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U.S. NUCLEAR _NGINEERING EDUCATION: STATUS AND PROSPECTS Prepared by the Committee on Nuclear Engineering Education Energy Engineering Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1990

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self- perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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This is a report of work supported by Contract DE-AC01-88ER75425 between the U. S. Department of Energy and the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council and by grants from the American Nuclear Society and the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations to the National Academy of Sciences- National Research Council. Copies available from: Energy Engineering Board (HA-254) Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W Washington, D.C. 20418 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 90-61078 International Standard Book Number 0-309-04280-1 S142 Printed in the United States of America .

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COMMITTEE ON NUCLEAR ENGINEERING EDUCATION Chairman Gregory R. Choppin, R.O. Lawton Distinguished Professor of Chemistry, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida Members Patricia A. Baisden, Group Leader, Inorganic Chemistry Group, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California Wallace B. Behnke, Director and Retired Vice Chairman, Commonwealth Edison Company, Chicago, Illinois Sue E. Berryman, Director, National Center on Education and Employment, Columbia University, New York, New York John W. Crawford, Consultant, Rockville, Maryland {until October 24, 1989} William M. Jacobi, Vice President and General Manager, Government Operations, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Edwin E. Kintner, Executive Vice President, GPU Nuclear Corporation, Parsippany, New Jersey Milton Levenson, Executive Engineer, Bechtel Power Corporation, San Francs California Gail H. Marcus, Office of Commissioner Kenneth Rogers, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Warren F. Miller, Jr., Deputy Director, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico v

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Robert L. Seale, Head, Department of Nuclear and Energy Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona Robert E. Uhrig, Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee Consultants Larry Blair, Universities , Science/Engineering Education Division, Oak Ridge Associated Oak Ridge, Tennessee June S. Chewning, Consultant, Washington, D.C. William Naughton, Commonwealth Edison Company, Chicago, Illinois Liaison with Energy Engineering Board Arthur E. Humphrey, Provost Emeritus, Lehigh University, Bethlehem. Pennsylvania Staff Robert L. Cohen, Study Director (until January, 1990) James J. Zucchetto, Study Director (from January, 1990) Studv Administrative Assign ~ Theresa M. Fisher, vi

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ENERGY ENGINEERING BOARD . (AS OF JUNE 1990) Chairman John A. Tillinghast, President, Tiltec, Members Donald B. Anthony, Consultant, Houston, Texas Richard E. Balzhiser, Research Institute, Barbara R. California Portsmouth. New Hampsl~ire President and Chief Executive Officer, Electric Power Palo Alto, California Barkovich, Consultant, Barkovich and Yap Consultants, San Rafael. John A. Casezza, President, CSA Energy Consultants, Arlington, Virginia Ralph C. Cavana~h S an Frond ; c ~ ~ - 0 , Senior Staff Attorney, , California Natural Resources Defense Council. David E. Cole, Director, Center for the Studier of Automotive Transportation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan H. M. (Hub) Hubbard, Executive Vice-President, Midwest Research Institute, Golden, Colorado Arthur E. Humphrey, T.L. Diamond Professor and Director, Center for Molecular Bioscience and Biotechnology Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania Charles Imbrecht, California Chairman, California Energy Commission, Sacramento, vii

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Charles D. Kolstad, Associate Professor, Institute of Environmental Studies and Department of Economics, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois Henry R. Linden, Max McGraw Professor of Energy & Power Engineering and Management; Director, Energy and Power Center, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois James J. Markowsky, Senior Vice President and Chief Engineer, American Electric Power Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio S. L. (Cy) Meisel, Vice President, Research (Retired), Mobil R&D Corporation, Princeton, New Jersey David L. Morrison, Technical Director, Energy, Resource and Environmental Systems Division, The MITRE Corporation, McLean, Virginia Marc H. Ross, Professor, Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan Maxine L. Savitz, Managing Director, Garrett Ceramic Component Division, Torrance, California Harold H. Schobert, Chairman, Fuel Sciences Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania Glenn A. Schurman, Vice President, Production (Retired), Chevron Corporation, San Francisco, California Jon M. Veigel, President, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, Tennessee Bertram Wolfe, Vice President and General Manager, GE Nuclear Energy, San Jose, California Ex-Officio Board Member Richard Wilson, Mallinckrodt Professor of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems Liaison Member to the Energy Engineering Board Kent F. Hansen, Professor of Nuclear Engineering, Energy Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts . . . vail

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Staff Archie L. Wood, Director Mahadevan (rev) Mani, Associate Director, Kamal J. Araj, Senior Program Officer Robert L. Cohen, Senior Program Officer James J. Zucchetto, Senior Program Officer Judith A. Amri, Administrative and Financial Assistant Theresa M. Fisher, Administrative Secretary and Senior Project Assistant Jan C. Kronenburg, Administrative Secretary and Senior Project Assistant Philomina Mammen, Administrative Secretary and Senior Project Assistant Energy Engineering Board Consultants Norman M. Haller George T. Lalos 1X

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PREFACE This study, conducted under the auspices of the Energy Engineering Board of the National Research Council, examines the status of and outlook for nuclear engineering education in the United States (see Appendix A, Statement of Task). The study resulted from a widely felt concern about the downward trends in student enrollments in nuclear engineering, in both graduate and undergraduate programs. Concerns have also been expressed about the declining number of U.S. university nuclear engineering departments and programs, the ageing of their faculties, the appropriateness of their curricula and research funding for industry and government needs, the availability of scholarships and research funding, and the increasing ratio of foreign to U.S. graduate students. A fundamental issue is whether the supply of nuclear engineering graduates will be adequate for the future. Although such issues are more general, pertaining to all areas of U.S. science and engineering education, they are especially acute for nuclear engineering education. Impetus for the study came from various sources, including the American Nuclear Society (ANS), the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), the Nuclear Engineering Department Heads Organization (NEDHO), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). All were concerned to examine trends in nuclear engineering education and to identify possible solutions if adverse trends were identified. Major funding to conduct the study was provided by DOE, through its Division of University and Industry Programs, Office of Energy Research. INPO and ANS also provided funding. The Committee on Nuclear Engineering Education was established to include those familiar with science and engineering education, and industrial employment in the nuclear field. Biographical sketches of the committee members are contained in Appendix B. The committee's charge was to review nuclear engineering education in the United States and to recommend any appropriate responses. Specifically, the committee was asked to perform the following tasks: X1

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0 Characterize the current status of nuclear engineering education in the United States, taking into account present faculty and student numbers, existing curricula, availability of research and scholarship/fellowship funds, and other factors as appropriate o Estimate the supply and demand for undergraduate and graduate nuclear engineers in the United States over the near- to mid-term (5 to 20 years), for scenarios with various assumed trends in the nuclear power industry, the federal laboratories, the Navy, and the universities o Address the spectrum of material that the nuclear engineering curriculum should cover and how it should relate to allied disciplines o Recommend appropriate actions to ensure that the nation's needs for competent nuclear engineers, as represented at both graduate and undergraduate levels, are satisfied over the near and mid term, with consideration of career opportunities, potential student base, research funding, and ensuring an excellent background in individual students. The field of health physics was not encompassed by the study, even though it is covered by many nuclear engineering programs. The committee also did not address the supply, demand, or curricula of two-year nuclear technology programs. In accordance with this charter, the committee was organized into three subcommittees, on the current status of U.S. nuclear engineering education, the curriculum and research activities, and the supply of and demand for nuclear engineers. These subcommittees were chaired respectively by Robert Seale, Warren Miller, Jr., and Wallace Behnke. The panels obtained appropriate current data through questionnaires, briefings, and other diverse resources. Appendix C lists committee meetings and invited presentations on those occasions. Individuals and organizations who provided information in response to committee requests are acknowledged in Appendix D. Arrangements to conduct the study were facilitated by Dennis F. Miller, Director of the Energy Engineering Board until November 1987, and by Archie Wood, who succeeded him in December 1987. Robert Cohen served as study director only until January 1990 when he was seriously injured in an accident; James Zucchetto continued as study director through the completion of the study, helping the committee to form and edit this report. John Crawford resigned from the committee in October 1989, with his presidential appointment to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. Gregory R. Choppin, Chairman Committee on Nuclear Engineering Education ~ X11

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CONTENTS . . , EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 INTRODUCTION Study Genesis and Background Scope and Tasks of the Study Organization of the Study and Report EVOLUTION OF NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY AND THE NUCLEAR ENGINEERING PROFESSION Brief History of Nuclear Technology The Evolution of the Nuclear Engineering Profession The Role of Technical Societies Summary THE NUCLEAR ENGINEERING JOB MARKET Introduction Employment History Employment Forecast Projected Demand for Nuclear Engineers Findings 4 STATUS OF NUCLEAR ENGINEERING EDUCATION Nuclear Engineering Faculty Nuclear Engineering Enrollment and Degree Trends Financial Support Undergraduate Curriculum The Graduate Curriculum Student-Faculty Ratios University Reactors Nuclear Engineering as a Separate Discipline Institutional Factors Findings . . X111 1 11 11 12 13 15 15 16 18 19 21 21 22 24 30 34 35 35 39 47 49 51 51 53 54 54 56

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5 OUTLOOK FOR SUPPLY OF NUCLEAR ENGINEERS Degree Trends for all Fields and Quantitative Fields Degree Trends for Engineering and Nuclear Engineering Degree Trends by Gender, Race, and Ethnicity Trends in Scholastic Apptitude Test Scores Projections of Size, Racial and Ethnic Composition, and Higher Education Completion Rates of Youth Cohorts Balance Between Supply and Demand Findings 6 IMPLICATIONS OF FUTURE DEMAND FOR NUCLEAR ENGINEERING EDUCATION Needed Changes in Undergraduate Curriculum Needed Changes in Graduate Curriculum and Research Programs University Reactors The Role of Industry Findings SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS Status of Nuclear Engineering Education Supply and Demand Education for Future Needs Recommendations Responsibilities of the Federal Government Responsibilities of Industry Responsibilities of Universities 57 58 59 60 64 66 67 70 73 73 75 77 77 78 79 79 80 81 82 82 83 84 APPENDIX A STATEMENT OF TASK 85 APPENDIX B BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS 87 APPENDIX C STUDY CHRONOLOGY AND ACTIVITIES 93 APPENDIX D ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF DATA SOURCES 97 APPENDIX E ASSUMPTIONS AND FORECASTING MODEL FOR ESTIMATING PROJECTED DEMAND AND EMPLOYMENT 101 APPENDIX F ADDITIONAL DATA ON NUCLEAR ENGINEERING 115 SUPPLY TRENDS AND CURRICULUM APPENDIX G THE COMMITTEE'S QUESTIONNAIRE TO NUCLEAR ENGINEERING DEPARTMENTS 143 REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 155 xiv

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LIST OF TABLES 1-l Programs with Nuclear Engineering Majors and Options, 1975-1989 3-1 Employment of Civilian Nuclear Engineers of All Degree Levels by Primary Government and Industry Segments, 1981-1987 3-2 Actual and Projected Employment of Nuclear Engineers for DOE Headquarters, Field, and Contractors, 1987-2010 23 25 3-3 Projected Cumulative Additional Nuclear Power Plant Capacity Ordered by U.S. Utilities, for Three Different Scenarios (in GWe) 28 3-4 Actual and Projected Employment of Nuclear Engineers in the Civilian Nuclear Power Sector, 1987-2010 3-5 Placement of 1988 Graduates with Degrees or Equivalent Options in Nuclear Engineering (in percent) 3-6 Actual and Projected Job Openings Annually for New Nuclear Engineering Graduates at DOE and DOE Contractors, 1987-2010 3-7 Actual and Projected Annual Demand for Nuclear Engineers in the Civilian Nuclear Power Sector, 1987-2010 4-1 Percent of Funding and Amount of Funding (millions of dollars) from Various Sources for Departments of Nuclear Engineering 4-2 Percentages of Total Research Funds for Various Areas 4-3 Levels of Institutional and Research Support 4-4 Student-to-Faculty Ratios and Faculty Teaching Loads, by Type of Institution (per full-time equivalent faculty) 52 28 xv 31 32 47 48 50

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4-5 Numbers of Institutions with Given Areas of Strength 5-1 Quantitative Degrees Granted by Degree Level and U.S. Residency Status: 1977 and 1987 5-2 Engineering and Nuclear Engineering Degrees Granted by Degree Level and U.S. Residency Status: 1978 and 1988 5-3 Quantitative Degrees Granted, by Degree Level and Gender, 1977 and 1987 5-4 Engineering Degrees Granted by Degree Level and Race and Ethnicity, 1978 and 1988 Summary of Degree Trends for Subgroups, 1977 - 1978 compared to 1987 - 1988 5-5 5-6 Typical Starting Salaries for New Engineering Graduates, by Field and Degree (in dollars) 5- 7 Calculations on which Employment Data in Figure 5-1 are Based E-1 Calculating Growth Scenarios for the Civilian Nuclear Power Sector E-2 DOE Planning Assumptions for Estimating Nuclear Engineering Employment E-3 High-Growth Estimate of DOE and DOE Contractor Employment of Nuclear Engineers, 1987-2010 E-4 Best Estimate of DOE and DOE Contractor Employment of Nuclear Engineers, 1987-2010 Strategic Defense Initiative Organization Projections for Employment of Nuclear Engineers, 1995-2010 108 Forecasting Model Results for the High-Growth Scenario 108 E-7 Forecasting Model Results for the Best-Estimate Growth Scenario Total Degrees Granted, All Fields, by Degree Level and U.S. Residency Status, 1977 and 1987 Number and Share of Degrees Awarded to Nonresident Aliens by Degree Level, 1977 and 1987 - 116 55 59 60 61 63 64 69 71 101 103 107 XN71 107 108 115

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F-3 Number and Share of Quantitative Degrees Awarded to Nonresident Aliens by Degree Level, 1977 and 1987 F-4 Quantitative Degrees as a Share of all Degrees Earned, by Degree Level and U.S. Residency Status, 1977 and 1987 (in percent) F-5 Number and Share of Engineering and Nuclear Engineering Degrees Awarded to Nonresident Aliens by Degree Level, 1978 and 1988 F-6 Engineering Degrees as a Share of Total Quantitative Degrees, by Degree and U.S. Residency Status, 1977 and 1987 (in percent) Total Degrees Granted, All Fields, by Degree Level and Gender, 1977 and 1987 F-8 Quantitative Degrees Granted by Degree Level and Gender, U.S. Residents Only, 1981 and 1987 F-9 F-1G Quantitative Degrees Awarded to Women as a Share of Total Degrees by Degree Level Awarded to Women, 1977 and 1987 Quantitative Degrees Awarded to Women as a Share of Total Degrees Awarded to Women, by Degree Level, U.S. Residents Only, 1981 and 1987 Fell Engineering and Nuclear Engineering Degrees Granted by Degree Level and Gender, 1978 and 1988 F-12 Total Degrees Granted, All Fields, by Degree Level, and Race and Ethnicity, 1977 and 1987 F-13 Quantitative Degrees Granted by Degree Level and Race and Ethnicity, 1977 and 1987 F-14 Nuclear Engineering Degrees Granted by Degree Level, and Race and Ethnicity, 1978 and 1988 F-15 Percent and Number of SAT Test-takers Whose Mathematics Scores Met the Minimum Required to Succeed in Nuclear Engineering, By Race and Ethnicity, and Gender, 1983-1988 F-16;Percent and Number of SAT Test-takers Whose Verbal Scores Met the Minimum Required to Succeed in Nuclear Engineering, by Race and Ethnicity, and Gender, 1983-1988 XV11 116 117 117 118 118 119 119 120 120 121 122 123 124 125

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F-17 Percent of Test-takers Who Met Minimum Quantitative and Verbal Scores of Engineering B.S. Graduates Who Took the Graduate Record Examination, U.S. Citizens Only, 1986-1987 F-18 Trends in College-Age Cohorts as Shares of Total U.S. population, 1980-2010 (in percent) F-l9 Trends in Racial and Ethnic College-Age Cohorts , 1980-2010 1 _26 126 127 F-20 Past and Projected College Age Population by Race and Attainmen of Bachelor's or Higher Level Degree, 1984-2005 (in thousands) 128 F-21 Course Requirements for Bachelor's Degree Programs in Nuclear Engineering F-22 Average Semester Hour Requirements in Basic and Engineering Sciences for Different Engineering Disciplines . ~ XY'11 it 129 130

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LIST OF FIGURES 3-1 Projected total civilian employment of nuclear engineers, 29 1990-2010, for three scenarios (estimated to the nearest hundred). 3-2 Projected annual demand for civilian nuclear engineers in government and industry, 1990-2010, for three scenarios (estimated to the nearest hundred). 4-1 Distribution of nuclear engineering faculty by age. 4-2 Experience of nuclear engineering teaching faculties. 4-3 Total enrollment in nuclear engineering junior and senior classes. Total undergraduate degree awards in nuclear engineering, 1977-1987. 4-7 First-job employment distribution for B.S. graduates in nuclear engineering for the past five years. Graduate student enrollments in nuclear engineering programs, 1978-1989. Weighted distribution of undergraduate disciplines for students entering nuclear engineering graduate programs. 4-8 M.S. and Ph.D. graduates in nuclear engineering. 4-9 M.S. and Ph.D. nuclear engineering graduates, first-job employment distribution for the past five years. 5-1 Supply and demand projections for new graduate nuclear engineers in the U.S. civilian labor force. x~ x 33 36 37 40 41 42 43 42 44 45 46 70

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E-1 Calculating Growth Scenarios for the Civilian Nuclear Power Sector. Past and Projected Trends in the Total and 14-34 Year Old U.S. Population, 1980-2010 (in thousands). The distribution of physics credit hours required for nuclear engineering degrees by several institutions. The distribution of mathematics credit hours required for nuclear engineering degrees by several institutions. F-4 The distribution of engineering mechanics credit hours required for nuclear engineering degrees by several institutions. F-5 The distribution of nuclear science credit hours required for nuclear engineering degrees by several institutions. F-6 The distribution of materials science credit hours required for nuclear engineering degrees by several institutions. F-7 The distribution of humanities and social science credit hours required for nuclear engineering degrees by several institutions. F-8 Undergraduate enrollment of women in nuclear engineering for juniors and seniors, 1982 to 1988. F-9 Undergraduate enrollment of foreign nationals in nuclear engineering for juniors and seniors, 1982-1988. F-10 Graduate enrollment of women in nuclear engineering, 1982 to 1988. Fell Graduate enrollment of foreign nationals, 1982 to 1988. xx 110 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141