Index

A

Acid rain, 26, 155, 247-248

Adaptation, 107, 108, 138, 140-142, 165nn.4 and 5

Adjustment, 107-108, 165nn.4 and 5, 241

Aerosol spray cans, 57, 117, 133

Africa, 18, 79, 127

Aggregate analysis, 96

Agrarian reform, 70

Agriculture, 168, 171, 175, 177, 179, 202

adaptive strategies, 107, 108, 140-142

biological diversity effects, 17

climate change and, 35, 107, 127, 136, 246

deforestation effects, 20, 33, 72, 74, 83, 107

greenhouse gas emissions, 18, 40, 108, 153

management systems, 97

polyculture, 4, 108, 141

population growth and, 94

productivity data, 204

Sahelian drought, 127, 128, 162

Air conditioning, 56-57, 58, 107, 118

Airlines, 122

Air pollution, 26, 66, 88, 97, 139, 152, 153, 169

Albedo, 26, 27, 179, 212

Amazon Basin, 87-88, 98

agriculture, 70, 72, 74, 140, 141

deforestation, 20-21, 36, 67-75, 99n.2, 99-100n.3, 158, 162

American bison, 99-100n.3

Ammonia, 18, 56

Analytical data and accounting, 218-219

Antarctica, 113

ozone hole, 19, 28, 54, 58, 117-118

Anthropology, 176, 238

Aral Sea, 87, 158

Arctic ozone, 28

Argentina, 82

Arms control, 252

Asia, 79

Atmosphere, 1, 26, 32

uniform law of, 21, 155

Attitudes and beliefs, 3, 75, 89-92, 95



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Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions Index A Acid rain, 26, 155, 247-248 Adaptation, 107, 108, 138, 140-142, 165nn.4 and 5 Adjustment, 107-108, 165nn.4 and 5, 241 Aerosol spray cans, 57, 117, 133 Africa, 18, 79, 127 Aggregate analysis, 96 Agrarian reform, 70 Agriculture, 168, 171, 175, 177, 179, 202 adaptive strategies, 107, 108, 140-142 biological diversity effects, 17 climate change and, 35, 107, 127, 136, 246 deforestation effects, 20, 33, 72, 74, 83, 107 greenhouse gas emissions, 18, 40, 108, 153 management systems, 97 polyculture, 4, 108, 141 population growth and, 94 productivity data, 204 Sahelian drought, 127, 128, 162 Air conditioning, 56-57, 58, 107, 118 Airlines, 122 Air pollution, 26, 66, 88, 97, 139, 152, 153, 169 Albedo, 26, 27, 179, 212 Amazon Basin, 87-88, 98 agriculture, 70, 72, 74, 140, 141 deforestation, 20-21, 36, 67-75, 99n.2, 99-100n.3, 158, 162 American bison, 99-100n.3 Ammonia, 18, 56 Analytical data and accounting, 218-219 Antarctica, 113 ozone hole, 19, 28, 54, 58, 117-118 Anthropology, 176, 238 Aral Sea, 87, 158 Arctic ozone, 28 Argentina, 82 Arms control, 252 Asia, 79 Atmosphere, 1, 26, 32 uniform law of, 21, 155 Attitudes and beliefs, 3, 75, 89-92, 95

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Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions Australia, 82 Automobiles fuel consumption, 48-49, 104-105, 122, 124, 133, 163 greenhouse gas emissions, 106-107 U.S. dependency, 88, 144, 175-176 B Bangladesh, 18, 64 Beef production, 55, 71 Behavioral analysis, 21, 134 Behavioral decision research, 131-132 Behavioral science, 10, 25, 168, 171, 176, 236 Benefit-cost analysis, 192-193 Bias, 213, 215 Biological diversity, 24, 26 conflict over, 155, 247-248 data needs, 202-203 deforestation and, 17, 20-21, 25, 67-68, 99n.1, 99-100n.3 international cooperation, 248 mass extinctions, 29-30 mitigation of species loss, 107, 109, 112 research priorities, 40, 245-246 Biological sciences, 212, 216 Biomass burning, 46 Biomedical research, 224 Biosphere, 1, 26, 32 Bollen, K A., 215 Boom town development, 190 Brazil data sampling, 219, 249 economic development policies, 20-21, 69, 70-71, 75, 93, 98, 241 energy consumption, 63 foreign debt, 71-72 land tenure, 70, 74, 93 resource use, 141 tropical deforestation, 67-75, 94, 109, 153, 155, 240 British Antarctic Survey, 54 C California, 55, 57 Canada, 27, 36, 82 Cancer, 35, 151 skin cancer, 4, 28, 107, 117, 119, 201-202 ''war on cancer,'' 224 Capitalism, 86-87, 89, 91, 94, 158, 177> Carbon dioxide (CO2) data availability, 215 deforestation and, 17, 18, 48 emission modeling, 182, 184 emissions, China, 53, 60, 61, 64-65, 66, 155 emissions, Europe, 82 environmental effects, 27, 35 fossil fuel emissions, 17, 48, 60, 96, 245 greenhouse effect contribution, 18, 25, 28, 33, 45-46, 47, 50, 60, 64, 200, 245 human consequences, 31 human responses, 30, 105, 106-107, 110, 155, 163 Carbon tax, 21 Carbon tetrachloride, 19, 118 Carrier, Willis H., 56 Case studies, 186, 196, 215 Cataracts, 28 Cattle raising, 36, 69, 71, 72, 128 Catton, W. R., Jr., 90 Charleston, S.C., 54 Chemical industry, 119 Chicago, Ill., 55 China agricultural land use, 74 carbon dioxide emissions, 53, 60, 61, 64-65, 66, 155 and CFC regulations, 19, 118-119, 153 coal burning, 60-67, 86, 87, 93, 94, 155-156 data sampling, 219, 249 energy intensity, 61-64, 65, 67, 95, 126, 174

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Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions Cholorofluorocarbons (CFC), 35, 94-95, 98, 99 aerosol spray ban, 57, 117, 133 developing countries and, 153, 155-156 economic models and, 137, 168 greenhouse gas contribution, 18, 19, 27, 28, 45-46, 47, 49, 58 invention of, 19, 56, 59-60, 93, 159 mitigation of effects, 107, 199 Montreal Protocol, 19, 58, 116-117, 118-119 ozone depletion, 17, 19-20, 28, 31-32, 54, 57-58 research issues, 174, 180, 186, 200, 202 Cities, 37, 58, 72 Climate change, 20, 24 agricultural effects, 35, 107, 127, 136, 246 carbon dioxide contribution, 18, 25, 28, 33, 45-46, 47, 50, 60, 64 , 200, 245 CFC contribution, 18, 19, 27, 28, 45-46, 47, 49, 58 deforestation and, 18, 68, 245-246 forest migration, 31 greenhouse gas emission, 18, 28, 29, 33, 66-67, 165n.3, 239 human consequences of, 26-27, 28-29 human responses to, 22, 104-105, 106-107, 113, 120, 132, 136, 143, 152-153, 163 mitigation controversy, 109-113 modeling of, 29, 32, 182, 189, 236 research issues, 170-171, 200-201, 218, 230-231, 239, 245-246, 248 tree-structured account, 45-52 Cloud patterns, 27, 29, 165n.3 Coal combustion, 87, 137 China, 60-67, 86, 87, 93, 95, 155-156 Collective action, 37, 41, 154, 156, 229-230 Command economies, 61-62, 64, 66, 67, 97-98, 157 Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES), 10, 233, 237 Communication technology, 158 Communities, 6, 142-145 Comparative analysis, 96-97 Comparative politics, 212 Comparative studies, 6, 95-97, 164, 186, 240 Computer simulation, 188 Conflict management, 14, 115-116, 150-151, 161, 242-243, 247 Conservation of matter, 80 Contraception, 214 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (1973), 154 Corporations, 6, 70-71, 143, 145, 146-147, 148, 156 Costa Rica, 88 Costs benefit-cost analysis, 192-193 data collection, 7-8, 206, 210-211, 212-213, 248 environmental protection, 85, 148 international organizations, 156 market externalities, 85-86, 136-137, 139 national research program, 15-16, 254-256 social costs, 80, 246 Cretaceous period, 30 Critical zones, 221-222 Cultural ecology, 37-39 Cultural factors, 36 Cultural identity, 159 D Data, 42, 200-203, 234 analytical data and accounting, 218-219 availability, 7-8, 75, 127, 204-206

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Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions costs of, 7-8, 206, 210-211, 212-213, 248 data needs, 7-8, 216-218, 248-251 information network, 206-210 local data collection, 220-222 national data center, 14, 210, 253 quality of, 8, 211-213 recommendations, 14, 16, 210, 211, 217, 219, 222, 235, 249, 255 reliability and validity, 213-214, 215, 216 remote-sensing information, 8, 209, 210, 212, 250-251 sampling nations, 219-220, 249 Data Resources, Inc., 210-211 Decision making, 22, 36-37, 153 democratization and, 158-159 environmental policy, 151-152 models, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196 research needs, 13, 152, 229-230, 242-243, 247 Decision theory, 131 Deforestation Amazon Basin, 20-21, 67-75, 94, 162 carbon dioxide effects, 17, 18, 48 environmental effects of, 18, 31, 68, 99n.2, 245-246 human causes of, 3, 20-21, 36, 69-75, 93, 94 human responses to, 107 market valuation, 137 research needs, 36, 96, 97, 142, 152, 179, 180, 211 Sahel region, 128, 129 and species extinction, 17, 20-21, 25, 67-68, 99n.1, 99-100n.3 Democratization, 82, 158-159 Demographic Yearbooks (UN), 205 Demography, 36, 77, 176, 205, 212, 214, 227, 252 Dependency theory, 87-88, 89 Desertification, 25, 26, 127 Developing countries data availability, 213, 219 environmental damage in economic growth, 81, 82, 87, 94, 155, 158 and Montreal Protocol, 19, 118, 153 population growth, 79, 157 Directed case comparisons, 186 Discount rates, 111, 112, 137, 139 Drought, 4, 69, 127-30, 140, 142, 162, 163-164, 242 Dunlap, R. E., Jr., 90 DuPont de Nemours & Company, Inc., 19, 58, 118, 119 Dust Bowl, 142 E Earth albedo, 26, 27 gene pool, 37 radiative balance, 44, 47, 106 "Earth as Transformed by Human Action," 39 Earth Observing System (EOS), 8, 209, 210, 211, 250, 251 Econometrics, 196, 215 Economic development data availability, 204, 217 and energy intensity, 18, 61, 94, 126 and environmental conflict, 113-114, 144, 155, 162 and greenhouse gas emissions, 18, 53, 64-65, 66, 97-98 as human cause of change, 2, 75, 79-83 public policy, 20, 61-62, 66, 70-72, 82, 88 research needs, 93, 95, 200, 201, 240 resource exploitation, 80-81, 88, 90, 157 technology and, 94 Economics, 36, 91, 176, 212, 214, 238 Economic Surveys (OECD), 205

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Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions Economic theory, 85-86, 136, 137, 139 Ecosystem diversity, 67, 68 Educational levels, 177 Ehrlich, Paul R., 76 Electricity production, 57, 63, 66, 69 Electrification, 60 Energy conservation and efficiency automobiles and transportation, 37, 51-52, 104-105, 122, 124, 133 data availability, 211 global warming mitigation, 104-105, 113, 120, 126, 133-134, 143, 242 policy evaluation, 189, 191, 199 United States, 37, 51-52, 63, 120-127, 133 Energy consumption air conditioning, 57 China, 61-64, 95 data availability, 204, 216-217 and economic development, 18, 61, 64-65, 126 national variations in, 1, 18, 36, 78, 240, 245 United States, 18, 35-36, 37, 63, 109, 120, 122, 126, 174 Energy demand, 53, 59, 201 Energy intensity China, 61-64, 65, 67, 95, 126, 174 national variations in, 13, 62, 245 research needs, 245 United States, 37, 120-121, 126, 245 Energy prices, 122-124, 125, 126, 137, 218 Enlightenment, 90 Environmental change, 25-33 Environmental change, human causes of, 17, 18, 44-45, 53-54 attitudes and beliefs, 3, 75, 89-92, 95 economic growth, 2, 75, 79-83 human and environmental system interaction, 1, 33-34, 42-43 mitigation of, 4, 105-107, 163, 165n.2 political-economic institutions, 3, 75, 85-89, 197 population growth, 2, 75, 76-79 research and research needs, 3, 40-42, 92-93, 95-99, 167, 239-241 social driving forces, 75-76, 93-95 social sciences and, 21-22, 24, 35-37, 40-42, 236-237 technological change, 2-3, 75, 77, 83-85 tree-structured accounting system for, 45-53, 92 Environmental change, human consequences of, 1-2, 4, 22, 27, 28, 31, 33, 34-35, 101, 102-104, 116 conflict, 4-5, 109-116 research and research needs, 4, 37, 160-162, 167, 237 valuation of, 13, 161, 192-194, 246 Environmental change, human responses to, 2, 5, 17, 101, 104-109, 116 adaptation, 107-108, 138, 140-142, 165nn.4, 5 assessment of consequences and, 28, 103-104, 160-161, 187 decision making, 151-152, 242-243, 247 feedback to driving forces, 22-23, 24, 164, 168 global social change, 6, 130-131, 156-60, 177 individual perception, judgment, and action, 5, 130-136, 142 international cooperation, 5-6, 14, 19, 130-131, 152-156, 158, 177 , 180, 181, 248 markets, 5, 104, 130-131, 136-139, 157-158, 162

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Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions mitigation, 4, 105-107, 109-113, 163-164, 241 national policies, 5, 130-131, 147-152, 179 post hoc analysis of, 7, 104, 190-191, 198-199 research and research needs, 4, 6, 103-104, 160-161, 162-164, 237, 238, 241-244 social system robustness, 4, 108, 162-163, 166n.6, 241, 242 sociocultural systems, 5, 130-131, 140-143, 158, 162-163 subnational-level organizations, 5, 130-131, 143-147 Environmental conflict, 13-14, 109, 114-115, 116 conflict management, 14, 115-116, 150-151, 161, 242-243, 247 economic development and environmental protection, 113-114, 144, 155, 162 global warming mitigation, 109-113 reflexivity and, 180-181 research needs, 4-5, 160, 161, 247-248 Environmental degradation, 76-77, 80, 90, 130 Environmental ethics, 90 Environmental history, 37-39 Environmental impact statements, 199 Environmental management, 177 Environmental movement organizations, 117, 118, 134-135, 145-146, 147, 148, 150, 156 Environmental paradigm, 90 Environmental perception, 37-38, 171 Environmental psychology, 38 Environmental quality, 81, 88, 124, 157-158, 216-217 Environmental regulations, 148, 149, 150, 179, 242 Environmental sociology, 38 Environmental spillovers, 153, 218, 219 Environmental systems, 1, 26, 30-34, 102, 164, 168, 169, 181, 241 Ethnography, 190 Europe, 27 energy consumption, 36, 240 environmental movement in, 146, 147 environmental policies, 147-48, 149 gasoline taxes, 104-105 pollutant emissions, 82, 153 resource use, 81-82 sampling nations, 219, 249 social and political transformations, 175, 177 European settlement in America, 104 Expert judgments, 132, 151 F Famine, 4, 127, 128, 129 Farman, Joseph, 54 Feedback mechanisms, 22-23, 24, 26, 35, 94, 168-169 Fellowships, 9, 14-15, 16, 228, 229, 235, 251, 252, 255 Fertility rates, 77-78, 111, 176, 179-180, 211, 214 Fertilizers, 18, 106-107 Florida, 55, 57 Food and Agriculture Organization, 204-205 Food production, 13, 55-56, 94, 217, 245-246 Forest migration, 31, 111-112, 166n.8 Fossil fuels, 35, 71, 74, 83 carbon dioxide emission, 17, 18, 46, 96, 245 Chinese consumption, 60-61, 65, 94 consumption trends, 41-42, 174, 178, 186

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Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions dependency on, 108 economic development and, 64-65, 94, 97, 113 energy conservation and, 122, 126 global warming effects, 33, 60, 239 replacement technologies, 81, 107, 110, 112 research needs, 152, 178 taxes, 104-105, 163-164 France, 148, 149 Frankfurt school, 89 Freon gas, 56-57 Funding national research program, 15-16, 235, 254-256 program evaluation, 199 research, 11, 12, 224-225, 231-232, 238, 244-245 training fellowships, 14, 227-228, 229, 255 G Gasoline taxes, 104-105, 163-164 General circulation models (GCM), 32, 172, 181, 182, 236 General Motors Frigidaire division, 56 Genetic diversity, 67 Geography, 36, 38, 176, 212 Geopolitical shifts, 158 Geosphere, 1, 26 Germany, 147-148, 149, 218 Global-scale analysis, 95-96 Global social change, 6, 130-131, 156-60, 177 Global warming. See Climate change Gran Carajas, Brazil, 69 Grand Canyon, 80 Great Britain, 147-148, 149 Great Plains, 141-142, 179 Greece, 126 Greenhouse effect. See Climate change Greenhouse gases, 25, 26 Chinese emissions, 60, 64, 67 climate change effects, 18, 28, 29, 33, 66-67, 165n.3 deforestation effects, 67 economic growth and, 18, 53, 64-65, 66, 97-98 human contributions, 27, 45-46, 47, 49-51, 59, 60, 92, 239 human mitigation responses, 104, 108, 113, 126 international cooperation, 153 market effects, 97 models, 178, 181, 236 research priorities, 40, 200 U.S. emissions, 50, 60, 64, 88 Gross national product, 79, 211, 215, 218, 219 H Haas, P.M., 119 Halocarbons, 49, 99 Halons, 19 Hardin, R., 90 Harvard University, 252 Hazardous waste, 169 History, 176 Home energy rating systems, 125 Homer-Dixon, T. F., 115 Human behavior, 17 projection of, 21-22, 32-33 reflexivity of, 167, 174, 180-181, 182, 194 unanticipated consequences of, 31 Human ecology, 37-39, 171 Human health, 28, 217 Humanism, 90 Human systems, 1, 26, 30, 173-174 and conflict management, 161 environmental system interaction, 33-34, 101, 106, 164, 181, 241 global social change, 6, 130-131, 156-60, 177

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Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions individual perception, judgment, and action, 5, 130-136, 142 international cooperation, 5-6, 130-131, 152-156 interventions in, 106, 107 irreversibility, 175 markets, 5, 130-131, 136-139 national policies, 5, 130-131, 147-152, 179 research priorities, 97, 109, 239-240, 241 responses of, 103, 110, 116, 126, 187 robustness of systems, 108, 242 sociocultural systems, 5, 130-131, 140-143 subnational-level organizations, 5, 130-131, 143-147 theory of, 197 Hungary, 62, 177-178 Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC), 19, 47, 49 Hydroelectric power, 20, 61, 69 Hydrohalocarbons, 19 Hydrosphere, 1, 26 I Immune system response, 28 Income, 79, 178, 204, 218 India data sampling, 219, 249 energy consumption, 18, 62, 63, 64, 78 greenhouse gas emissions, 153, 155 and Montreal Protocol, 19, 118-119 population growth, 111 Individual perception, judgment, and action, 5, 130-136, 142 Indonesia, 63, 64, 75, 155, 218, 240 Industrialization, 60, 61, 64-65, 88, 126, 179 Industrial Revolution, 17, 18, 177, 241 Industry, 175 deforestation, 68, 69, 72 energy consumption, 61-62, 63, 65, 97, 126, 159 and environmental protection, 146, 150 pollutant emissions, 17, 169 Information network, 206-210 Institutional structures, 9, 36, 223, 224-226 Integrated circuit manufacture, 57 Integrative models, 7, 181-182, 185, 198 Inter-American Development Bank, 69 Interdependencies, 30-31, 32, 167, 173, 174, 180, 182, 186 Interdisciplinary collaboration, 25, 37-38, 77, 164, 167, 168, 193-194. See also Social and natural science collaboration barriers to, 10-11 data collection, 212 national research program, 9, 226, 253 necessity of, 6, 95, 186, 196-197 recommendations, 225-226 research priorities, 32, 42, 93, 174-175, 229, 230-232, 243 in social sciences, 171-172 Interest groups, 148-149, 150 Interest rates, 137 Intergovernmental organizations, 156 International agreements, 19, 58, 59, 116-120, 138, 147, 168 International Atomic Energy Agency, 177 International collaboration, research, 42, 243-244 International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (1946), 154 International cooperation, environmental, 5-6, 14, 19, 130-131, 152-156, 158, 177, 180, 181, 248

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Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions International Council of Scientific Unions, 24 International Federation of Institutes for Advanced Studies, 25 International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), 24 International Labor Organization, 204-205 International Monetary Fund, 204-205, 210-211 International Social Science Council, 25 Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR), 205, 207 Investment, 163, 177, 179 Iron, 30, 110 Irreversible changes, 31, 92, 167, 173, 175-176, 182 Irrigation, 87, 127, 130 Islam, 159 J Jamaica, 62 Japan, 218 energy consumption, 18, 36, 126 environmental policies, 147, 148, 149 gasoline taxes, 104-105 and Montreal Protocol, 118 Java, 74 Judeo-Christian tradition, 89 K Korea, 63 L Labor, 87, 162, 188 Labor force participation, 53, 177 Lag times, 31-32, 167, 173, 177 Land degradation, 142 Land distribution, 74, 218 Land speculation, 70 Land tenure, 70, 107, 152 Land use agricultural, 179 data needs, 201, 203, 217 and deforestation, 71, 72-75, 129 research priorities, 13, 36, 142, 182, 212, 245-246 Land values, 216 Latin America, 79, 88 Law of the atmosphere, 21, 155 Law of the sea, 155 Leisure time budgets, 216 Lesotho, 18 Levins, R., 183 Library of Congress, 211 Local data collection, 220-222 Logging industry, 69, 71, 72 Louis Harris Data Center, 205 M Mahar, D., 70 Malthus, Thomas R., 39, 76 "Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth," 39 Manufacturing, 69, 81, 120-121, 152 Manufacturing solvents, 57, 58 Market economies, 86-87, 175 Markets, 3, 130-131, 177, 179 data sources, 203 as expression of individual attitudes, 91, 135 externalities, 85-86, 136-137, 139 failure to prevent environmental damage, 80-81, 85-87, 124, 136-137, 157 governmental intervention, 86, 124 as human response, 5, 104, 136-139, 157-158, 162 oil, 96 research priorities, 89, 97, 139, 162-163, 242 and technological change, 83-84 valuation of consequences, 86, 139, 192, 246

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Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions Marsh, George Perkins, 39 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 252 Materialism, 89, 90, 94, 97 Mathematical models, 31, 182, 183 Media, mass communications, 151 Methane (CH4) atmospheric concentrations, 27, 200 global warming effects, 18, 28, 33 human contributions, 18, 33, 45-46, 47, 48, 52, 153 Methodology, 6, 167, 214-216, 223, 234 data interpretation, 211, 212, 213 experimental methods, 185-186 global models, 181-185, 188-190, 194-196 methodological pluralism, 7, 186, 198 social impact assessment, 187-192 valuation of consequences, 192-194 Methyl chloride, 56 Methyl chloroform, 19, 118 Midgely, Thomas, Jr., 56, 59 Mining, 68, 87 "Mission to Planet Earth," 211 Mitigation, 4, 105-107, 138, 165n.2, 241 energy conservation, 104-105, 113, 120, 126, 133-134, 143, 242 global warming, 109-113, 120, 126, 163 international cooperation and, 153, 180 ozone depletion, 107, 180 policy evaluation, 189-190 species extinction, 107, 112 Mitigation and Adaptation Research Strategies, 16, 237, 256 Modeling, 7, 32-33, 172-173, 174-175, 181-185, 188-190, 194-196, 198 Modernization, 128 Molina, Mario, 57 "Monitoring of Population Trends" (UN), 205 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (1987) , 19, 58, 59, 116-117, 118 London Amendments (1990), 19, 58, 116-117, 118 Mortality, 204 Multivariate analysis, 186 N National Accounts (OECD), 205 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 117, 209, 211, 232, 233, 250 National Bureau of Economic Research, 252 National Center for Atmospheric Research, 227, 253 National centers for research, 9, 15, 16, 226-227, 252-254 National data center, 14, 210, 253 National Environmental Policy Act (1970), 187 National income accounts, 204, 218 National Institutes of the Environment, 227, 254-256 National Institutes of Health, 227, 232-233, 253-254 National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, 232 National policies, 5, 130-131, 147-152, 179. See also Public policy National Research Council (NRC), 16, 78, 255-256 Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change, 24, 208, 221 National research program, 10-16, 40, 235, 249, 254-256

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Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions National Science Foundation (NSF), 10, 232-233, 237 funding recommendations, 11, 12, 15, 235, 238-239, 244-245, 254-255 National security, 158 Native Americans, 72, 141 Natural disasters, 142-143, 170-171 Natural hazards, 37-38, 165n.5, 171 Natural sciences, 35, 41, 170-171, 192, 196, 249. See also Social and natural science collaboration Nigeria, 64, 128, 162 Nitrogen oxides, 28, 213 Nitrous oxide (N2O), 18, 28, 45-46, 47, 48, 106-107 Nongovernmental organizations, 142-143, 148, 151 Nonlinearity, 31, 167, 173, 175, 182 Nonmarket activity, 219 Nonmarket use of time, 218 Nonmarket valuation, 216 Normative forecasting, 195 Nuclear power, 61, 83, 132, 169, 188 O Oceans, 26, 30, 106, 110 Oil, 96, 137 Oil shocks, 121, 122-123, 126 Oil spills, 218 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 7-8, 201, 205, 210-211, 218 Overgrazing, 127, 128, 130 Ozone layer depletion, 24, 26, 99 Antarctica, 19, 28, 54, 58, 117-118 chlorofluorocarbon accumulation in, 17, 19, 28, 32, 54, 57-60 externalities costs, 85-86 human consequences of, 28, 35, 201-202 human responses to, 37, 107, 108, 133, 199 202, 236 international cooperation, 19-20, 59, 116-120, 152-153, 154, 155, 168, 248 Montreal Protocol, 19, 58, 59, 116-117, 118 research priorities, 119-120, 168, 180, 248 time scales, 27, 32 P Pakistan, 18, 64 Pará, Brazil, 74 Permian period, 30 Pesticides, 169 Physical science, 32, 212, 216 Phytoplankton, 30, 110 Poland, 62, 177-178 Policy analysis, 192, 194 Policy evaluation, 22, 164, 189-190, 191, 199 Political-economic institutions, 3, 75, 85-89, 197 Political factors, 36 Political process, 192, 193, 195 Political science, 38, 156, 176, 238 Pollution air pollution, 26, 66, 88, 97, 139, 152, 153, 169 international cooperation and, 153, 169, 248 markets and, 97 national policies and, 66, 82, 88, 179 oceans, 26 population growth and, 157 research priorities, 139, 152, 182 and species extinction, 31 technological development and, 59, 83 Polyculture, 4, 108, 141 Population growth, 111, 157, 179-180, 191, 227 as cause of environmental change, 2, 75, 76-79

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Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions data availability, 204, 209, 214, 215, 217 and deforestation, 20, 36, 72 and economic growth, 79 and energy consumption, 60, 61, 65, 126 feedback mechanisms, 94 and global warming, 18, 200, 201 research priorities, 95, 97, 240 and technological development, 83-84 Portugal, 126 Post hoc analysis, 7, 104, 190-191, 198-199 Postmaterialism, 135 Poverty, 74, 87, 108 Princeton University, 226, 252, 253 Professional associations, 10, 231 Property rights, 81, 86, 137, 152, 241 Protestant theology, 89 Psychology, 38, 45, 132, 215, 238 Public opinion, 19, 38, 150, 211, 219, 241 Public policy, 21, 147-152, 161, 179 capitalism and, 86-87, 148 China, 61-62, 63, 65-66, 67 and deforestation, 20-21, 69-72, 75, 96 economic development, 20, 61-62, 66, 70-72, 82, 88 and energy consumption, 36, 63, 67 environmental movement and, 145, 148, 150 evaluation of, 22, 164, 191, 192, 193, 194, 199 and global warming, 126, 164, 200 indigenous response systems and, 129-130 individual reactions and, 135 markets and, 138 ozone depletion, 202 research priorities, 89, 95, 96, 149-151, 195, 196, 241 technological development, 84 U.S. energy conservation, 88, 123-124 Public transportation, 37, 144 Q Quasi-experimentation, 185-186 R Rainfall adaptation to, 141-142 deforestation and, 68, 99n.2 global warming and, 26, 29, 34, 127, 165n.3 models of, 171, 181, 189 Sahel region, 128, 129 Rand Corporation, 253-254 Randomized experiments, 185 Rationalism, 89 Reagan, Ronald, 177-178 Recommendations, 235 data, 14, 211, 217, 219, 222, 248-251 fellowships, 9-10, 14-15, 228, 251-252 funding, 15-16, 254-256 information network, 209-210 interdisciplinary research, 225-226 national centers for research, 9, 15, 226, 252-254 national research program, 10-16, 235-256 program evaluation, 199 research grants, 11-14, 231, 233-234, 237-248 Recycling, 82, 97 Reflexivity, 167, 174, 180-181, 182, 194 Refrigeration industry, 54-60, 83, 94, 98, 117, 118, 159 Remote-sensing information, 8, 209, 210, 212, 250-251 Renewable energy, 112 Research data needs, 7-8, 14, 42, 209,

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Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions 210, 211, 216, 219, 222, 248-251 environmental conflict, 5, 114-116, 242-243, 247-248 federal organizational barriers to, 10, 232-234 fellowships, 14-15, 227-230, 251-252 focused, 12-14, 244-248 funding, 15-16, 254-256 institutional structures of, 9, 224-226 interdisciplinary collaboration in, 10, 42, 168-172, 196-197, 223, 230-232, 243 investigator-initiated, 11, 238-244 methodology issues, 7, 167, 181-182, 185-186, 191-192, 193, 194, 196, 198, 214-215, 223 national centers for research, 9, 15, 226-227, 252-254 national research program, 10-16, 235, 254-256 priorities for, 13-14, 40-42, 95-99, 237-248 theory issues, 41, 167, 174-175, 176, 178, 180-181, 197-198 Research, human causes of global change, 3, 40-42, 92-93, 95-99, 167, 239-241 attitudes and beliefs, 91-92 economic growth, 82-83 political-economic institutions, 89 population growth, 77-79 social driving forces, 75, 93-95, 237-238, 239-240 technological change, 84-85, 246-247 Research, human responses to global change, 4, 6, 103-104, 160-161, 162-164, 237, 238, 241-244 communities, 144-145 corporations and trade associations, 147 individual perception and action, 132-133, 134, 135-136 international cooperation, 155-156, 248 markets, 138, 139 national policies, 149-151, 152 post hoc program analysis, 7, 104, 190-191, 198-199 social movements, 146 sociocultural systems, 142, 143, 242 Research Strategies for the U.S. Global Change Research Program (NRC), 221 Resource depletion data collection, 217, 218, 219 economic development and, 80-81, 88, 90, 157 global-scale analysis, 179 population growth and, 39 sustainable zones, 222 technology and, 83 Resource economics, 37-38, 39-40 Resource management, 37-38, 40, 81, 171 Resources for the Future, 227, 253-254 Respiration, animal and plant, 46 Rice paddies, 18, 153 Risk analysis, 193 Road building, 20, 36, 68, 69-70 Roper Center for Public Opinion Research, 205 Rosewood, 99n.1, 99-100n.3 Rowland, Sherwood, 57 Rubber tappers, 72 S Sahel region, Africa, 127-30, 140, 141, 162-163, 179 Sample surveys, 204 Sampling, 219-220, 249 Scripps Oceanographic Institution, 226, 253 Sea levels, 27, 102, 157, 216 Slash-and-burn cultivation, 140

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Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions Social and natural science collaboration, 24-25. See also Interdisciplinary collaboration accounting systems, 52 data collection, 222 incentives for, 9-10, 230, 236-237, 243, 251-252 national research program, 10-11, 226, 253 necessity of, 21-22, 42-43, 168, 169, 170-171, 223, 234 Social change, global, 6, 130-131, 156-60, 177 Social conflict, 229-230, 238, 247. See also Conflict management Social costs, 80, 246 Social discount rates, 111, 112, 137, 139 Social driving forces, 75-76, 93-95 Social impact assessment (SIA), 187-188, 189-190, 191, 192, 193 Socialization, 177 Social models, 196 Social movements, 6, 143, 145-146, 211 Social paradigm, 90 Social revolutions, 175 Social science, 25, 35-40 applied and basic research, 41, 192, 233-234 and behavioral science, 171-172 data availability, 204, 209, 210, 212, 216, 249, 250 and decision making, 153 and environmental conflict, 114, 115 environmental social science, 9, 37-40, 43, 95, 171, 180, 227, 232-233 federal agencies and, 10, 232-234 and global change research, 35-40, 168-170, 236 levels of analysis and time scales, 99, 176, 179, 240 modeling, 174-175, 185, 188-189, 196 national research centers, 252 and nonlinearities, 175 policy evaluation, 164, 190-191 population growth in, 76, 77 professional associations, 231 and reflexivity, 181 research priorities, 40-42, 237-238 research techniques, 97, 185-186 social impact assessment methodology, 187-188, 189-190 theoretical tools, 6, 41 valuation methods, 192-193 Social science theory, 6, 197, 204 Social systems, 102 robustness of, 4, 108, 162-163, 166n.6, 241, 242 Social transformations, 177-178 Social traps, 37 Sociocultural systems, 5, 130-131, 140-143, 158, 162-163 Socioeconomic marginalization, 158 Socioeconomic organization, 179 Sociology, 45, 215, 238 Soils, 25, 26, 31, 68, 80, 140, 141, 169 Soil scientists, 169 Solar energy, 110, 163 South Africa, 62 South Korea, 53 Soviet Union, 159, 178 Aral Sea, 87, 158 carbon dioxide emissions, 60 coal production, 60-61 data sampling, 219, 249 energy consumption, 63 environmental movement in, 135 and Montreal Protocol, 118 Spatial scales, 178-180 Species diversity, 29-30, 44, 67-68, 99n.2 Species extinction, 20, 30, 31, 34, 99n.1, 99-100n.3, 107, 109, 112, 240

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Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions Stalin, Josef V., 61-62 Statistical analysis, 213, 216 Statistical Yearbooks (UN), 205 Steel industry, 124 Suburbanization, 144, 176 SUDAM, 71 Sulfur dioxide, 56 Sulfur oxide, 66 Sun Belt, 57, 60 Supersonic transport, 57, 117 Survey data, 216-217 Survey research, 186 Sustainable zones, 222 Systemic analysis, 96 T Taiwan, 53 Technology, 90 conflicts over, 114, 116 and deforestation, 36 and energy use, 120-121, 122, 123-124 and environmental change, 2-3, 13, 75, 77, 83-85, 93, 94-95, 97, 159, 177, 246-247 and environmental policies, 148, 159 fossil fuel replacement, 81, 107, 110, 112 and global warming, 18, 200, 201 unanticipated consequences, 60, 92, 98 Texas, 57 Theory construction, 6, 32, 167, 172-174, 182, 190, 197-198, 212, 217, 234 time scales, 41, 99, 172-173, 176 Third World, 3, 87, 88, 113, 144, 209 Time lags, 31-32, 167, 173, 177 Time scales, 27, 41, 98, 99, 164, 172-173, 176-178, 240-241 Time-series data, 200, 201, 209, 217 Toxic Substances Control Act (1976), 117 Trade associations, 6, 143, 145, 146-147 Training programs, 9-10, 223, 227-230 Transportation, 59, 64, 88, 107, 126 Tree-structured accounting system, 45-53, 92 Trinidad and Tobago, 62 Tropical forest destruction. See also Deforestation greenhouse gas contribution, 18, 35, 153, 240 land use in, 71, 72-75, 140 restriction of, 107, 113 species extinction, 17, 20, 21, 30, 67-69, 240 U Ultraviolet radiation, 44, 246 data collection, 201, 202 human responses to, 4, 133, 236 ozone depletion and, 28, 54, 57, 107 Unanticipated consequences, 31, 60, 163, 167, 173, 174, 199 United Nations, 79, 204-205 United Nations Environment Programme, 117, 156, 205 United States air pollution, 153 attitudes and beliefs in, 135 automobile dependency, 88, 144, 175-176 carbon dioxide emissions, 50, 60, 64 CFC regulations, 57, 117, 118, 119 coal production and use, 60-61, 63 and data availability, 7-8, 14, 210, 211, 219, 249-250 data sampling, 219, 249 deregulation, 177-178 economic development, 82 energy conservation, 37, 51-52, 63, 120-127, 133

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Global Environmental Change: Understanding the Human Dimensions energy consumption, 18, 35-36, 37, 63, 109, 120, 122, 126, 174 energy policies, 84, 123-124 environmental movement in, 145, 146 environmental policies, 147-148, 149 fellowship programs, 14, 251 government barriers to research, 10-11, 232-234 national forests, 86 national research program, 11, 15-16, 235, 252, 254-256 and population growth, 77 water allocation, 137 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 88 U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, 88 U.S. Census Bureau, 205, 232-233 U.S. Congress, 117 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 233 U.S. Department of Commerce, 218-219 U.S. Department of Education, 232-233 U.S. Department of Energy, 233 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 232-233 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 232-233 U.S. Department of Interior, 88 U.S. Department of Labor, 232-233 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 117, 118, 232, 233 U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), 16, 232-233, 237, 250 , 254, 255-256 Universities, 9, 225, 226-227, 228, 229, 251, 254 University of Chicago, 225 University of Connecticut, 205 University of Michigan, 205 University of North Carolina, 205 Urbanization, 157, 176, 240, 241 Utility companies, 125 V Valuation of consequences, 13, 161, 192-194, 246 Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (1985), 116 -117, 118 W Warfare, 158, 175 Waste disposal, 80-81 Waste management, 82, 89 Water allocation, 137, 138, 142 Water resource management, 132 Women, 53, 177 World Bank, 69, 72, 79, 177, 204-205 World Health Organization, 204-205 World Meteorological Organization, 117 World Population Trends and Policies (UN), 205 World Tables (World Bank), 205 Y Yemen, 62 Z Zaire, 75, 153, 240 Zambia, 18, 62