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v INORGANIC S^e ~ ITS. TRACE METALS Trace metals may be present in natural groundwater or surface water. The sources of these trace metals are associated with either natural processes or man's activities. Two important natural processes contribut- ing trace metals to natural water are chemical weathering and soil leaching. The factors affecting the release of trace metals from primary materials and soil and their solution and stability in water are solubility, pH, adsorption characteristics, hydration, coprecipitation, colloidal dispersion, and the formation of complexes. Decaying vegetation can also affect the concentration of trace metals in water. Many plants are known to concentrate various elements selectively. As a result, trace metals may become available during the decay of the plants. Thus, the penetration and movement of rainwater through soil may pick up these available trace metals and affect the groundwater resource. Likewise, runoff resulting from rainfall may transport trace metals to surface-water. Mining and manufacturing are other important sources of trace metals in natural waters. Several operations associated with the mining of coal and mineral ores can lead to the discharge of wastewater contaminated with trace metals or to the accumulation of spoiled material, which may be leached of trace metals by rainfall and reach either surface or groundwater. The discharge of industrial wastewater, such as that generated by plating and metal-finishing operations, may also be the source of trace metals in natural water. 205

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206 DRINKING WATER AND H"LTH The treatment of raw surface or groundwater to make it acceptable for public consumption may include the removal of trace metals. However, trace metals may be added to water as a result of the treatment and the subsequent distribution throughout a community. Depending on the quality of the raw water and the quality desired in the finished (treated) water, treatment may involve the use of chemicals, such as alum (aluminum sulfate), lime, and iron salts. The chemicals used are usually of commercial or technical grade with no exact composition, although the American Water Works Association has established standards for most chemicals used in the treatment of water supplies. Because of the possibility of impurities in the chemicals, it is conceivable that trace metals may be added to the water during treatment. A chemical itself, such as alum, may also contribute to the trace metal content of the finished water, depending on its solubility and the characteristics of the water. The occurrence of corrosion in the distribution system may also add trace metals to finished water before it reaches the consumer. Common piping materials used in distribution systems are iron, steel, cement (reinforced concrete), asbestos cement, and plastic. Lead, copper, zinc, aluminum, and such alloys as brass, bronze, and stainless steel may also be used in addition to ferrous metals in pumps, small pipes, valves, and other appurtenances. Trace metals may be contributed to the water through corrosion products or simply by solution of small amounts of metals with which the water comes in contact. 1 0 1 ~ ~ - ~ Trace Metals in Water Samples Collected in the Distribution System or at Household Taps The concentration of trace metals in water collected in the distribution system or at household taps is more relevant with respect to the quality of water being consumed by the public than is the raw water. The data in Table V-1, taken from the community water supply survey involving 969 public water supplies, indicate the levels of several selected elements in water samples collected in distribution systems. Chromium and silver were present in microgram quantities, while cadmium, lead, and barium were found to be in the milligram range (McCabe et al., 1970~. The results of analyzing a number of tap-water samples, collected at homes in Dallas, Texas, for trace metals are given in Table V-2. In the unpublished report from which these data were taken, it was speculated that the high iron concentration was due to the use of steel water mains in the distribution system, whereas the high manganese concentration was the result of accumulation of sandy sediment in the distribution system. The high copper and zinc concentrations in the water samples were

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Inorganic Solutes 207 TABLE V-1 Concentrations of Selected Trace Metals in 2,595 Distribution Water Samples Fraction of Maximum Con- Samples Limit,a centration, Exceeding Element mg/liter mg/liter Limit, No Barium 1.0 1.55 <0.1 Cadmium 0.01 3.94 0.1 Chromium (VI) 0.05 0.08 0.2 Lead 0.05 0.64 1.4 Silver 0.05 0.03 0 aUSPHS Dnnking Water Standards of 1962 (From McCabe et al., 1970) believed due to the household plumbing. "Local influences" was the reason cited for the high lead and nickel concentrations in the tap water. Several studies have shown the combined eject of treatment and the distribution system on the trace-metal content of the water reaching consumers. A treatment plant handling 90 million gallons/day (90 mad) and obtaining its raw water from the Allegheny River was studied with respect to barium, copper, and nickel (Shapiro et al., 1960~. This particular plant used sedimentation, slow sand filtration, and chlor~na- tion. Water samples were collected for analysis before and after chlorination and at a consumer's tap at a remote point in the distribution system. Nickel and copper occurred in significantly higher concentrations in the tap water compared with the treatment plant after chlorination TABLE V-2 Concentrations of Selected Trace Metals in Household Tap-Water Samples, Dallas, Texas N Concentration, mg/liter Element Samples Average Median Maximum Minimum Cadmium 43 0.011 0.003 0.056 0.001 Chromium 36 0.004 0.003 0.020 0.001 Copper 43 0.037 0.029 0.164 0.004 Iron 35 0.093 0.088 0.274 0.031 Mercury 43 0.000115 0.000100 0.000885 0 Manganese 43 0.0037 0.004 0.008 0.001 Nickel 36 0.0109 0.010 0.023 0.005 Lead 43 0.0095 0.010 0.027 0 Zinc 43 0.0124 0.011 0.049 0.005

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208 DRINKING WATER AND H"LTH TABLE V-3 Comparison of Concentrations of Several Trace Elements in Raw and Tap Water of Three Cities in Sweden Raw-Water Concentration, Element Halites Malmo Concentration Ratio, Tap; Raw Stockholm Goteberg Barium 1-3 6.7 4.0 0.5 Cadmium 0.02~.3 2.5 0.5 1.0 Cobalt 0.1 0.7 1.0 3.0 Copper 2-13 0.5 0.2 0.4 Mercury 0.09~.4 1.1 1.0 1.0 Zinc 8-28 4.5 2.8 1.4 (From Bostrom and Wester, 1967) 100 ,ug/liter vs. 30 ,ug/liter for nickel and 4,000 ,ug/liter vs. 90 ,ug/liter for copper. In the case of barium, the concentration was lower at the tap 40 ,ug/liter vs. 90 ,ug/liter. The concentration of copper in water was higher following chlorination (30 ,ug/liter before and 90 ,ug/liter after). The effect of treatment and the distribution system on the concentra- tion of trace metals was also studied in three cities in Sweden Mahno, Stockholm, and Goteberg (Bostrom and Wester, 1967~. A comparison of the raw and tap water concentration of six trace metals is shown in Table V-3. The change in concentration of several trace metals in raw, finished, and tap water was studied in the Denver municipal system, which draws its raw water from a variety of sources and uses five treatment plants that are interconnected, which makes it impossible to determine the plant from which a tap-water sample is derived (Barrett et al., 1969~. The maximum: minimum ratio for most of the trace metals in the raw water varied from 1.5: 1-6.5: 1; higher ratios were observed for aluminum, iron, molybdenum, and zinc. A comparison of the concentrations of the trace metals in the tap and finished water, based on ratios, shows that there were both reductions and increases in the distribution system. As with the raw waters, the concentrations of trace metals in the tap-water samples showed considerable variation. A distribution system in Seattle, Washington, was studied in an attempt to determine the severity and location of the corrosion that was known to be occurring (Danger, 1975~. The concentrations of several trace metals were determined in the raw water and in two samples collected at household taps. Standing samples were coldected as soon as the tap was turned on; this represented water in contact with the household plumbing at least overnight. Running samples collected after

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Inorganic Solutes 209 bleeding the line for 30 s represented water from the distribution main. The corrosiveness of the system was recognized by the low phi and hardness of the water. A comparison of the concentrations of iron, copper, zinc, lead, and cadmium in the raw water with those in the standing water confirmed the corrosiveness of the water. However, after a comparison of the concentrations of the same trace metals in the standing and running samples, it was concluded that most of the metal pickup was occurring in the service lines connecting the distribution main to the buildings and in the inside plumbing. It was also noted that the corrosion products tested the trace metals correlated well with the materials in contact with the water. Trace Metals in Finished Water Supplies A survey of the mineral content of the water served to customers (finished water) in the 100 largest U.S. cities was made in 1962 (Durfor and Becker, 1964~. The highest, median, and lowest concentrations are listed in Table V-4. The raw water used by these cities was either groundwater (wells and infiltration galleries) or surface water (streams, reservoirs, and lakes). The chemical quality of most groundwater supplies is stable, compared with TABLE V-4 Maximum, Minimum, and Median Concentrations of Constituents of Finished Water in Public Water Supplies of 100 Largest Cities in United States Concentration, mg/liter ConstituentHigh Median Low Iron1.3 0.02 0.00 Manganese2.5 0.00 0.00 Magnesium120 6.25 0.00 Silica72 7.1 0.00 ,ug/liter Silver7.0 0.23 ND Aluminum1,500 54 3.3 Barium380 43 1.7 Chromium35 0.43 o 2 Copper250 8.3 <0.61 Molybdenum68 1.4 ND Nickel34 <2.7 ND Lead62 3.7 ND Vanadium70 <4.3 ND ND, not detected. (From Durfor and Becker, 1964)

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210 DRINKING WATER AND HEALTH TABLE V-5 Frequency of Detection and Concentrations of Dissolved Trace Metals in 1,577 Raw Surface Waters in the United States (October 1, 1962-September 30, 1967) Frequency of Detection, Concentration, ,ug/liter Element AS MinimumMaximum Mean Zinc 76.5 21,183 64 Cadmium 2.5 1120 9.5 Iron 75.6 14,600 52 Molybdenum 37.7 21,500 68 Manganese 51.4 0.33,230 58 Aluminum 31.2 12,760 74 Beryllium 5.4 0.011.22 0.19 Copper 74.4 1280 15 Silver 6.6 0. 138 2.6 Nickel 16.2 1130 19 Cobalt 2.8 148 17 Lead 19.3 2140 23 Chromium 24.5 1112 9.7 Vanadium 3.4 2300 40 Barium 99.4 2340 43 (From Kopp, 1970) that of streams, whose quality often varies seasonally and during flood periods. The mineral content of impounded water is generally less than that of water in streams. In addition to the quality of the raw water, it is important to recognize that water-treatment practices can affect the concentration of trace metals in finished water. This can be seen from the data in Tables V-5 and V-6. The concentrations of several trace metals in surface water of the United States are summarized in Table V-5. Table V-6 gives values for finished municipal water after treatment. This summary of analyses performed on raw surface water and finished water indicates higher mean concentrations of iron, zinc, lead, copper, and aluminum in finished water. This broad comparison points to the possibility that trace metals are added to water during treatment. Barnett et al. (1969) cited such an instance in which the use of aluminum sulfate at a treatment plant increased the aluminum concentration in the finished water by a factor of 5. Shapiro et al. (1962) observed, in a study of Pittsburgh tap water, a considerable increase in the copper content between samples at the water-treatment plant and those taken in the distribution system. Nickel also showed a tendency to be higher in the distribution water samples than at the treatment plant; however, the opposite was true for barium.

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Inorganic Solutes 211 In comparing the concentrations of several trace metals in raw water taken from the Thames River and finished water at two treatment plants using prechlor~nation, flocculation with alum, rapid sand filtration, and postchlorination, it was found that treatment had no eject on the cobalt concentration (Andelman and Shapiro, 1973~. However, as a result of treatment, the concentrations of manganese and nickel in the finished water decreased, whereas those of copper and cadmium increased. In addition, 83 water-supply systems in EPA Region V were examined for various organic and inorganic constituents (USEPA, 1975~. Region V consists of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin. The water supplies examined were selected jointly by the EPA and the states and consisted of 14 groundwater and 69 surface-water supplies. The concentrations of metals in the raw- and finished-water supplies included in the survey are summarized in Table V-7. Occurrence of Trace Metals in Raw Water Supplies In reporting the results of various water surveys, no attempt has been made to distinguish between different analytical methods used that may well have different sensitivities and precision. TABLE V-6 Frequency of Detection and Concentrations of Trace Metals in 380 Finished Waters in the United States (October 1, 1 962-September 30, 1967) Frequency of Detection. Concentration.,ug/liter Element No MinimumMaximum Mean Zinc 77.0 32.010 79.2 Cadmium 0.2 1212 12 Iron 83.4 21,920 68.9 Manganese 58.7 0.5450 25.5 Copper 65.2 11,060 43 Silver 6.1 0.35 2.2 Lead 18.1 3139 33.9 Chromium 15.2 129 7.5 Barium 99.7 1172 28.6 Molybdenum 29.9 31,024 85.9 Aluminum 47.8 31,600 179.1 Beryllium 1.1 0.020.17 0.1 Nickel 4.6 1490 34.2 Cobalt 0.5 2229 26 Vanadium 3.4 14222 46.1 (From Kopp, 1970)

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212 DRINKING WATER AND HEALTH TABLE V-7 Metal Concentration Ranges in Raw- and Finished- Water Supplies of 83 Cities in EPA Region V Concentration, ,ug/liter Element Raw Water Finished Water Silver Arsenic Cadmium Chromium Copper Iron Magnesium Manganese Sodium Lead Selenium Zinc <0.2~.3 ~ 1 .0-10.0 <0.2-12 <5.0-17.0 <5.0-200.0 <20-330 1 ,800~2,000 <5.0-760 1, 100-77,000 <2.0-30.0 <5.0 <5.~210 <0.2~.3 < 1 .0-50.0 <0.2~.4 <5.0~.0 <5.0-200.0 <20-1, 100 800~9,000 <5.0-350 1,000 91,000 <2.0-20.0 cS.O <5.0~60 BARIUM Barium was found in 99.4% of the surfacewater samples examined by Kopp and Kroner (1967~. The range was 2-340 ,ug/liter, and the average was 43,ug/liter. BERYLLIUM The maximum beryllium concentration observed in 1961 by Durum and Haffty was less than 0.22 ,ug/liter in the Atchfalaya River at Krotz Springs, Louisiana. Kopp and Kroner (1967) noted the presence of beryllium in 5.4%of their samples, with concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 1.22,ug/liter and an average of 0.19,ag/liter. CADMIUM Groundwater contamination from electroplating operations has been reported by Lieber (1954) to cause cadmium concentrations of up to 3.2 mg/liter. In Illinois surface waters, 10 of 27 sampling s rations on different watersheds had cadmium concentrations below 10 ,ug/liter; the maxi- mum observed by Ackermann (1971) was 20 ,ug/liter. Of 112 samples of surface and groundwater in Canada examined, only four had detectable

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Inorganic Solutes 213 concentrations of cadmium, i.e., 10 ,ug/liter (Procter and Gamble, 1974~. Kopp and Kroner (1967) reported that 2.5% of the surface-water samples examined in their study contained cadmium at 1-120 ,ug/liter, with a mean of 9.5 ,ug/liter. In a comprehensive study of U.S. rivers in 1974 (USGS, 1974), a maximum dissolved concentration of cadmium of 42 ,ug/liter was reported for the Tanana River in Alaska. Durum et al. (1971) reported cadmium concentrations of 1-10 ,ug/liter in 42% of the surface- water samples examined, with only 4% above 10 ,ug/liter; the maximum concentration was 130 ,ug/liter. High concentrations were reported to occur in densely populated areas. Durum (1974) reported a distinct regional pattern: areas with many pollution sources and higher rainfall were higher in cadmium. CHROMIUM Durum and Hasty (1961) reported a range of concentrations for chromium in U.S. rivers of 0.7 to 84 ,ug/liter Kopp and Kroner (1967) detected chromium in 24.5% of the samples examined, with concentra- tions ranging from 1 to 112,ug/liter and averaging 9.7,ug/liter. In a study of surface and groundwater in Canada, all but two of 240 samples examined were below 50 ,ug/liter (Procter & Gamble, 1974~. In 1974, a maximum dissolved chromium concentration of 30,ug/liter was recorded in water from the Pecos River, New Mexico; the Los Angeles River; and the Columbia River, Oregon (USGS, 1974~. In a 1970 survey, 11 of 700 samples had chromium concentrations of 6 to 50 ,ug/liter, with none exceeding 50 ,ug/liter (Durum et al., 1971~. Ackermann (1971) reported chromium concentrations below 5 ,ug/liter for 18 of 27 river stations in Illinois; the maximum was 50,ug/liter. COBALT The limit of solubility of cobalt in normal river water is approximately 5 ,ug/liter, according to Durum et al. (1971), who reported that 37% of the river-water samples examined contained cobalt at 1-5 ,ug/liter, with less than 1% exceeding 5 ,ug/liter. A 1961 study showed a maximum of 5.S ,ug/liter in the Mississippi River at Baton Rouge (Durum, 1961~. A recent survey detected a maximum of 17 ,ug/liter in the Kentucky River at Lockport (USGS, 1974~. Kopp and Kroner (1967) found cobalt in 2.~% of surface-water samples examined; the concentration ranged from 1 to 48 ,ug/liter, with a mean of 17,ug/liter.

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214 DRINKING WATER AND HEALTH COPPER Copper has been observed to adsorb to colloidal material at alkaline pH (McKee and Wolf, 1963~. Durum and Hasty (1961) found the maximum copper concentration in the Susquehanna River to be 105,ug/liter. Kopp and Kroner (1967) detected copper in 74.4% of the surface-water samples examined; the concentration ranged from 1 to 280 ,ug/liter, with a mean of 15 ,ug/liter. A recent survey detected a maximum of 40,ug/liter in the North Platte River (USGS, 1974~. Analysis of 13 Canadian surface and groundwaters including wells, rivers, and lakes-showed copper at 20- 860 ,ug/liter, the maximum being recorded in Lake Ontario (Proctor & Gamble, 1974~. Copper in excess of 100 ,ug/liter was reported in 8 of 27 Illinois streams, with a maximum of 260 ,ug/liter (Ackermann, 1971~. LEAD Pickering and Henderson (1966) reported a maximum solubility of lead of 500 ,ug/liter in soft water and 3 Igniter in hard water. Durum and Hasty (1961) reported a maximum lead concentration of 55 ,ug/liter in the St. Lawrence River at Levis, Quebec. In a more recent sampling of 727 U.S. sites, lead was found, at 1-50 ,ug/liter in 63% of the surface- water samples examined (Durum et al., 1971~. However, lead was detected less frequently at U.S. Geological Survey benchmark stations than at locations in more developed areas. In 1974, the Mississippi River at Vicksburg showed a maximum lead concentration of 29 ,ug/liter (USGS, 1974~. Of 52 surface and groundwa- ters examined in Canada, 50 were found to have less than 10,ug/liter; the concentrations in the other two samples were 22 and 25,ug/liter (Procter & Gamble, 1974~. In Illinois surface water, 25 of 27 river stations were found to have lead below 50 ,ug/liter the other two had concentrations greater than 50 ,ug/liter (Ackermann, 1971~. Kopp and Kroner (1967) found lead at 2-140 ,ug/liter, with a mean of 23 ,ug/liter in 19.3%oftheir surface water samples. Durum (1974) reported that the concentration of lead in water, like that of cadmium, can be correlated with urbanization and runoff. MANGANESE Durum and Haffty (1961) observed a maximum manganese concentra- tion of 181-185 Igniter in two different surface waters. The median for all samples was 20 ,ug/liter. Kopp and Kroner (1967) detected manganese in 51.4% of surface-water samples; the concentration ranged from 0.3 to

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Inorganic Solutes 215 3,230 ~g/liter, with a mean of 59 ,ug/liter. A maximum of 1,200 ,ug/liter was detected in two different surface waters in 1974 (USGS, 1974~. MERCURY Durum et al. (1971) found dissolved mercury ranging from 0.1 to 4.3 ,ug/liter in 7% of the surface-water samples examined; in some cases, total mercury exceeded 5 ,ug/liter. According to a survey performed by Jenne (1972), only 4% of the surface waters examined showed mercury in excess of 10 ,ug/liter most of these were small lakes and reservoirs. The same study reported that groundwater samples were below the limit of detection for mercury. In 1974, the Rio De La Plata, Puerto Rico, was observed to have a maximum dissolved mercury concentration of 2 g/liter, and the James River in Virginia showed 1.6 ,ug/liter (USGS, 1974~. MOLYBDENUM Durum and Hasty (1961) detected a maximum molybdenum concentra- tion of 6.9 ,ug/liter in the Colorado River, Yuma, Arizona. In a more extensive survey, Kopp and Kroner (1967) found molybdenum in 32.7% of their surface-water samples; the concentration ranged from 2 to 1,500 ,ug/liter, with a mean of 68,ug/liter. NICKEL A maximum nickel concentration of 71 ,ug/liter was observed in the Hudson River at Green Island, New York (Durum and Hasty, 1961~. Kopp and Kroner (1967) found nickel in 16.2% of surface-water samples: the concentration ranged from 1 to 130 ,ug/liter, with a mean of 19 ,ug/liter. In a study of 13 Canadian surface and groundwater resources, only one sample was found to have nickel above the detection limit of 100 ,ug/liter (Procter & Gamble, 1974~. In a study of Illinois surface-waters, 24 river stations had nickel concentrations below 50 ,ug/liter, and 3 had concentrations of 50-530,ug/liter (Ackermann, 1971~. SILVER Samples containing silver at approximately 1 ,ug/liter were noted by Durum and Hasty (1961) in the St. Lawrence River, Levis, Quebec, and in the Colorado River, Yuma, Arizona. Of the surface-water samples examined by Kopp and Kroner (1967), only 6.6% contained detectable

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478 DRINKING WATER AND H"LTH Feltman, R. 1956. Prenatal and postnatal ingestion of fluorides: a progress report. Dent. Digest 62:353-357. Feltman, R., and G. Kosel. 1961. Prenatal and postnatal ingestion of fluorides 14 years of investigation final report. J. Dent. Med. 16:190-198. Ferrant, M. 1946. Methemoglobinemia: Two cases in newborn infants caused by nitrates in well water. J. Pediatr. 29:585-592. Fisher, F., and M.J. PrivaL 1973. Total Fluoride Intake. Center for Science in the Public Interest, Washington, D.C. Fleming, H.S. 1953. Effect of fluorides on the tumor S37 after transplantation to selected locations in mice and guinea pigs. J. Dent. Res. 32:646. Fodor, J.G., E.C. Abbott, and I.E. Rusted. 1973. An epidemiologic study of hypertension in Newfoundland. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 108:1365-1368. Fong, Y.Y., and W.C. Chan. 1973. Bacterial production of dimethyl nitrosamine in salted fish. Nature 243:421422. Forbes. G., F.A. Smith, and M.F. Bryson. 1973. Effect of growth hormone on fluoride balance. Calc. Tiss. Res. 11:301-10. Fry, B.W., D.R. Taves, and R.G. Merin. 1973. Fluorometabolites of methoxyflurane. Anethesiology 38:144. Gavras, H., H.B. Brunner, E.D. Baughan, Jr., and J.H. Laragh. 1973. Angiotensin sodium interaction in blood pressure maintenance of renal hypertensive and normotensive rats. Science 180:1369-1372. Gerdes, R.A., J.D. Smith, and H.G. Applegate. 1971. The effects of atmospheric hydrogen fluoride upon Drosophila melanogaster. I. Differential genotypic response. Atmos. Environ. 5:113-122. Gibbons, R.J., and J. van Houte. 1975. Bacterial adherence in oral microbial ecology. Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 29:19 44. Glanville, E.V., and R.A. Geerdink. 1972. Blood pressure of Amerindians from Surinum. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 37:251-254. Goodman, L.S., and A. Gilman. 1975. The Pharmacologic Basis of Therapeutics, 5th ed. MacMillan Co., New York. Greenberg, L.W., C.E. Nelsen, and N. Kramer. 1974. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus ~vith fluorosis. Pediatrics 54:32~322. Greenblatt, M., S. Mirvish, and B.T. So. 1971. Nitrosamine studies: Induction of lung adenomas by concurrent administration of sodium nitrite and secondary amines in S`viss mice. J. Nat. Cancer. Inst. 46:1029-1034. Greenblatt, M., V.R.C. Kommineni, and W. Lijinsky. 1973. Null effect of concurrent feeding of sodium nitrite and amino acids to MRC rats. J. Nat. Cancer. Inst. 50:799-802. Greene, I., and E.P. Hiat. 1955. Renal excretion of nitrate and its effect on excretion of sodium and chloride. Am. J. Physiol. 180:149-182. Greene, I., and E.P. Hiatt. 1954. Behavior of the nitrate ion in the dog. Am. J. Physiol. 176:463-367. Gregor, O. 1974. Gastric cancer control. Neoplasmia 21:235-247. Grimbergen, G.W. 1974. A double blind test for determination of intolerance to fluoridated water; Preliminary report. Fluoride 7:146-152. Gross, E. 1964. Vergiftungen durch aufoakme von nitraten im trinlcwasser und in pflanzen bei kleinstkinderen und bei nutztieren. Arch. Hyg. Bakteriol. 148:28-39. Gross, F. 1960. Adrenocortical function and renal pressor mechanisms. In K.D. Bock and P.T. Cottier, eds. Essential Hypertension, An International Symposium, pp. 92-111. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Gross, F. 1971. The renin-angiotensin system and hypertension. Ann. Int. Med. 75:777-787.

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Inorganic Solutes 479 Gruener, N., H.I. Shuval, K. Behroozi, S. Cohen, and H. Sheeter. 1973. Methemoglobine- mia induced by transplacental passage of nitrites in rats. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 9:4448. Guy, W.G., D.R. Taves, and W.S. Brey. 1976. Organic fluorocompounds in human plasma: Prevalence and characterization. In R. Filler, ed. Biochemistry Involving Carbon- Fluorine Bonds. ACS Symposium, Series 28. Guyton, A.C., T.G. Colemen, A.W. Cowly, K.W. Scheel, R.D. Manning, Jr., and R.A. Norman, Jr. 1972. Arterial pressure regulation. Overriding dominance of the kidneys in long-term regulation and in hypertension. Am. J. Med. 52:584-594. Hagan, T.L., M. Pasternack, and G.C. Scholz. 1954. Waterborne fluorides and mortality. Public Health Rep. 69:450-454. Hamilton, M., G.W. Pickering, J.A.F. Roberts, and G.S.C. Sowry. 1954. The aetiology of essential hypertension. I. The arterial pressure in the general population. Clin. Sci. 13:11- 35. Hammerton, C. 1945. The corrosion of cement and concrete. Sewage Works J. 17:403-405. Hanes, R.E., L.W. Zelazny, and R.E. Blaser. 1970. Effects of de-icing salts on water quality and biota; Literature review and recommended research. National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 91, Highway Research Board, National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences-National Academy of Engineering, Washington, D.C. Hanhijarvi, H., V.M. Anttonen, A. Pekkarinen, and I. Penttila. 1972. The effect of artificially fluoridated drinking water on the plasma ionized fluoride content in certain clinical diseases and in normal individuals. Acta Pharmacol. Toxicol. 31(I): 104. Harada, M, H. Ishiwata, Y. Nakamura, A. Tanimura, and M. Ishidate. 1975. Studies on in vivo formation of nitroso compounds. I. Changes of nitrite and nitrate concentrations in human saliva after ingestion of salted Chinese cabbage. J. Food Hyg. Soc. Jap. 16:11-18. Harmeson, R.H., F.W. Sollo, Jr., and T.E. Larson. 1971. The nitrate situation in Illinois. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 63:303-310. Harmeson, R.H., T.E. Larson, L.M. Henley, R.A. Sinclair, and J.C. Neill. 1973. Quality of surface water in Illinois, 196~71. Illinois State Water Survey Bulletin 56. Urbana. Hatch, F.T., A.R. Wertheim, G.H. Eurman, D.M. Watkin, H.F. Froeb, and H.A. Epstein. 1954. Effects of diet in essential hypertension. III. Alterations in sodium chloride, protein and fatintake.Am.J.Med. 17:499-513. Hawksworth, G., M.J. Hill, G. Gordillo, and C. Cuello. 1975. Possible relationship between nitrates, nitrosamines, and gastric cancer in S.W. Colombia. In P. Bogovski, ed. N- Nitroso Compounds in the Environment. International Agency for Research in Cancer. Scientific Publication no. 9. Lyon, in press. Herskowitz, I.H., and I.L. Norton. 1983. Increased incidence of melanotic tumors in two strains of Drosophila melanogaster following treatment with sodium fluoride. Gen. 48:307-310. Hill, M.J., G. Hawksworth, and G. Tattersall. 1973. Bacteria, nitrosamines and cancer of the stomach. Br. J. Cancer 28: 562-567. Hirayama, T. 1976. Changing patterns of cancer mortality in Japan with special reference to the decrease in stomach cancer mortality. Presented at a conference on Origins of Human Cancer, September 7-14, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Hodge, H.C. 1956. Fluoride metabolism: its significance in water fluoridation. J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 52:307-314. Hodge, H.C., and F.A. Smith. 1965. Fluorine Chemistry, vol. IV, ed. by J.H. Simmons. Academic Press, New York. Hodge, H.C., and F.A. Smith. 1970. Minerals: fluorine and dental caries. Advances in Chemistry Series no. 94:93-115.

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