 120-32. San Fran- cisco: Chandler. 1973 The American Indian as a significant determinant of anthropolog- ical style. In: Anthropology and the American Indian: A Symposium, pp. 68 - 74. San Francisco: Indian Historian Press. Changing styles of anthropological work. In: Annul Rev. Anthropol., 2:1-26. 1974 On Freud's view of female psychology. In: Women and Analysis, ed. lean Strouse, pp. 95-106. New York: Grossman. Margaret Mead. In: A History of Psychology in Autobiography, vol. 6, ed. Gardner Lindzey, pp. 293-326. New York: Prentice-Hall. Ruth Benedict. New York and London: Columbia University Press. (Paperback edition 1974.) 1975 Essay: On the quality of life. In: Voices for Life; Refections on the Human Condition, ed. Dom Moraes, pp. 124-32. New York: Praeger. Ethnicity and anthropology in America. In: Ethnic Identity, ed. George de Vos and Lola Romanucci-Ross, pp. 173-97. Palo Alto: Mayfield. Sex differences: Innate, learned, or situational? Q. ]. Libr. Congr., 32:260-67. With Walter Fairservis. Kulturelle Verhaltensweisen und die Um- welt des Menschen (Cultural attitudes toward the human envi-
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354 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS ronment). In: Umwelt Strategie, ed. Hans D. Engelhardt, pp. 15- 32. Gutersloh, Germany: Mohn. With Ken Heyman. World Enough: Rethinking the Future. Boston: Little, Brown. 1977 Letters from the Field 1925-1975. New York: Harper & Row. 1978 The evocation of psychologically relevant responses in ethnological field work. In: The Making of Psychological Anthropology, ed. G. Spindler, pp. 89-139. Berkeley: University of California Press. The Sepik as a culture area: comment. Anthropol. Q., 51:69-75. With R. Metraux. An Interview with Santa Claus. New York: Walker. 1979 Anthropological contributions to national policies during and im- mediately after World War II. In: The Uses of Anthropology, ed. W. Goldschmidt, pp. 145-58. Washington, D.C.: American An- thropological Association. Margaret Mead, Some Personal Views, ed. R. Metraux. New York: Walker. 1980 With Rhoda Metraux. Aspects of the Present. New York: Morrow.
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Representative terms from entire chapter: