References

Allen, D. M., I. M. Onorato, P. A. Sweeney, and State and Local Health Departments. 1990. Seroprevalence of HIV infection in intravenous drug users (IVDUs) in the United States. P. 218 in Abstracts of the Sixth International Conference on AIDS, Vol. 2, San Francisco, California, June 20-24.

Allen, J. R. 1988. Screening and testing asymptomatic persons for HIV infection. Pp. 421-429 in AIDS: Etiology, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention, V. T. De Vita, S. Hellman, and S. A. Rosenberg, eds. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co.

Allison-Cook, S. 1990. Cost and utilization of inpatient services for pediatric AIDS. Challenges for Public Health Statistics in the 1990s. Proceedings of the 1989 Public Health Conference on Records and Statistics, July 17-19, 1989. Hyattsville, Md.: National Center for Health Statistics.

Almond, B., and C. Ulanowsky. 1990. HIV and pregnancy. Hastings Center Rep. 20:16-21.

Altman, R., C. M. Grant, D. N. Brandon, S. L Shahied, E. Rappaport, S. Costa, W. Pizzuti, C. Southard, F. K. Goldschmidt, and L. Robeson. 1989. Statewide HIV-1 serologic survey of newborns with resultant changes in screening and delivery system policy. P. 65 in Abstracts of the Fifth International Conference on AIDS, Montreal, Canada, June 4-9.

Amadori, A., A. de Rossi, C. Giaquinto, G. Faulkner-Valle, F. Zacchello, and L. Chieco-Bianchi. 1988. In-vitro production of HIV-specific antibody in children at risk of AIDS. Lancet 1:852-854.

American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Infectious Diseases. 1988. Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases, 21st ed. Elk Grove Village, Ill.: American Academy of Pediatrics.

American Academy of Pediatrics, Task Force on Pediatric AIDS. 1988. Perinatal human immunodeficiency virus infection. Peidatrics 82:941-944.

American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1988. Human Immune Deficiency Virus Infections. Technical Bulletin No. 123. New York, N.Y.: American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

American Medical Association. 1989. Report of the Board of Trustees, Report Q (A-89). Neonatal HIV Antibody Screening. American Medical Association, Chicago.

Ammann, A., and J. Pitt. 1989. Pediatric AIDS. AIDS Clitoral Care 1:65-68.

Andrews, L. B. 1985. State Laws and Regulations Governing Newborn Screening. Chicago: American Bar Foundation.

Andrulis, D. P., V. B. Weslowski, E. Hintz, R. H. Parrot, and M. Brady. 1990. Pediatric AIDS and Hospital Care in the U.S.: Report on the 1987 U.S. Hospital Pediatric AIDS Survey. Washington, D.C.: National Public Health and Hospital Institute.

This list includes references cited in the text and additional sources of information.



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HIV Screening of Pregnant Women and Newborns References Allen, D. M., I. M. Onorato, P. A. Sweeney, and State and Local Health Departments. 1990. Seroprevalence of HIV infection in intravenous drug users (IVDUs) in the United States. P. 218 in Abstracts of the Sixth International Conference on AIDS, Vol. 2, San Francisco, California, June 20-24. Allen, J. R. 1988. Screening and testing asymptomatic persons for HIV infection. Pp. 421-429 in AIDS: Etiology, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention, V. T. De Vita, S. Hellman, and S. A. Rosenberg, eds. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. Allison-Cook, S. 1990. Cost and utilization of inpatient services for pediatric AIDS. Challenges for Public Health Statistics in the 1990s. Proceedings of the 1989 Public Health Conference on Records and Statistics, July 17-19, 1989. Hyattsville, Md.: National Center for Health Statistics. Almond, B., and C. Ulanowsky. 1990. HIV and pregnancy. Hastings Center Rep. 20:16-21. Altman, R., C. M. Grant, D. N. Brandon, S. L Shahied, E. Rappaport, S. Costa, W. Pizzuti, C. Southard, F. K. Goldschmidt, and L. Robeson. 1989. Statewide HIV-1 serologic survey of newborns with resultant changes in screening and delivery system policy. P. 65 in Abstracts of the Fifth International Conference on AIDS, Montreal, Canada, June 4-9. Amadori, A., A. de Rossi, C. Giaquinto, G. Faulkner-Valle, F. Zacchello, and L. Chieco-Bianchi. 1988. In-vitro production of HIV-specific antibody in children at risk of AIDS. Lancet 1:852-854. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Infectious Diseases. 1988. Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases, 21st ed. Elk Grove Village, Ill.: American Academy of Pediatrics. American Academy of Pediatrics, Task Force on Pediatric AIDS. 1988. Perinatal human immunodeficiency virus infection. Peidatrics 82:941-944. American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1988. Human Immune Deficiency Virus Infections. Technical Bulletin No. 123. New York, N.Y.: American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. American Medical Association. 1989. Report of the Board of Trustees, Report Q (A-89). Neonatal HIV Antibody Screening. American Medical Association, Chicago. Ammann, A., and J. Pitt. 1989. Pediatric AIDS. AIDS Clitoral Care 1:65-68. Andrews, L. B. 1985. State Laws and Regulations Governing Newborn Screening. Chicago: American Bar Foundation. Andrulis, D. P., V. B. Weslowski, E. Hintz, R. H. Parrot, and M. Brady. 1990. Pediatric AIDS and Hospital Care in the U.S.: Report on the 1987 U.S. Hospital Pediatric AIDS Survey. Washington, D.C.: National Public Health and Hospital Institute. This list includes references cited in the text and additional sources of information.

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HIV Screening of Pregnant Women and Newborns Annas, G. J. 1982. Mandatory PKU screening: The other side of the looking glass. Am. J. Public Health 72:1401-1403. Auger, I., P. Thomas, V. De Gruttola, D. Morse, D. Moore, R. Williams, B. Truman, and C. E. Lawrence. 1988. Incubation periods for paediatric AIDS patients. Nature 336:575-577. Barbacci, M., T. Quinn, R. Kline, J. Repke, and R. Chaisson. 1989a. Failure of targeted screening to identify HIV+ pregnant women. P. 222 in Abstracts of the Fifth International Conference on AIDS, Montreal, Canada, June 4-9. Barbacci, M., R. Chaisson, J. Anderson, and J. Horn. 1989b. Knowledge of HIV serostatus and pregnancy decisions. P. 223 in Abstracts of the Fifth International Conference on AIDS, Montreal, Canada, June 4-9. Bayer, R. 1989. Perinatal transmission of HIV infection: The ethics of prevention. Clin. Obstet. Gynecol. 32:497-505. Benenson, A. S., K. M. Peddecord, L. K. Hofherr, M. S. Ascher, R. N. Taylor, and T. L. Hearn. 1990. Reporting the results of human immunodeficiency virus testing. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 262:3435-3438. Biggar, R. J., S. Pahwa, H. Minkoff, H. Mendes [sic], A. Willoughby, S. Landesman, and J. J. Goedert. 1989. Immunosuppression in pregnant women infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 161:1239-1244. Blanche, S., C. Rouzioux, M.-L. G. Moscato, F. Veber, M.-J. Mayaux, C. Jacomet, J. Tricoire, A. Deville, M. Vial, G. Firtion, A. de Crepy, D. Douard, M. Robin, C. Courpotin, N. Ciraru-Vigneron, F. le Deist, C. Griscelli, and the HIV Infection in Newborns French Collaborative Study Group. 1989. A prospective study of infants born to women seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus type 1. N. Engl. J. Med. 320:1643-1648. CDC (Centers for Disease Control). 1985. Recommendations for assisting in the prevention of perinatal transmission of human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Morbid. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 34:721-726, 731-732. CDC (Centers for Disease Control). 1986. Immunization of children infected with human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus. Recommendation of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee. Morbid Mortal Wkly. Rep. 35:595-605. CDC (Centers for Disease Control). 1987a. Public Health Service guidelines for counseling and antibody testing to prevent HIV infection and AIDS. Morbid Mortal Wkly. Rep. 36:509-515. CDC (Centers for Disease Control). 1987b. Recommendations for prevention of HIV transmission in health-care settings. Morbid Mortal Wkly. Rep. 36:1S-18S. CDC (Centers for Disease Control). 1989a. General recommendations on immunization. Recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee. Morbid Mortal Wkly. Rep. 38:205-227. CDC (Centers for Disease Control). 1989b. Guidelines for prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia for persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Morbid Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 38(S-5):1-9. CDC (Centers for Disease Control). 1990. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report . September:1-18. Chavkin, W. 1990. Drug addiction and pregnancy: Policy crossroads. Am. J. Public Health 80:483-487. Choi, K.-H., L Wermuth, and J. Sorensen. 1990. Predictors of condom use among women sexual partners of intravenous drug users. P. 271 in Abstracts of the Sixth International Conference on AIDS, Vol. 2, San Francisco, California, June 20-24. Chu, S. Y., J. W. Buehler, and R. L. Berkelman. 1990. Impact of the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic on mortality in women of reproductive age, United States J. Am. Med. Assoc. 264:225-229. Coates, T. J., R. D. Stall, S. M. Kegeles, B. Lo, S. F. Morin, and L. McKusick. 1988. AIDS antibody testing: Will it stop the AIDS epidemic? Will it help people infected with HIV? Am. Psychologist 43:859-864.

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HIV Screening of Pregnant Women and Newborns Colten, H. R. 1990. Screening for cystic fibrosis: Public policy and personal choices. N. Engl. J. Med. 322:328-329. Connor, E., M. Bagarazzi, G. McSherry, B. Holland, M. Boland, T. Denny, and J. Oleske. 1990. Clinical and Laboratory Correlates of Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia in Children Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Children's Hospital AIDS Program, Children's Hospital of New Jersey, Newark. Coyle, S. L., R. F. Boruch, C. F. Turner, eds. 1991. Evaluating AIDS Prevention Programs, rev. ed. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. de la Fuente, L., G. Barrio, M. Izquierdo, A. Roig, J. Forteza, and J. Tor. 1990. Change in risky practices of patients with cocaine and/or opiate dependence after knowing their HIV infection status. A national study (Spain). P. 117 in Abstracts of the Sixth International Conference on AIDS, Vol. 2, San Francisco, California, June 20-24. Devash, Y., T. A. Calvelli, D. G. Wood, K. J. Reagan, and A. Rubinstein. 1990. Vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus is correlated with the absence of high-affinity/avidity maternal antibodies to the gp120 principal neutralizing domain. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:3445-3449. Drotman, D. P., and R. O. Valdiserri. 1989. Are human immunodeficiency virus test reports clear to clinicians? J. Am. Med. Assoc. 262:3465-3466. Drummond, M. F., G. L. Stoddart, and G. W. Torrance. 1987. Methods for the Economic Evaluation of Health Care Programmes. New York: Oxford University Press. Edgar, H., and H. Sandomire. 1990. Medical privacy issues in the age of AIDS: Legislative options. Am. J. Law Med. 16:155-222 Esbjorner, E., G. Jarnerot, and L. Wranne. 1987. Sulphasalazine and sulphapyridine serum levels in children to mothers treated with sulphasalazine during pregnancy and lactation. Acta. Paediatr. Scand. 76:137-142. European Collaborative Study. 1988. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection. Lancet 2:1039-1043. Faden, R. R., N. A. Holtzman, and A. J. Chwalow. 1982a. Parental rights, child welfare, and public health: The case of PKU screening. Am. J. Public Health 72:1396-1400. Faden, R. R., A. J. Chwalow, N. A. Holtzman, and S. D. Horn. 1982b. A survey to evaluate parental consent as public policy for neonatal screening. Am. J. Public Health 72:1347-1352. Faden, R. R., A. J. Chwalow, K. Quaid, G. A. Chase, C. Lopes, C. O. Leonard, and N. A. Holtzman. 1987. Prenatal screening and pregnant women's attitudes toward the abortion of defective fetuses. Am. J. Public Health 77:288-290. Field, M. J., and K. N. Lohr, eds. 1990. Clinical Practice Guidelines: Directions for a New Program. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Goedert, J. J., H. Mendez, J. E. Drummond, M. Robert-Guroff, H. L Minkoff, S. Holman, R. Stevens, A. Rubinstein, W. A. Blattner, A. Willoughby, and S. H. Landesman. 1989. Mother-to-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: Association with prematurity or low anti-gp120 Lancet 2:1351-1354. Gostin, L. O. 1989. Public health strategies for confronting AIDS: Legislative and regulatory policy in the United States. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 261:1621-1630. Gostin, L. O. 1990a. The AIDS litigation project. A national review of court and human rights commission decisions. Part 1: The social impact of AIDS. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 263:1961-1970. Gostin, L. O. 1990b. The AIDS litigation project. A national review of court and human rights commission decisions. Part 2: Discrimination. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 263:2086-2093. Gwinn, M., J. R. George, W. H. Hannon, R. Hoff, M. Pappaioanou, and A. Novello. 1990. Estimates of HIV Seroprevalence in Childbearing Women and Incidence of HIV Infection in Infants, United States. P. 100 in Abstracts of the Sixth International Conference on AIDS, Vol. 2, San Francisco, California, June 20-24.

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HIV Screening of Pregnant Women and Newborns Hegarty, J. D., E. J. Abrams, V. E. Hutchinson, S. W. Nicholas, M. S. Suarez, and M. C. Heagarty. 1988. The medical care costs of human immunodeficiency virus-infected children in Harlem. J. Am. Med. Assoc . 260:1901-1905. Hoff, R., V. P. Berardi, B. J. Weiblen, L. Mahoney-Trout, M. L. Mitchell, and G. F. Grady. 1988. Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus among childbearing women: Estimation by testing samples of blood from newborns. N. Engl. J. Med. 318:525-530. Holman, S., A. Sunderland, M. Berthaud, G. Moroso, and F. Cancellieri. 1989. Prenatal HIV counseling and testing. Clin. Obstet. Gynecol. 32:445-455. Hughes, W. T., S. Kuhn, S. Chaudhary, S. Feldman, M. Verzosa, R. J. A. Aur, C. Pratt, and S. L. George. 1977. Successful chemoprophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis. N. Engl. J. Med. 297:1419-1426. Hughes, W. T., G. K. Rivera, M. J. Schell, D. Thornton, and L Lott. 1987. Successful intermittent chemoprophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis. N. Engl. J. Med. 316:1627-1632. Husson, R. N., A. M. Comeau, and R. Hoff. 1990. Diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus infection in infants and children. Pediatrics 86:1-10. Italian Multicentre Study. 1988. Epidemiology, clinical features, and prognostic factors of paediatric HIV infection. Lancet 2:1043-1046. Jarnerot, G., S. Andersen, E. Esbjorner, B. Sandstrom, and R. Brodersen. 1981a. Albumin reserve for binding of bilirubin in maternal and cord serum under treatment with sulphasalazine. Scand J. Gastroenterol. 16:1049-1055. Jarnerot, G., M. B. Into-Malmberg, and E. Esbjorner. 1981b. Placental transfer of sulphasalazine and sulphapyridine and some of its metabolites. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 16:693-697. Johnstone, F. D., R. P. Brettle, L. R. MacCallum, J. Mok, J. F. Peutherer, and S. Burns. 1990. Women's knowledge of their HIV antibody state: Its effect on their decision whether to continue the pregnancy. Brit Med. J. 300:23-24. Kaplan, M. H., B. Farber, W. H. Hall, C. Mallow, C. O'Keefe, and R. G. Harper. 1989. Pregnancy arising in HIV infected women while being repetitively counseled about ''safe sex.'' P. 222 in Abstracts of the Fifth International Conference on AIDS, Montreal, Canada, June 4-9. Katz, B. Z. 1989. Natural history and clinical management of the infant born to a mother infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Sem. Perinatol. 13:27-34. Katz, S. L., and C. M. Wilfert. 1989. Human immunodeficiency virus infection of newborns. N. Engl. J Med. 320:1687-1688. Kemper, K., and B. Forsyth. 1988. Medically unnecessary hospital use in children seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 260:1906-1909. Koonin, L. M, T. V. Ellerbrock, H. K. Atrash, M. F. Rogers, J. C. Smith, C. J. R. Hogue, M. A. Harris, W. Chavkin, A. L. Parker, and G. J. Halpin. 1990. Pregnancy-associated deaths due to AIDS in the United States. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 261:1306-1309. Krasinski, K, W. Borkowsky, D. Bebenroth, and T. Moore. 1988. Failure of voluntary testing for human immunodeficiency virus to identify infected parturient women in a high-risk population. N. Engl. J. Med. 318:185. Krivine, A., A. Yakudima, M. Le May, V. Pena-Cruz, A. S. Huang, and K. McIntosh. 1990. A comparative study of virus isolation, polymerase chain reaction, and antigen detection in children of mothers infected with human immunodeficiency virus. J. Pediatrics 116:372-376. Landesman, S. H. 1989. Human immunodeficiency virus infection in women: An overview. Sem. Perinatol. 13:2-6. Landesman, S., H. Minkoff, S. Holman, S. McCalla, and O. Sijin. 1987. Serosurvey of human immunodeficiency virus infection in parturients: Implications for human immunodeficiency virus testing programs of pregnant women. J. Am, Med. Assoc. 258:2701-2703.

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HIV Screening of Pregnant Women and Newborns Landesman, S. H., H. L. Minkoff, and A. Willoughby. 1989. HIV disease in reproductive age women: A problem of the present. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 261:1326-1327. Lappé, M., J. M. Gustafson, and R. Roblin, co-chairmen, Research Group on Ethical, Social and Legal Issues in Genetic Counseling and Genetic Engineering of the Institute of Society, Ethics and the Life Sciences. 1972. Ethical and social issues in screening for genetic disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 286:1129-1132. Leoung, G. S., D. W. Feigal, Jr, A. B. Montgomery, K. Corkery, L. Wardlaw, M. Adams, D. Busch, S. Gordon, M. A. Jacobson, P. A. Volberding, D. Abrams, and the San Francisco County Community Consortium. 1990. Aerosolized pentamidine for prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: The San Francisco community prophylaxis trial. N. Engl. J. Med. 323:769-775. Levine, C., and R. Bayer. 1989. The ethics of screening for early intervention in HIV disease. Am. J. Public Health 79:1661-1667. Lindan, C., S. Allen, F. Nsengumuremyi, D. Black, J. Schwalbe, J. Levy, and S. Hulley. 1990. HIV testing and education promote safer sex among urban women in Rwanda. P. 256 in Abstracts of the Sixth International Conference on AIDS, Vol. 3, San Francisco, California, June 20-24. Lindsay, M. K., H. B. Peterson, T. I. Feng, B. A. Slade, S. Willis, and L. Klein. 1989. Routine antepartum human immunodeficiency virus infection screening in an inner-city population. Obstet Gynecol. 74:289-294. McCray, E., I. M. Onorato, and State and Local Health Departments. 1990. HIV seroprevalence in clients attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in the United States, 1988-90. P. 100 in Abstracts of the Sixth International Conference on AIDS, Vol. 2, San Francisco, California, June 20-24. McKinney, R. E., C. M. Wilfert, AIDS Clinical Trials Group of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and Burroughs Wellcome Company. 1990. The efficacy of oral, intermittent zidovudine (ZDV) in a phase II pediatric trial (AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study 043). P. 94 in Abstracts of the Sixth International Conference on AIDS, Vol. 2, San Francisco, California, June 20-24. McLaughlin, M., P. Thomas, L Onorato, A. Rubinstein, J. Oleske, S. Nicholas, K. Krasinski, P. Guigli, and W. Orenstein. 1988. Live virus vaccines in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children: A retrospective survey. Pediatrics 82:229-233. Miller, H. G., C. F. Turner, and L. E. Moses, eds. 1990. AIDS: The Second Decade. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Minkoff, H. L., and L. Feinkind. 1989. Management of pregnancies of HIV-infected women. Clin. Obstet Gynecol. 32:467-476. Minkoff, H. L., and S. H. Landesman. 1988. The case for routinely offering prenatal testing for human immunodeficiency virus. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 159:793-796. Minkoff, H. L., A. Willoughby, H. Mendez, G. Moroso, S. Holman, J. J. Goedert, and S. H. Landesman. 1990. Serious infections during pregnancy among women with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 162:30-34. Mitchell, J. L. 1988. Women, AIDS, and public policy. AIDS & Public Policy J. 3:50-52. Mofenson, L. M. 1989. Newborn Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. Seroprevalence Study vs. Case Identification Method: Review of Issues. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md. Montgomery, A. B., R. J. Debs, J. M. Luce, K. J. Corkery, J. Turner, E. N. Brunette, E. T. Lin, and P. C. Hopewell. 1987. Aerosolized pentamidine as sole therapy for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Lancet 2:480-483. Nanda, D., and H. L. Minkoff. 1989. HIV in pregnancy-transmission and immune effects. Clin Obstet. Gynecol. 32:456-466. National Center for Health Statistics. 1990. Advance report of final natality statistics, 1988. Monthly Vital Statistics Rep. 39:1-48.

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