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ERIC GLENDINNING BALL July 12, 1904-September 4, 1979 BY JOHN M. BUCHANAN AND A. BAIRD HASTINGS DWRING HIS SEVENTY-FIVE YEARS, Eric Glendinning Ball witnessed and participated in the maturation of bio- chemistry as a major biological science in the United States. As a graduate student in chemistry he applied his analytical skills to the estimation of the chloride content of blooc! and serum. As a postdoctoral fellow and young instructor, he turned his attention to oxidation-recluction potentials of var- ious naturally occurring organic systems. When enzymes were recognized as proteins susceptible to isolation and pu- rification as indiviclual entities, he measured the potentials of several biological oxiciation-reduction systems, notably those of the cytochromes and xanthine oxiciase. Eric consiclered his research in this area his most important contribution to science. Yet his work cluring the war years on the cultivation of the malaria parasite in vitro, and his postwar ventures into the study of the role of hormones in the synthesis of lipids by fat pads of the rat were equally significant, reflecting his application of biochemistry to problems in cell physiology. Like many another biochemist, Eric transformed himself from chemist to biologist as the application of chemical meth- ocIs to emerging areas of biology became possible. Eric was born on July 12, 1904, in Coventry, England, the first of two children of Nellie Glendinning and Charles 49

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50 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Sturges Ball. A sister, Margaret, completed the Ball family seven years later. Eric emigrated to this country with his par- ents at the age of ten months. His father, Charles, had en- tered the ministry in the Wesleyan Methodist Church in En- gland and remained affiliated with the Methodist Church following his arrival in the United States. During the next eight or nine years, however, Charles Ball studied at vari- ous divinity schools in this country. His religious viewpoint changed during this time, and he became a Congregation- alist. Later, at the age of fifty, he joined the Episcopal Church and began a new career of teaching and preaching. Charles Ball served in turn on the faculties of Coucher College and the divinity schools at Gambier, Ohio, and A1- exandria, Virginia. Thus, as is frequently the case in minis- terial families, Eric experienced a constant change of habi- tation and environment. After successive moves from New Rochelle, New York, to Bridgeport, Connecticut, followed by short stays in New Haven and Kensington, Connecticut, the Ball family returned to England for a year. It was here, at age seven, that Eric first experienced some measure of in- dependence from family supervision and began to follow his bent for exploring the English countryside and drawing, in precise detail, various natural objects such as leaves and flow- ers. He was to continue to enjoy outdoor life and the thrill of following a new trail for the remainder of his life. Un- doubtedly, with maturity, these new trails became scientific ones. Upon returning to the United States, the Ball family lived for a while in Stony Creek, Connecticut, and then moved to Lansford, Pennsylvania, in the heart of the anthracite coal- mining district. Finally, in the fall of 1917, the family moved to Baltimore where Eric entered Baltimore City College. Ap- parently he was a lackluster student in high school, possibly because of a lack of inspiration or motivation. Undoubtedly

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ERIC GLENDINNING BALL 5 his life must have been greatly influenced by the prolonged illness of his mother, who died in 1919. It was a course in chemistry, taken as a requirement tor graduation from high school, that directed his interest to the sciences and led to his enrollment in Haverford College as a chemistry major. Although achievement in his studies was at first difficult because of insufficient background, Eric grad- ually gained strength academically and demonstrated his true scholastic caliber during his senior year, when he com- piled the highest grades of his college career. At the same time, he earned letters in soccer and track and was manager of the basketball team. This reversal of form won for him, on graduation in 1925, the Scholarship Improvement Prize and a Clementine Cope fellowship to carry on graduate work at Haverford the following year. His thesis work for the mas- ter's degree at Haverford was concerned with the melting points of mixtures of sodium sulfate and sodium chromate. Although the results of these experiments never reached publication, the year's work gave Eric the experience he needed to launch a career of research in science. Although he had planned to continue graduate work for his doctorate, possibly in physical chemistry, following award of his master's degree, Eric took a job in a paper factory to replenish his financial resources. At this point, an opportu- nity arose that altered his entire career. D. Wright Wilson, head of the Department of Physiological Chemistry at the University of Pennsylvania, offered Eric a position as a re- search assistant. Eric attributed this stroke of good luck to a friendship between the Wilson family and his father, who had performed the marriage ceremony for Wright and Helene Connett some years earlier. At closer inspection, however, it appears that other, more personal circumstances may have been responsible for this joining of Eric's fortunes to those of the Wilson family. Helene's younger sister, Edith Connett,

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52 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS had introducec! her friend Grace Snavely to Eric while he was a master's candidate at HaverforcI. A courtship ensued that resultec! in their marriage on September 10, 1927. By this time, Eric tract registered as a graduate student in the Department of Physiological Chemistry and was well on his way to completing his doctoral dissertation under Wright Wilson. The results of his work, "A Study of the Estimation of Chloride in Blooct and Serum," were published in 1928 in the Journal of Biological Chemistry. A subsequent piece of re- search was publishect in abstract form during the following year in the American Journal of Physiology, and later in the iour- nall of Biolog7call Chemistry ~ ~ 9301. It clescribed the composition of pancreatic juice ant! blooct serum as influenced by the in- jection of inorganic salts. Although the character of his re- search was to change markedly in subsequent years, Eric did return to his first interest in physiological chemistry with publications in 1936 and 1941. The latter research, which used "C-bicarbonate, was one of the first projects undertaken after his arrival at Harvard Medical School as a newly ap- pointecl assistant professor of biochemistry. Although his Ph.D. was formally awarded in 1930, Eric hac! been granted a National Research Council fellowship in 1929 to work with W. Mansfield Clark in the Department of Physiological Chemistry at The Johns Hopkins University. An earlier interest in physical chemistry had been stimulated by lames C. Andrews at Pennsylvania. Andrews was himself a physical chemist, and he had organizer! a seminar for a hanct- fu! of graduate students on the application of oxiciation- recluction potentials to biological systems. Through this sem- inar, Eric became acquainted with CIark's work on the deter- mination of the hydrogen ion concentration and his first ten papers on oxidation-rectuction studies. After a year in Baltimore, Eric planned to spend a year with Otto Warburg at the Institut fur Zell Physiologie in

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ERIC GLENDINNING BALL 53 Berlin-DahIem, Germany. Dr. Warburg was undoubtecIly the worId's leading expert on the enzymes of biological oxicia- tion-reduction systems, and further training in this excep- tional laboratory would have prepared Eric for his ultimate goal of applying his training as a physical chemist to these enzyme systems. Nevertheless, this projected year in Ger- many was postponed for seven years because of an offer from Hopkins of an instructorshipan exceptional opportunity, particularly at that time when the country was slipping into one of its most prolonger! depressions. Thus, from 1930 to 1937, Eric investigates] the oxidation-reduction potentials of a number of biologically important materials including acI- renaline, ascorbic acid, echinochrome, phthioco} (the pig- ment of the human tubercle bacillus), lapacol, lomatiol, and various other hydroxynaphthoquinones. Early in his academic career, Eric established a lasting con- nection with the Marine Biological Station at Woocts Hole, Massachusetts. As his bibliography reveals, many of his re- search projects, presumably accomplishecl during the sum- mer months, were concerned! with marine biological procI- ucts. During the summer of 1931, he became interested in the report that isotonic solutions of sodium chloride from certain sources caused hemolysis of fish rec! blooc! cells. Since isotonic saline was used extensively in biological research, particularly with marine organisms, it was imperative that the identity of this hemolytic factor be established. The results of an example of his remarkable "scientific sleuthing" were presented at the April meeting of the American Society of Biological Chemistry in 1932. One of us (A.B.H.) was fortu- nate enough to be present in the audience and gained a first- hand impression of a systematic and logical analysis of the problem and of the speaker himself. (Improbably, the factor turned out to be silver ions, which were inadvertently sup- plied from silver-coated vessels used in the processing of so-

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54 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS dium chloride in some instances. At this trace concentration of silver ions, the solubility product of silver chloride is not exceecled.) These summers at Woods Hole ultimately led to Eric's election as a trustee of the Marine Biological Laboratory in 1942 and, for a term (1953-1958), of the Woods Hole Ocean- ographic Institute. The Balls also establisher! a beautiful sum- mer home in Woods Hole overlooking Nantucket Sound. During his tenure at Johns Hopkins only one of his sev- eral papers appeared in collaboration with Clark. This was due in part to CIark's paternal relationship to his younger faculty and his wish that they receive full recognition for their accomplishments. One amusing incident in this regard (le- serves recording. In one of Eric's studies, a rather com- plicate(1 apparatus was required. As an expert glassblower, Clark hac! spent consiclerable time in its construction, and Eric felt that his name should appear as a collaborator. As was the custom at that time, papers were usually channeled through the department heac! for submission for publication. Without Eric's knowledge, Clark removed his own name and instead appended the phrase, "with the technical assistance of W. Mansfield! Clark." This may well be the only instance on record! when a department heat} served as the technical as- . . . secant ot Donor Instructor. At last, in 1937, with a grant front the Guggenheim Me- morial Founclation, the Balls spent an exciting, stimulating year in Berlin-DahIem in Warburg's laboratory. The contrast oetween the scenic atmosphere ana approach to research . . .. . .. ~ . . . prevalent in the United States and that in Germany at the time was very evident, particularly in Warburg's laboratory. Europe was then the center of the rapidly developing disci- plines of biochemistry and enzymology. Asicle from Warburg, Eric had also met and admirecl Hugo Theorell, who two years previously had spent a sabbatical year in Berlin-DahIem

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ERIC GLENDINNING BALL 55 where he hac! purified cytochrome C anc! demonstrated that flavin is the cofactor of D-amino acic! oxidase. Other current European luminaries were Richarc! Kuhn, Hans von Euler, Richard WilIstatter, and Otto Meyerhof. The central research focus at that time was the under- stancling of the enzymatic processes of physiological oxi(la- tion-reduction systems, as well as those of fermentation anct glycolysis. Considering the depth of scientific and intellectual richness in the Europe of that time, Eric must have felt a certain degree of pricle in his own contribution to research in this area. During his sabbatical leave, he was able to isolate anal purify xanthine oxiclase and demonstrate that it con- tainec! flavin as a cofactor. In adclition, within a remarkably short time, he measured the oxidation-reduction potentials of three known components of the cytochrome system. This piece of work was an important contribution to our under- stancling of the pattern of electron flow within the biological oxidation system. In recognition of these achievements, Eric received the 1940 Eli Lilly Award in Biochemistry from the American Chemical Society. In 194S, he was awardecl an hon- orary doctoral degree from his alma matter, Haverford Col- lege. In conferring the degree, Haverforcl's president cited Eric as "a conscientious ant] values! teacher of biological chemistry, a productive scientist whose research has pio- neerec] new frontiers of chemistry and medicine." In retrospect, it seems particularly appropriate that Eric should have been recognized for both his contribution to re- search and teaching. On his return to Hopkins in 1938 as war clouds gathered over Europe, Eric received an invitation from one of us (A.B.H.) to join the faculty of the Department of Biological Chemistry at Harvard Meclical School as an as- sistant professor, with the stipulation of promotion to asso- ciate professor within a year. Arriving at Harvard in the fall of 1940, Eric had barely enough time to establish his labo-

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56 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS ratory and continue his work on the cytochrome system when the United States entered the war in December 1941. With the involvement of the department head (A.B.H.) in the Committee on Medical Research in Washington, Eric be- came acting React of the department in 1943, a position he held for three years. Simultaneously, he undertook respon- sibility for two new studies: first for a research project on mustard gases and later for a study involving the cultivation of the malaria parasite in vitro. During this latter period, Eric also served as secretary of the Pane! on Biochemistry of Anti- malarials, and in this capacity he joined the horde of war- time commuters to Washington, D.C. For this work he was awarded a certificate of merit by the U.S. government and the Orclem flu Cruzero do Su! by the government of Brazil. At the conclusion of the war, there was an extensive ex- pansion of mectical research and teaching facilities. Eric was approached to head the Department of Biochemistry at Western Reserve Medical School with the charge of clevel- oping a new medical curriculum that integrated the preclin- ical medical sciences. He refused the offer, but since this new approach to medical education was attractive to him, Presi- dent Conant of Harvard University proposed that Eric develop a comparable program for graduate students as chairman of the Division of Medical Sciences. Conant also profferer! the further possibility that such a newly developect curriculum would be extended to medical students in their preclinical years. With this new responsibility, Eric was pro- moted to the rank of full professor in 1946. Sixteen years later, in 1962, he became the Edwarc! S. Wood Professor of Biological Chemistry. Between 1946 and 1952, a great effort was made to design a new approach to teaching the premedical sciences, to raise money for the program, and to attract a number of excellent graduate students to Harvard Medical School. The fall of

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ERIC GLENDINNING BALL 57 1952, when Eric assumer! the chairmanship of the Division of Medical Sciences, saw the attainment of many of his goals. The total enrollment of graduate students in the division tract risen from about five to nearly fifty. Some $17,000 was avail- able annually for fellowships, and a new integrated course was inaugurated with the aid of a grant from the Common- wealth Fund for $200,000 for a three-year period. Among other things, this program fulfilled an urgent need for many returning veterans who were establishing their roots in the academic community. Uncloubtedly, Eric considerect his role in this program as one of his major contributions, not only to Harvard but also to the national educational effort in the medical sciences. The flow of excellent graduate students into the Division of Medical Sciences was reflectec! in the significant number of those who elected to carry out their graduate research with Eric, who was himself undergoing a change in his research interests. By the 1950s, many of the basic biochemical reac- tions of cellular metabolism had been discovered, and there was a growing inclination to study the regulation of metab- olism in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell systems. In view of his longstancling interest in oxiciative-recluctive reactions, it was not surprising that Eric wouIct choose to study lipid synthesis in the interscapular brown adipose tissue of the rat and in epi(liclymal fat pads. This biosynthetic reaction re- quires the utilization of both reduced triphosphopyridine nucleoticle and aclenosine triphosphate (ATP). In viva, the synthesis is uncler hormonal control. Of particular importance was the discovery by his group of the antilipolytic action of insulin in 1962 and his quantitative determination of the flow of carbon atoms through the major pathways of carbohydrate and fat metab- olism in 1964. His discovery in 1966 that lipogenesis from glucose was limited in its maximum rate, not by the catalytic activity of any of the enzymes involved in the process, but by the amount of ATE produced as

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58 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS a byproduct of the process, introduced an entirely new element into our concepts of metabolic control. His interests in adipose tissue metabolism were very broad, extending from a study of the role of brown adipose tissue in the production of heat accompanying arousal in hibernating ro- dents to hormonal mechanisms which allow migratory birds to draw upon their caloric reserves during flight. After his retirement in 1971, Eric continued a research pro- gram on marine biological products at his laboratory at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woocls Hole. Winter months were spent by the Balls in their apartment in Ozona, Florida. In aclclition to those honors and professional activities al- ready mentioned, Eric was electect to the National Academy of Sciences in 1948 anct to the American Academy of Arts ant! Sciences in 1945. He was a long-term consultant to the Eli Lilly Company and served in a number of editorial ca- pacities on the fournal of Biological Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Biochemical Preparations. He was a member of several profes- sional societies including the American Society of Biological Chemists, American Chemical Society, Biochemical Society of Great Britain, Society of General Physiologists, and the En- ctocrine Society. He was also a fellow of the American As- sociation for the Advancement of Science. In 1963 he was awarcled a Guggenheim Fellowship for the second time for a sabbatical leave at the Scripps Clinic anct Research Founda- tion in La JolIa, California. As a Commonwealth Fund Fellow, he was a visiting professor at the Oswalclo Cruz Institute, Rio do Janeiro, in 1964. Altogether, he published approximately 150 articles in various scientific journals. In 1973 he published the book Energy Metabolism, which contained the essence of the unique lectures entitIect "Biological Oxidation anct Its Control" that he had delivered over the years to medical students. Eric was a superb lecturer, succinct and concise, with his material or- ganized in precise detail. He was well respected and liked,

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ERIC GLENDINNING BALL SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 63 1928 With D. W. Wilson. A study of the estimation of chloride in blood serum. I. Biol. Chem., 79:221-27. 1930 The composition of pancreatic juice and blood serum as influenced by the injection of acid and base. i. Biol Chem., 86:433-48. The composition of pancreatic juice and blood serum as influenced by the injection of inorganic salts. l. Biol. Chem., 86:449-62. With C. G. Johnston. Variations in inorganic constituents of the pancreatic juice during constant drainage of the pancreatic ducts. l. Biol. Chem., 86:643-53. 1931 With W. M. Clark. Potentiometric study of epinephrine. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 17:347-50. 1933 With I. F. Sadusk. Volumetric determination of small quantities of inorganic iodine. Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed., 5:386. With T. Chen. Studies on oxidation-reduction. XX. Adrenaline and related compounds. l. Biol. Chem., 102:691-719. Hemolytic action of silver occurring as an impurity in chemically pure sodium chloride. Biol. Bull., 64:277-88. The relative abundance of hydrogen isotopes in sea water. Biol. Bull., 65:371-74. 1934 Studies on oxidation-reduction. XXI. Phthiocol, the pigment of the human tubercle bacillus. J. Biol. Chem., 106:515-24. 1936 With I. F. Sadusk, tr. The estimation of sodium in blood serum. i. Biol. Chem., 113:661-74. Studies on oxidation-reduction. XXII. Lapachol, lomatiol, and re- lated compounds. J. Biol. Chem., 114:649-55.

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64 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1937 Studies on oxidation-reduction. XXIII. Ascorbic acid. I Biol. Chem., 118:219-39. Oxidation-reduction potentials of hydroxynaphthoquinones in al- kaline solutions. i. Am. Chem. Soc., 59:2071-72. The pH of sea water as measured with the glass electrode. Biol. Bull., 73:221. 1938 - Oxidation and reduction of the three cytochrome components. Biochem. Z., 295:262-64. Xanthine oxidase: An alloxazine protein. Science, 88:131. 1939 Xanthine oxidase: Purification and properties. I. Biol. Chem., 128:51-67. Chemical reactions of nicotinic acid amide in viva. Bull. Johns Hop- kins Hosp., 65:253. With B. Meyerhof. The occurrence of cytochrome and other he- mochromagens in certain marine forms. Biol. Bull., 77:321. Role of flavoproteins in biological oxidations. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol., 7:100. With P. A. Ramsdell. The catalytic action of milk flavoprotein in the oxidation of reduced diphosphopyridine nucleotide (cozy- mase). I. Biol. Chem., 131 :767-68. 1940 A test of 2-keto-1-gulonic acid for antiscorbutic properties. J. Biol. Chem., 134: 177-80. With B. Meyerhof. On the occurrence of iron-porphyrin com- pounds and succinic dehydrogenase in marine organisms pos- sessing the copper blood pigment hemocyanin. J. Biol. Chem., 134:483-93. Catalysts of biological oxidation, their composition and mode of action. Collecting Net, 15: 125.

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ERIC GLENDINNING BALL 65 1941 With H. F. Tucker. The activity of carbonic anhydrase in relation to the secretion and composition of pancreatic juice. i. Biol. Chem., 139:71-80. With H. F. Tucker, A. K. Solomon, and B. Vennesland. Source of pancreatic juice bicarbonate. I. Biol. Chem., 140:119-21. 1942 Biological oxidations and reductions. Annul Rev. Biochem., 11: 1-25. Oxidative mechanisms in animal tissues. In: Proceedings of a Sym- posium on Respiratory Enzymes, p. 16. Madison: University of Wis- consin Press. 1944 A blue chromoprotein found in the eggs of the goose-barnacle. I. Biol. Chem., 152 :627-34. With P. A. Ramsdell. The flavin-adenine dinucleotide content of firefly lanterns. i. Am. Chem. Soc., 66:1419-20. Energy relationships of the oxidative enzymes. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.,- 45:363. 1945 With C. B. Anfinsen, Q. M. Geiman, R. W. McKee, and R. A. Ormsbee. In vitro growth and multiplication of the malaria par- asite, Plasmodium knowlesi. Science, 101 :542-44. 1946 With F. L. Rodkey. A rapid test for distinguishing human from cow's milk based upon a difference in their xanthine oxidase content. I. Lab. Clin. Med., 31:354-56. Some properties of the yeast yellow protein. l. Gen. Physiol., 29:413-18. With R. W. McKee, R. A. Ormsbee, C. B. Anfinsen, and C. M. Gei- man. Studies on malarial parasites. VI. The chemistry and me- tabolism of normal and parasitized (P. knowlesi) monkey blood. J. Exp. Med., 84:569-82. With C. M. Geiman, C. B. Anfinsen, R. W. McKee, and R. A. Orms-

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66 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS bee. Studies on malarial parasites. VII. Methods and techniques for cultivation. I. Exp. Med., 84:583-606. With C. B. Anfinsen, C. M. Geiman, and R. W. Ormsbee. Studies on malarial parasites. VIII. Factors affecting the growth of Plas- modium knowlesi in vitro. I. Exp. Med., 84:607-21. With C. B. Anfinsen. The actions of napthoquinone antimalarials on respiratory systems. Biol. Bull., 91:212. 1947 With C. B. Anfinsen and O. Cooper. The inhibitory action of napthoquinones on respiratory processes. J. Biol. Chem., 168:257-70. Biochemical mechanism of cellular oxidation. Science, 106: 118. 1948 What is a dialysate? Nature, 161:404. With R. W. McKee, C. B. Anfinsen, W. O. Cruz, and C. M. Geiman. Studies on malarial parasites. IX. Chemical and metabolic changes during growth and multiplication in vivo and in vitro. I. Biol. Chem., 175 :547-71. 1949 With A. K. Solomon and O. Cooper. The production of radioactive cystine by direct bombardment in the pile. J. Biol. Chem., 177:81-89. With R. A. Ormsbee and F. C. Henriques, {r. The reaction of mus- tard gas with skin proteins. Arch. Biochem., 21:301-12. With O. Cooper. The activity of succinate oxidase in relation to phosphate and phosphorus compounds. I. Biol. Chem., 180: 113-24. With W. R. Christensen and C. H. Plimpton. The hexokinase of the rat erythrocyte and the influence of hormonal and other factors on its activity. I. Biol. Chem., 180:791-802. 1950 With F. L. Rodkey. Oxidation-reduction potentials of the cyto- chrome c system. J. Biol. Chem., 182: 17-28.

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ERIC GLENDINNING BALL 1951 67 With R. K. Crane. Factors affecting the fixation of C~4O2 by animal tissues. I. Biol. Chem., 188:819-32. With R. K. Crane. Relationship of C~402 fixation to carbohydrate metabolism in retina. I. Biol. Chem., 189:269-76. With C. F. Strittmatter and O. Cooper. The reaction of cytochrome oxidase with carbon monoxide. l. Biol. Chem., 193:635-47. 1952 With C. F. Strittmatter. A hemochromogen component of liver microsomes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 38:19-25. With F. L. Rodkey. Oxidation-reduction potentials of the diphos- phopyridine nucleotide system. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 38:396-99. Oxidation and reduction in brain tissue. In: The Biology of Mental Health and Disease, pp. 74-82. New York: Paul B. Hoeber, Inc. With O. Cooper. The reaction of cytochrome oxidase with cyanide. J. Biol. Chem., 198:629-38. 1953 With C. F. Strittmatter and O. Cooper. Glycolytic activity in the swim bladder gland. Biol. Bull., 103:317. With J. H. Kinoshita. A transpeptidation reaction between gluta- thione and arginine. J. Biol. Chem., 200:609-17. 1954 With C. F. Strittmatter. The intracellular distribution of cyto- chrome components and of oxidative enzyme activity in rat liver. I. Cell. Comp. Physiol., 43:57-58. An experiment in medical education. West. l. Surg. Obstet. Gyne- col., 62:8-10. With S. W. Edwards. The action of phospholipases on succinate oxidase and cytochrome oxidase. I. Biol. Chem., 209:619-33. 1955 With C. F. Strittmatter and O. Cooper. Metabolic studies on the gas gland of the swim bladder. Biol. Bull., 108: 1-17.

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68 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With P. Strittmatter. Formaldehyde dehydrogenase, a glutathione- dependent enzyme system. I. Biol. Chem., 213:445-61. 1956 On the specificity of interaction of biological oxidation-reduction systems. In: Enzymes: Units of Biological Structure and Function (Proceedings of the Henry Ford Hospital International Sym- posium), ed. Gaebler, pp. 433-43. New York: Academic Press. With I. P. Revel and O. Cooper. The quantitative measurement of y-glutamyl transpeptidase activity. J. Biol. Chem., 221 :895 - 908. With E. C. Wolff. The action of thyroxine on the oxidation of suc- cinate and malate. l. Biol. Chem., 224:1083-98. Graduate training in the medical sciences. Fed. Proc. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol., 15:871 - 74. 1957 With O. Cooper. Thyroxin, transhydrogenase, and oxidation of triphosphopyridine nucleotide. Science, 125:746. With O. Cooper. The oxidation of reduced TEN by the trans- hydrogenase reaction and its inhibition by thyroxine. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 43:357-64. With O. Cooper. Observations on the function of cytochromes c and cat. J. Biol. Chem., 226:755-63. With R. I. Barrnett. An integrated morphological and biochemical study of a purified preparation of the succinate and DPNH oxidase system. J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol., 3:1023-36. 1958 With M. I. Spiro. A comparison of the pathways of glucose catab- olism in the normal and hyperthyroid rat. I. Biol. Chem., 231 :31-40. The fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the Division of Medical Sciences. Harv. Med. Alumni Bull., 32~3~:9-11. With R. J. Barrnett. The ultrastructure and biochemical composi- tion of the hard core of the electron transmitter system. Anat. Rec., 130:267.

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ERIC GLENDINNING BALL 69 With C. D. Joel, M. L. Karnovsky, and O. Cooper. Lipide compo- nents of the succinate and DPNH oxidase system. I. Biol. Chem., 233: 1565 -73. 1959 With l. P. Revel. The reaction of glutathione with amino acids and related compounds as catalyzed by~y-glutamyl transpeptidase. I. Biol. Chem., 234:577-82. With D. B. Martin and O. Cooper. Studies on the metabolism of adipose tissue. I. The effect of insulin on glucose utilization as measured by the manometric determination of carbon dioxide output. I. Biol. Chem., 234:774-80. With I. M. Hagen and O. Cooper. Studies on the metabolism of adipose tissue. II. The effect of changes in the ionic composition of the medium upon the response to insulin. l. Biol. Chem., 234:781-86. With R. J. Barrnett. Morphologic and metabolic changes produced in rat adipose tissue in vitro by insulin. Science, 129:1282. 1960 With R. J. Barrnett. Insulin and pinocytosis. Diabetes, 9:70-71. With O. Cooper. Studies on the metabolism of adipose tissue. III. The response to insulin by different types of adipose tissue and in the presence of various metabolites. l. Biol. Chem., 235: 584-88. With J. H. Hagen. Studies on the metabolism of adipose tissue. IV. The effect of insulin and adrenaline on glucose utilization, lac- tate production, and net gas exchange. J. Biol. Chem., 235: 1545-49. With R. L. Jungas. Studies on the metabolism of adipose tissue. V. The effect of a growth hormone preparation and insulin on the oxygen consumption, glucose uptake, and lactic acid produc- tion. I. Biol. Chem., 235:1894-99. With R. I. Barrnett. The effect of insulin on adipose tissue. Am. I. Clin. Nutr., 8:666-70. With R. J. Barrnett. Metabolic and ultrastructural changes induced in adipose tissue by insulin. J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol., 8:83- 101.

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70 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1961 With M. I. Spiro. Studies on the respiratory enzymes of the adrenal gland. I. The medulla. I. Biol. Chem., 236:225-30. With M. I Spiro. Studies on the respiratory enzymes of the adrenal gland. lI. The cortex. I. Biol. Chem., 236:231-35. With R. L. Juntas. On the action of hormones which accelerate the rate of oxygen consumption and fatty acid release in rat adipose tissue in vitro. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 47:932-41. With M. A. Merrill. A manometric assay of insulin and some results of the application of the method to sera and islet-containing tissues. Endocrinology, 69:596-607. With I. H. Hagen. Studies on the metabolism of adipose tissue. VI. The effect of adrenaline on oxygen consumption and glucose utilization. Endocrinology, 69:752-60. With R. L. Juntas. Studies on the metabolism of adipose tissue. VII. A comparison of the effects of insulin and a growth- hormone preparation on oxygen consumption in bicarbonate and phosphate buffers. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 54:304-14. With M. N. Oxman. Studies on the metabolism of adipose tissue. VIII. Alterations produced by biotin deficiency in the rat. Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 95 :99-105. 1962 With C. D. Joel. The electron transmitter system of brown adipose tissue. Biochemistry, 1:281-87. With R. L. Juntas. Studies on the metabolism of adipose tissue. IX. The stimulation of oxygen consumption by TSH preparations in relation to growth hormone and other pituitary fractions. Endocrinology, 71 :68-76. With R. O. Moore. Studies on the metabolism of adipose tissue. X. Some in vitro effects of a prolactin preparation alone and in combination with insulin or adrenalin. Endocrinology, 71:57- 67. With H. Frerichs. Studies on the metabolism of adipose tissue. XI. Activation of phosphorylase by agents which stimulate lipolysis. Biochemistry, 1:501-9. With C. D. Joel. The composition of the mitochondrial membrane in relation to its structure and function. Int. Rev. Cytol., 13: 99-133.

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ERIC GLENDINNING BALL 71 1963 With R. L. fungus. Studies on the metabolism of adipose tissue. XII. The effects of insulin and epinephrine on free fatty acid and glycerol production in the presence and absence of glucose. Biochemistry, 2:383-88. With E. Knobil. Insulin like activity of serum from normal and hypophysectomized monkeys. Endocrinology, 72:658-61. With R. L. Jungas. Studies on the metabolism of adipose tissue. XIII. The effect of anaerobic conditions and dietary regime on the response to insulin and epinephrine. Biochemistry, 2:586- 92. With I. P. Flatt. Studies on the metabolism of adipose tissue. XIV. The manometric determination of total CO2 production and oxygen consumption in bicarbonate buffer. Biochem. Z., 388: 73-83. With J. P. Flatt. Studies on the metabolism of adipose tissue. XV. An evaluation of the major pathways of glucose catabolism as influenced by insulin and epinephrine. J. Biol. Chem., 239: 675-85. With R. L. Jungas. Some effects of hormones on the metabolism of adipose tissue. Recent Frog. Horm. Res., 20:183-214. With H. Frerichs. Studies on the metabolism of adipose tissue. XVI. Inhibition by phlorizin and phloretin of the insulin- stimulated uptake of glucose. Biochemistry, 3:981-85. With E. M. Wise, fir. Malic enzyme and lipogenesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 52:1255-63. With R. L. Jungas. Studies on the metabolism of adipose tissue. XVII. In vitro effects of insulin upon the metabolism of the carbohydrate and triglyceride stores of adipose tissue from fasted-refed rats. Biochemistry, 3:1696-1702. 1965 With I. P. Flatt. Pathways of glucose metabolism. II. In: Handbook of Physiology (Section 5, Adipose Tissue), ed. Albert E. Renold and George F. Cahill, Jr., pp. 273-79. Bethesda, Md.: American Physiological Society. With R. L. Jungas. Net gas exchanges and oxygen consumption. In: Handbook of Physiology (Sectiorl 5, Adipose Tissue), ed. Albert

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72 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS E. Renold and George F. Cahill, Jr., pp. 355-61. Bethesda, Md.: American Physiological Society. With M. S. Kornacker. Citrate cleavage in adipose tissue. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 54~3~:899-904. With A. G. Goodridge. Studies on the metabolism of adipose tissue. XVIII. In vitro effects of insulin, epinephrine and glucagon on lipolysis and glycolysis in pigeon adipose tissue. Comp. Bio- chem. Physiol., 16:367-81. Some energy relationships in adipose tissue. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 131:225-34. 1966 With I. P. Flatt. Studies on the metabolism of adipose tissue. XIX. An evaluation of the major pathways of glucose catabolism as influenced by acetate in the presence of insulin. I. Biol. Chem., 241 :2862-69. Regulation of fatty acid synthesis in adipose tissue. In: Advances in Enzyme Regulation, ed. G. Weber, pp. 3-18. New York: Perga- mon Press. With I. S. Hayward. Quantitative aspects of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis during arousal from hibernation. Biol. Bull., 131(1):94-103. With A. G. Goodridge. Lipogenesis in the pigeon: In vitro studies. Am. J. Physiol., 211 :803-8. 1967 With I. N. Fisher. Studies on the metabolism of adipose tissue. XX. The effect of thyroid status upon oxygen consumption and li- polysis. Biochemistry, 6:637-47. With A. G. Goodridge. The effect of prolactin on lipogenesis in the pigeon: In vitro studies. Biochemistry, 6:1676-82. With A. G. Goodridge. Lipogenesis in the pigeon: In viva studies. Am. I. Physiol., 213:245-49. With A. G. Goodridge. The effect of prolactin on lipogenesis in the pigeon: In vitro studies. Biochemistry, 6:2335-43. 1968 With M. S. Kornacker. Respiratory processes in brown adipose tissue. J. Biol. Chem., 243:1638-44.

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ERIC GLENDINNING BALL 73 With P. Kneer. Studies on the metabolism of adipose tissue. XXI. An evaluation of the major pathways of pyruvate metabolism. I. Biol. Chem., 243:2863-70. 1969 With H. B. Markus. Inhibition of lipolytic processes in rat adipose tissue by antimalarial drugs. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 187:486- 91. 1970 Some aspects of fatty acid metabolism in brown adipose tissue. Lip- ids, 5:220-23. With C. L. Hall. Factors affecting lipolysis rates in rat adipose tis- sue. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 210:209-20. Some considerations of the multiplicity of insulin action on adipose tissue. In: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Suppl. 2: Adipose Tis- sue: Regulation and Metabolic Functions, ed. R. Levine and E. F. Pfeiffer, pp. 102-7. New York: Academic Press. 1973 Energy Metabolism. New York: Addison-Wesley.